The Massachusetts General Court is the state legislature of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The name "General Court" is a hold-over from the earliest days of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, when the colonial assembly, in addition to making laws, sat as a judicial court of appeals. Before the adoption of the state constitution in 1780, it was called the Great and General Court, but the official title was shortened by John Adams, author of the state constitution, it is a bicameral body. The upper house is the Massachusetts Senate, composed of 40 members; the lower body, the Massachusetts House of Representatives, has 160 members. It meets in the Massachusetts State House on Beacon Hill in Boston; the current President of the Senate is Karen Spilka, the Speaker of the House is Robert DeLeo. Since 1959, Democrats have controlled both houses of the Massachusetts General Court by large majorities; the Democrats enjoyed veto-proof supermajorities in both chambers for part of the 1990s and presently hold supermajorities in both chambers.
State Senators and Representatives both serve two-year terms. There are no term limits; the legislature is a full-time legislature, although not to the extent of neighboring New York or some other states. As of 2018, the General Court was composed of 25 percent female representation; the earliest history of the General Court is in the original charter of 1629. The Company of the Massachusetts Bay, in New England was a royally chartered joint stock company founded in 1628 in London. Much like other joint-stock companies of the time the first General Court was a meeting of shareholders, known as freemen; the "Great and General Court" was to meet in London and elect its officers and members in the same manner as other colonial charted companies of the time such as the Virginia Company and the East India Company. The freemen would meet annually to elect representatives in the form of a Royal Governor, a Deputy Governor, a Council made from the directors of the Company; these officials were to have royally assented governmental control of the colony and would be tasked with the management and defense of the colonial plantation.
The first Court assembled would be made from these members to discuss and evaluate the situation of the colony. The first meeting of the original General Court took place in London in 1629; the General Court selected John Endicott as its representative to the colony. Soon after Governor John Winthrop and the Deputy Governor Thomas Dudley broke with protocol when they themselves traveled to New England and moved the government to Massachusetts Bay. Along with them came the stock holders of the Council or Assistants. Once in the Massachusetts Bay Colony the new government reorganized itself out of convenience. Instead of attempting to assemble all stockholders to the meeting of the General Court the government decided on having each town elect two representatives to send in their stead; the General Court became a de facto bicameral legislature by virtue of the distinction between delegates elected by towns and the Council of Assistants. The assistants acted as magistrates and counselors of jurisprudence, however when in session they served as a sort of Upper house.
Their assent and approval was needed in order for any decision from the house of delegates to be passed. The new legislature was elected annually. Suffrage was allowed only for men who were Puritan members of the corporation; this General Court removed any feudal restraints on the population and codified a Bill of Rights and powers of a judiciary. The General Court enshrined the Laws of Moses as legal code under the discretion of local magistrates creating a theocratic quasi-democratic state. By votes of the General Court in the 1630s, the system of government changed to have an elected governor and to restrict the list of "freemen" to those affiliated with certain Puritan churches. In 1634, after complaint the charter was not being followed, a compromise resulted in recomposition of the General Court as two deputies elected by freemen in each town. Problems with a judicial case resulted in another reform in 1638, where the Council of Assistants became an upper house that sat separately, with consent of both houses required to pass legislation.
With the collapse of the Dominion of New England in the Glorious Revolution in 1689 The Assistants convened an assembly of delegates from each town to reform the General Court. With the Massachusetts Charter in 1691 the Province of Massachusetts Bay absorbed the colony of Plymouth; the Plymouth Colony, along with the District of Maine and the islands off Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket were to be an extension of Massachusetts and thus under the authority of the General Court. Under this new system the religious qualification, that suffrage be for only Puritan men, was changed to a qualification of property ownership; the Assistants were officially changes to a Governor's Council to be selected by the governor to act as an upper house as well as a council for advice and consent. All laws passed by the General Court were to be approved by Royal Governor of the province; the powers of the monarch to be expanded in this new system as well. The King had full control of maritime affairs and acted as an executive, through the Royal Governor, to enforce commercial law.
This separation of powers led to some friction with the Royal
Bold Venture was a syndicated radio series starring Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall that aired from 1951 to 1952. Morton Fine and David Friedkin scripted the taped series for Bogart's Santana Productions. Salty seadog Slate Shannon owns a Cuban hotel, Shannon's Place, sheltering an assortment of treasure hunters and other shady characters. With his sidekick and ward, the sultry Sailor Duval, tagging along, he encounters modern-day pirates and other tough situations while navigating the waters around Havana. Aboard his boat, the Bold Venture and Sailor experience "adventure, intrigue and romance in the sultry settings of tropical Havana and the mysterious islands of the Caribbean." Calypso singer King Moses provided musical bridges by threading plot situations into the lyrics of his songs. Music for the series was by David Rose; the series combined elements of a number of past Bogart/Bacall film collaborations, most notably To Have and Have Not which cast Bogart as a boat owner in the Caribbean who reluctantly becomes involved in intrigue while romancing Bacall.
