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Mary of Guise

Mary of Guise called Mary of Lorraine, ruled Scotland as regent from 1554 until her death. A noblewoman from the Lotharingian House of Guise, which played a prominent role in 16th-century French politics, Mary became queen consort upon her marriage to King James V of Scotland in 1538, her infant daughter, ascended the throne when James died in 1542. Mary of Guise's main goal as regent was a close alliance between the powerful French Catholic nation and smaller Scotland, which she wanted to be Catholic and independent of England, she was unable to prevent the Protestant Reformation in Scotland, which after her death left her daughter in a precarious position. Mary was born at Bar-le-Duc, the eldest daughter of Claude of Lorraine, Duke of Guise, head of the House of Guise, his wife Antoinette de Bourbon, herself the daughter of Francis, Count of Vendome, Marie de Luxembourg. Among her 11 siblings were Francis, Duke of Guise. Mary was tall and her mother mentioned in a letter that she suffered from bad colds.

However, there is a story of Mary of Guise being born in a commoner's home while en route to her "supposed" birthplace. Her name has been stylized as Mary of Guise, Marie de Guise, Mary di Guise; when Mary was five, she was godmother to her younger sister Louise. Not long after, she joined her grandmother Philippa of Guelders in the convent of the Poor Clares at Pont-à-Mousson, her uncle Antoine, Duke of Lorraine and her aunt Renée of Bourbon visited Philippa there when Mary was about fourteen. Impressed by their niece's qualities and stature, they took her away from the convent and prepared her for life at the French court. In 1531, Mary made her first appearance there at the wedding of Francis Eleanor of Austria, she established a friendship with the king's daughters Margaret. On 4 August 1534, at the age of 18, she became Duchess of Longueville by marrying Louis II d'Orléans, Duke of Longueville, at the Château du Louvre, their union turned out to be brief. On 30 October 1535, Mary gave birth to her first son, but on 9 June 1537, Louis died at Rouen and left her a widow at the age of 21.

For the rest of her life, Mary kept the last letter from her bon mari et ami Louis, which mentioned his illness and explained his absence at Rouen. It can still be seen at the National Library of Scotland. On 4 August 1537, Mary gave birth to their second son, named Louis after his deceased father. Louis died young, but Francis wrote letters to his mother in Scotland. On 22 March 1545, he sent a piece of string to show how tall he was, on 2 July 1546 he sent her his portrait. In 1537, Mary became the focus of marriage negotiations with James V of Scotland, who had lost his first wife, Madeleine of Valois, to tuberculosis, wanted a second French bride to further the interests of the Franco-Scottish alliance against England. According to a 17th-century writer, James V had noticed the attractions of Mary when he went to France to meet Madeleine and Mary of Bourbon, she was next in his affections, it is known that Mary had attended the wedding of Madeleine. The widowed Henry VIII of England, in attempts to prevent this union asked for Mary's hand.

Given Henry's marital history—banishing his first wife and beheading the second—Mary refused the offer. In December 1537, Henry VIII told Castillon, the French ambassador in London, that he was big in person and had need of a big wife. Biographer Antonia Fraser writing in 1969 said Mary replied, "I may be a big woman, but I have a little neck." This was a tribute to the famously macabre jest made by Henry's French-educated second wife, Anne Boleyn, who had joked before her death that the executioner would find killing her easy because she had "a little neck."King Francis I of France accepted James's proposal over Henry's and conveyed his wishes to Mary's father. Francis had a marriage contract prepared that offered James a dowry as large as if Mary had been born a princess of France. Mary's mother found the contract "marvellously strange", because the king had included Mary's son's inheritance in the dowry. Mary received the news with shock and alarm, as she did not wish to leave family and country as she had just lost her first husband and her younger son.

It has been said that her father tried to delay matters until James sensing her reluctance, wrote to her, appealing for her advice and support. However the authenticity of this letter, first produced in 1935, has been questioned. David Beaton travelled to France for the marriage negotiations, he wrote to James V from Lyon on 22 October 1537 that Mary was "stark, well-complexioned, fit to travel." Beaton wrote that the Duke of Guise was "marvellous desirous of the expedition and hasty end of the matter," and had consulted with his brother, the Duke of Lorraine, Mary herself, with her mother in Champagne waiting for the resolution of the negotiations. The marriage contract was finalized in January 1538 with a dowry including that of her first marriage; as was customary, if the king died first, the queen dowager would have for her lifetime her jointure houses of Falkland Palace, Stirling Castle, Dingwall Castle, Threave, with the rentals of the corresponding Earldoms and Lordships. Mary accepted the offer and made hurried plans for departure.

The actual wedding of James V and Mary of Guise was held b

Tae Brooks

Taelyn Bryce Brooks better known by his stage name Tae Brooks, is an American recording artist, singer and actor. Named by Billboard Magazine as #7 and #19 on the Next Big Sound chart, he is known as the voice of Michael Jackson in the animated TV series Black Dynamite. Brooks was born in Cincinnati and now resides in Los Angeles. Tae Brooks was born into a musical family of producers and songwriters and started singing at the age of 10 as a background vocalist on projects in the family garage studio. At a talent audition in 2010 in his hometown of Cincinnati, Brooks was recruited by a Los Angeles talent manager which led to the family's relocation. Tae’s brother, Tadjh Brooks, stepped into the role of lead producer and engineer, Tae started his music career. Brooks’ YouTube music channel was launched in March 2011 and by April was awarded #57 most subscribed musician channel, his video content has generated millions of views with a mix of vlogs, web series show, original songs and covers of charting songs.

