A Masonic lodge termed a private lodge or constituent lodge, is the basic organisational unit of Freemasonry. It is commonly used as a term for a building in which such a unit meets; every new lodge must be warranted or chartered by a Grand Lodge, but is subject to its direction only in enforcing the published constitution of the jurisdiction. By exception the three surviving lodges that formed the world's first known grand lodge in London have the unique privilege to operate as time immemorial, i.e. without such warrant. A Freemason is entitled to visit any lodge in any jurisdiction in amity with his own. In some jurisdictions this privilege is restricted to Master Masons, he is first required to check, certify, the regularity of the relationship of the Lodge – and be able to satisfy that Lodge of his regularity of membership. Freemasons gather together as a Lodge to work the three basic Degrees of Entered Apprentice and Master Mason. Technically, Freemasons meet as a lodge not in a lodge. In this context, the word "lodge" refers to a local chapter of Freemasons.
However, the term is misused to refer to the buildings or rooms that Masons meet in. Masonic premises are sometimes referred to as temples. In many countries Masonic centre or Masonic hall has now replaced these terms to avoid arousing prejudice and suspicion. Several different lodges, or other Masonic organisations use the same premises at different times. Blue lodges, craft lodges or ancient craft lodges refer to the lodges that work the first three Masonic degrees, rather than the appendant Masonic orders such as York Rite and Scottish Rite; the term "craft lodge" is used in Great Britain. The blue lodge is said to refer to the traditional colour of regalia in lodges derived from English or Irish Freemasonry. Although the term was frowned upon, it has gained widespread and mainstream usage in America in recent times. Research lodges have the purpose of furthering Masonic scholarship. Quatuor Coronati Lodge is an example of a research lodge. Many jurisdictions have well-established research lodges, which meet less than blue lodges and do not confer degrees.
In Great Britain, a lodge of instruction may be associated with a Lodge, but is not constituted separately. The lodge of instruction provides the officers and those who wish to become officers an opportunity to rehearse ritual under the guidance of an experienced brother. In some jurisdictions in the United States, the lodge of instruction serves as a warranted lodge for candidate instruction in other aspects of Freemasonry besides ritual rehearsal, as well as hosting a speaker on topics both Masonic and non-Masonic. In Great Britain, the term mother lodge is used to identify the particular Lodge where the individual was first "made a Mason".'Mother lodge' may refer to a lodge which sponsors the creation of a new lodge, the daughter lodge, to be warranted under the jurisdiction of the same grand lodge. Lodge Mother Kilwinning No 0 in the Grand Lodge of Scotland is known as the Mother Lodge of Scotland, having been referred to in the Schaw Statutes of 1598 and 1599, having itself warranted other lodges at a time when it did not subscribe to a grand lodge.
Lodges are governed by national, state or provincial authorities called Grand Lodges or Grand Orients, whose published constitutions define the structure of freemasonry under their authority, which appoint Grand Officers from their senior masons. Provincial Grand Lodges exercise an intermediate authority, appoint Provincial Grand Officers. Different grand lodges and their regions show subtleties of tradition and variation in the degrees and practice. In any case, Grand Lodges have limited jurisdiction over their member Lodges, where there is no prescribed ritual Lodges may thus have considerable freedom of practice. Despite these minor differences, fraternal relations exist between Lodges of corresponding degrees under different Grand Lodges. To be accepted for initiation as a regular Freemason, a candidate must: Be a man Come of his own free will by his own initiative or by invitation in some jurisdictions. Believe in some kind of Supreme Being. Be of good morals and financially supporting himself and family.