Brooks' social presence led to voiceover work, including being the male lead voice of the Disney 365 theme song. Tae Brooks performs the voice and singing role of Michael Jackson in the animated TV series Black Dynamite. Tae Brooks is the voice in the intro/outro on the channel of popular YouTube personality Lamarr Wilson. Brooks caught the attention of Canadian music producer and casting agent Josh Friesen who introduced him to GrapeSEED, a developer of educational curriculum used worldwide to teach ESL; this developed into a 3-year intermittent working relationship with GrapeSEED on assignment in their Japan studios singing and acting in their multimedia DVD package. Brooks' covers have gained him notoriety in music circles and propelled him forward as a fan favorite with his fan base calling themselves "The ShawTaes". Billboard Magazine named Brooks as #7 on January 23, 2016 and #19 on July 14, 2011 on the Next Big Sound chart, his cover of Taylor Swift's “We Are Never Ever Getting Back Together” was listed in the top 8 winners in the Perez Hilton "Can YOU Sing?"

Competition. In June 2012 The Huffington Post featured his cover of Justin Bieber's “Die In Your Arms” as one of "10 Amazing Renditions". In December 2013 he placed #4 in Ryan Seacrest's Miley Cyrus "Wrecking Ball" Favorite Cover Contest, the youngest artist in the contest. VersedOnline.com named Tae Brooks a 2014 "Breakout Artist to Watch". Brooks' first original single "Thumbs Up" was released on iTunes February 22, 2011; as of 2014 he has released five singles and an EP through his independent label Carriage House Entertainment. Tae Brooks' single "It's Always Been You" was released on January 2, 2014 ahead of his debut EP On My Own. Tae Brooks was a co-writer on a majority of the tracks for the EP, released September 30, 2014 entering iTunes Pop charts at #149. Tae Brooks is the son of Billay Brooks, he is the nephew of Multi Grammy nominated songwriter/producer Chuck Brooks. 2016: Billboard Magazine – Named Tae Brooks as #7 on the Next Big Sound chart featuring the fastest growing artists across social media 2011: Billboard Magazine – Named Tae Brooks as #19 on the Next Big Sound chart featuring the fastest growing artists across social media "Thumbs Up" "Dreams Come True" "We Stand" TJ Prodigy "Goodtimes" "Be Mine" "It’s Always Been You" "Serenity" "There She Is" "Burnout" "Miracle" "Don't Overthink It" Official website Tae Brooks on IMDb

Joseph Guay

Joseph-Philippe Guay, was a Canadian parliamentarian, serving as a member of the Liberal Party. Born in St. Vital, Teillet was an alderman and mayor of Saint-Boniface, Manitoba before turning to federal politics, he won the St. Boniface Liberal nomination in the buildup to the 1968 federal election over the sitting member, cabinet minister Roger-Joseph Teillet. Guay campaigned on the fact that he, unlike Teillet, had supported Pierre Elliott Trudeau on every ballot of the 1968 Liberal Party of Canada leadership convention, he was returned in the general election, was re-elected in 1972 and 1974. He held numerous parliamentary functions including: Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Transport, Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Regional Economic Expansion, Chief Government Whip, Minister of State, Minister without Portfolio, Minister of National Revenue. In 1978, he was appointed to the Senate representing the senatorial division of St. Boniface, Manitoba, he retired on his 75th birthday in 1990.

In 1957, he was knighted as a member of the Order of Saint Gregory the Great by Pope Pius XII. Joseph-Philippe Guay – Parliament of Canada biography

Vulnerable species

A vulnerable species is one, categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as to become endangered unless the circumstances that are threatening its survival and reproduction improve. Vulnerability is caused by habitat loss or destruction of the species home. Vulnerable habitat or species are monitored and can become threatened; some species listed as "vulnerable" may be common in an example being the military macaw. There are 5196 animals and 6789 plants classified as vulnerable, compared with 1998 levels of 2815 and 3222, respectively. Practices such as Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources have been enforced in efforts to conserve vulnerable breeds of livestock specifically; the International Union for Conservation of Nature uses several criteria to enter species in this category. A taxon is Vulnerable when it is not critically endangered or Endangered but is facing a high risk of extinction in the wild in the medium-term future, as defined by any of the following criteria: A) Population reduction in the form of either of the following: An observed, inferred or suspected population size reduction of ≥ 50% over the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, provided the causes of the reduction are reversible AND understood AND ceased.

This measurement is based on any of the following: direct observation an index of abundance appropriate for the taxon a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence or quality of habitat actual or potential levels of exploitation the effects of introduced taxa, pathogens, competitors or parasites. A reduction of at least 20%, projected or suspected to be met within the next ten years or three generations, whichever is the longer, based on any of, or above. B) Extent of occurrence estimated to be less than 20,000 km2 or area of occupancy estimated to be less than 2000 km2, estimates indicating any two of the following: Severely fragmented or known to exist at no more than ten locations. Continuing decline, observed or projected, in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy area, extent or quality of habitat number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individuals Extreme fluctuations in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individualsC) Population estimated to number fewer than 10,000 mature individuals and either: An estimated continuing decline of at least 10% within 10 years or three generations, whichever is longer, or A continuing decline, projected, or inferred, in numbers of mature individuals and population structure in the form of either: fragmented all mature individuals are in a single subpopulationD) Population small or restricted in the form of either of the following: Population estimated to number less than 1000 mature individuals.

Population is characterised by an acute restriction in its area of occupancy or in the number of locations. Such a taxon would thus be prone to the effects of human activities within a short period of time in an unforeseeable future, is thus capable of becoming Critically Endangered or Extinct in a short period. E) Quantitative analysis showing the probability of extinction in the wild is at least 10% within 100 years; the examples of vulnerable animal species are hyacinth macaw, mountain zebra, black crowned crane and blue crane Category:IUCN Red List vulnerable species for an alphabetical list Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources List of vulnerable amphibians List of vulnerable arthropods List of vulnerable birds List of vulnerable fishes List of vulnerable insects List of vulnerable invertebrates List of vulnerable mammals List of vulnerable molluscs List of vulnerable reptiles List of Vulnerable species as identified by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species

Kumam people

The Kumam are a Ugandan ethnic group of about 340,000 living in the western areas of Teso sub-region and the south-east of Lango sub-region. They speak a Luo language similar to the language spoken with some Ateso vocabulary. Kumam traditions say, they lost their Eastern Nilotic Ateker language and took up the Western Nilotic Luo spoken by their Lango and Acholi neighbours – due to prolonged contact and intermarriages. The Kumam descend from the early fishing and herding communities of Ethiopia, they migrated southwards towards Uganda because of land pressure around the 17th century. Today, they live on the shores of Lake Kyoga in the districts of Serere and Kaberamaido The Kumam had political structure under clan leaders known as wegi Atekerin. Other people of importance in the society were wegi ikodeta Cel, leaders of Asonya homes, wegi Cel; the wegi Cel were in most cases Dogolan or Odonge ikekoros. These clan leaders were responsible for the maintenance of law and order as well as general administration.

They arbitrated in matters of social affairs. Music and story telling played a big part in kumam lifestyle. At any time music would be made, at various functions, such as ceremonial and political functions. In the evening, the old people would narrate stories to the younger generation as part of the oral traditions; the parents would arrange marriages for their children. Girls would be betrothed to boys at an early age. In effect, the young girl would become wife to a respective boy but she would wait to be handed over when she came of age. In some cases, the young girls so betrothed would be taken to the boy's home to grow up there; when she came of age, a ceremony would be organized to formalize the relationship. With time however the system changed. Today, the boy goes looking for a girl and without the consent of the parents and sneak with her to his home at night. After a week or so, the girl's relatives would begin to look for her, they had some prior knowledge of her whereabouts. On discovery, a fine would be exacted from the boy.

Arrangements would be made to settle the bride wealth and the marriage would be formalized. A Cultural Profile of the Kumam People of Uganda THE KUMAM Joshua Project New Uganda Ugandese

Kabul Premier League

The Kabul Premier League was created in 2006 in order to improve the Afghan national team. In the first division there are 12 teams, which play each other once a season inside Ghazi Stadium in Kabul. Games must be held on different days due to lack of stadiums. Ferozi F. C. Ordu Kabul F. C. Khurasan Kabul F. C. Seramiasht F. C. Esteqlal F. C. Javan Azadi Kabul F. C. Javan Minan Kabul F. C. Pamir Kabul F. C. Hakim Sanayi Kabul F. C. Shooy Kabul F. C. Solh Kabul F. C. Maiwand Kabul F. C. Sabawoon Kabul F. C. Champions were: 1946: Ariana Kabul F. C. 1947: Ariana Kabul F. C. 1948: Ariana Kabul F. C. 1949: Ariana Kabul F. C. 1950: Ariana Kabul F. C. 1951: Ariana Kabul F. C. 1952: Ariana Kabul F. C. 1953: Ariana Kabul F. C. 1954: Ariana Kabul F. C. 1955: Ariana Kabul F. C. 1956-94: Not Known 1995: Karlappan 1996: Not Known 1997-98: Maiwand Kabul FC 1999-02: Not Known 2003: Red Crescent Society 2004: Ordu Kabul F. C. 2005: Ordu Kabul F. C. 2006: Ordu Kabul F. C. 2007: Ordu Kabul F. C. 2008: League wasn't played because of war, Ordu Kabul F.

C. named champion 2009: Kabul Bank F. C. 2010: Feruzi F. C. 2011: Big Bear F. C. 2012: Feruzi F. C. 2013: Big Bear F. C; the number of national championships that clubs in Afghanistan have attained since 2006. Https://web.archive.org/web/20100114144028/http://www.aff.com.af/English%20News.html