Be at least 21 years old. Live in the jurisdiction Be able to pass interviews and pass the Investigation Committee's inquiries about his past with people who have known him, which can take up to 2 years. Be of sound mind and body.. Be a "Free Man"; this may have arisen from the refusal of operative masons to pass their secrets t
Pietermaritzburg Girls' High School is a girls' high school, with a boarding establishment, situated in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The school has ± 1200 day pupils. There is a house system consisting of 10 houses. A peer counselling programme began in 1996; the school motto is Cheerfulness with Industry. The school was founded in 1920 in the family mansion of Morningside, the home of Peter and Mary Davis. In 1925, Morningside became the boarding establishment; the main school building, designed after the style of Sir Herbert Baker, is now a National Monument. A full programme of sporting activities is available. Facilities include: 3 Hockey fields 10 Tennis courts 4 Tennis practice walls 4 Netball fields Heated Swimming pool 2 Squash courts Artificial Surface Hockey Field Sylvia Vietzen Community Centre: Indoor hockey Basketball Volleyball Netball Badminton Soccer The 11 hectares estate has developed into a complex of school buildings, trees and playing fields. There is a boarding facility that houses about 210 girls from Grade 8 to Grade 12 on the estate.
The school is ranked as one of the top three schools in its district for achievements in the ‘Matric’ Examination. The school was recently named one of the Top 25 Government Schools in South Africa. Achievements include: 2007 – National Science and Technology Forum Award for excellence in Mathematics and Science 2007 – Life-Sciences Olympiad: GHS was the top achieving school in the Grade 11 section 2006 – Umgungundlovu Director’s Special Achievement Award for the best Senior Certificate results in the District for 2001–2005 2006 – Presidential Award for Excellence in SC Mathematics - sponsored by Anglo-American 2006 – National Science and Technology Forum Award for excellence in Mathematics and Science The school has a active old girls society with events held continuously. Kathleen D. Gordon-Gray, plant collector and educator Thuso Mbedu, actress Pietermaritzburg Girls' High School official site
Seoul Subway Line 7 of the Seoul Metro was built 1990–96 and was completed August 1, 2000. This north-south line does not run through the city centre but links Gangnam directly to the northern parts of town. All the trains on Line 7 are monitored by 1,008 closed-circuit television cameras that were installed in June 2012; the extension to Incheon Subway Line 1 was designed to relieve the traffic congestion in western Seoul and northern Incheon. Nine stations were added October 27, 2012, for the 10.2 km extension, starting from Onsu Station of Line 7 and ending at Bupyeong-gu Office Station of Incheon Subway Line 1. Line 7 is being extended west of Bupyeong-gu Office. Construction on two-station, 3.94 km extension to Seongnam began in 2013 and is due to be completed in 2020. The extension will allow for transfers to Incheon Subway Line 2. A further six-station extension to Cheongna International City station through Cheongna International City is planned and is not expected to open any earlier than 2027.
Another further two-station extension through Incheon's metropolitan landfill to Geomdan Oryu station is currently being planned. Line 7 is planned to be extended north of Jangam to Uijeongbu and Pocheon in two phases; the first phase, which started construction in late 2019 and is planned to open in 2024, will feature 3 stations, one of which will be Tapseok station, providing transfers to the Uijeongbu LRT. The second phase, still in planning, will feature 3 additional stations. Subways in South Korea Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation Seoul Metropolitan Subway Seoul Metropolitan Government's Line 7 extension page includes a route map and status information for the westward extension from Onsu. UrbanRail. Net's Seoul Subway Page Map and route finder
Repeated Absences is a 1972 French drama film directed by Guy Gilles. Patrick Penn... François Naulet Danièle Delorme... La mère de François Nathalie Delon... Sophie Yves Robert... Le père de François Patrick Jouané... Guy Thomas Andhersen... Pierrot Pierre Bertin... Le monsieur de la soirée Gabriel Cattand... Le flic Jacques Castelot... Le directeur de la banque Claude Génia... Jeanne Larivière Corinne Le Poulain... La femme de Guy Absences répétées on IMDb
In warfare, a theater or theatre is an area in which important military events occur or are progressing. A theater can include the entirety of the airspace and sea area, or that may become involved in war operations. In his book On War, Carl von Clausewitz defines the term as one that: "Denotes properly such a portion of the space over which war prevails as has its boundaries protected, thus possesses a kind of independence; this protection may consist of fortresses, or important natural obstacles presented by the country, or in its being separated by a considerable distance from the rest of the space embraced in the war. Such a portion is not a mere piece of the whole. To give an adequate idea of this, we may suppose that on this portion an advance is made, whilst in another quarter a retreat is taking place, or that upon the one an army is acting defensively, whilst an offensive is being carried on upon the other; such a defined idea as this is not capable of universal application. Theater of operations is a sub-area within a theater of war.
The boundary of a TO is defined by the commander, orchestrating or providing support for specific combat operations within the TO. Theater of operations is divided into strategic directions or military regions depending on whether it's a war or peacetime; the United States Armed Forces split into Unified Combatant Commands that are assigned to a particular theater of military operations. A strategic direction is a group of armies known as a task forces or battlegroups. A strategic command or direction in general essence would combine a number of tactical military formations or operational command. In the modern military, a strategic command is better known as a combat command that may be a combination of groups; the Soviet and Russian Armed Forces classify a large geographic subdivision – such as continental geographic territories with their bordering maritime areas, adjacent coasts and airspace – as a theater. The Russian-language term for a military "theater" is театр военных действий, teatr voennykh deistvii, abbreviated ТВД, TVD.
The division of large continental and maritime areas assists in determining the limits within which to develop plans for the operations of strategic military groups of forces, allowing military operations of specific significant "strategic directions" known as "fronts", which were named in accordance with their theater of operations. In peacetime, lacking the urgencies of a strategic direction, fronts were transformed into military regions responsible for an assigned section of operations; the term "theater of operations" was defined in the field manuals as the land and sea areas to be invaded or defended, including areas necessary for administrative activities incident to the military operations. In accordance with the experience of World War I, it was conceived of as a large land mass over which continuous operations would take place and was divided into two chief areas–the combat zone, or the area of active fighting, the communications zone, or area required for administration of the theater.
As the armies advanced, both these zones and the areas into which they were divided would shift forward to new geographic areas of control. Battlespace China Burma India Theater European Theater of Operations European theatre of World War II Locus of control Unified Combatant Command Western Theater of the American Civil War Formations of the Soviet Army
John Cowles Sr. was an American newspaper and magazine publisher. He was co-owner of the Cowles Media Company, whose assets included the Minneapolis Star, the Minneapolis Tribune, the Des Moines Register, Look magazine, a half-interest in Harper's Magazine; the son of banker and politician Gardner Cowles Sr. John was a graduate of Phillips Exeter Academy and Harvard University. In 1922, Cowles launched the Tribune Syndicate. In 1935, his family acquired the Minneapolis Star. Under his leadership, it had the city's highest circulation, pressuring Minneapolis's other newspapers. With his brother Gardner "Mike" Cowles Jr. he was a co-founder of Look magazine, launched in 1937. In 1939, the Cowles brothers, along with entrepreneur Everett M. "Busy" Arnold, became owners of the newly formed Comic Magazines, Inc. the corporate entity that would publish the Quality Comics comic book line.. That same year, the Cowles family purchased the Minneapolis Evening Journal, merging the Star and the Journal into the Star-Journal.
The following year the Cowles family bought the Minneapolis Tribune and merged it with their company, giving it ownership of the city's major newspapers. The Tribune became the city's morning newspaper, the Star-Journal was the evening newspaper, they published a joint Sunday edition. A separate evening newspaper was spun off, which published until 1948. To help counteract the agitation against the Vietnam war in the mid-1960s, Cowles served on a committee that included such notables as Arthur H. Dean, Dean Acheson, Eugene R. Black, James B. Conant, Thomas S. Gates, Roswell Gilpatric, David Rockefeller, John J. McCloy, his service on boards included the boards of trustees of the Ford Foundation and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and the boards of directors of the First National Bank of Minneapolis and the Equitable Life Insurance Company of Iowa. His son John Cowles Jr. married the step-daughter of the chairman of Harper & Row. Domhoff, G. William.. Who Rules America?. Prentice Hall, Inc.
Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 67-25926. Cowles Family Archive at Cowles Library, Drake University