The relationship between Shannon and King Moses, his ownership of an inn, is reminiscent of the dynamic between Rick Blaine and Sam in Casablanca. Beginning in March 1951, the Frederic W. Ziv Company syndicated 78 episodes via electrical transcription; some sources have claimed that the 78 episodes include reruns, that there were only around 30 episodes but more than 50 shows have now come to light. Heard on 423 stations, the 30-minute series earned $5,000 weekly for Bogart and Bacall.57 episodes are now known to exist, some are known by more than one title which can make it appear that there are more. 12 Year Promise A Backstabbing at Shannon's Place A Bullet For Shannon Alice Ramsey's Husband A Muncie Murderess in Havana An Invitation To Death Background Shots Can Kill You Blue Moon Camellias and a Ruby Carlos & Juan Story The Chaney Wedding Cruise To Batabano Darby and Joan Incorporated Death By A Fighting Bird Death Of Rudy Keijon Diamond Smuggling El Indio Espionage & Murder in San Tomas False American Passports Ghost Ship Half Million Reasons to Find Cary Martin Haven's Venezuelan Island Innocent in Trujillo Isle Of Pines Jennie Ward, Slate's Old Flame Kwan Yen Statue Louis Gaspar Case Murder in the Yucatán Peninsula Murder Of Franny Lane Mutineers of the S.
S. Marino Victory Mystery Of The Mary K Passage for Mario Carada Paul Brewer Story Paolo Framed for Jewel Robbery Revenge Equals Murder Times Two Robbery By Joe Ralston Russian Roulette Ruthie Ryan's Father Sailor Framed For Murder Sailor's Dead Husband Search For Tommy Reed Senor Rufio Six Crates of Apples, White Envelope Slate Framed for Refinery Robbery Slate Shannon Held for Ransom Slate Shannon Sucker Slate's Stolen DaVinci Slate's Tuxedo Pocket Spanish Gold Suicide or Murder Sunken Treasure at 20 Fathoms Tabard of Pizarro The Dead Matt Jefferies The High Price of Treason The Key To Death The Tears of Siva Welcome Back to Civilization, Dead Man Ziv brought Bold Venture to television in 1959 with 39 episodes directed by William Conrad; the series starred Dane Clark as Slate Shannon, Joan Marshall as Sailor Duval and Bernie Gozier as King Moses. Mark Dana played Philip Keith Baker, Lisa Gaye played Leta, Karen Scott played Tina. Morton Fine and David Friedkin were the producers; because of unstable conditions in Cuba, the setting was changed to Trinidad.
Locations included the Iverson Movie Ranch in California. Episodes of Bold Venture Bold Venture on Way Back When Bold Venture Radio Lovers: Bold Ventures Internet Archive: Bold Venture The Definitive: Bold Venture article and log Old Time Radio Researchers Bold Venture wiki Dick Judge's Bold Venture log Fred Ziv and Bold Venture Bold Venture on IMDb
Bolbec is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France. Its inhabitants are called Bolbécaises. A farming and light industrial town situated at the heart of three valleys in the Pays de Caux, some 19 miles northeast of Le Havre, it is the source of the river Commerce. The town has many small lanes with some pretty houses; the first written record of the town dates as Bolebec. Archeological discoveries indicate; the first lord of Bolbec was Osbern de Bolbec and the last was the Duc de Charost, executed during the French revolution. Through the Norman family of de Bolbec, the town gives its name to the village of Swaffham Bulbeck in Cambridgeshire, England. Bolbec developed thanks to the numerous mills; these mills, numbering 14 in the middle of the 19th century, allowed the development of a textile industry based on water power, steam, to power the machinery. Today, only three mills remain: one at the source of the river in the grounds of the Oril factory. At the end of the 18th century, a number of manufacturers installed themselves in Bolbec to produce "Indiennes".
On the eve of the Revolution, Bolbec had 18 factories. In 1806, there were 27 producing Indiennes employing nearly 800 workers; the importance of textiles in the Bolbec Valley was recognised by the state with the creation of the Chambre des Arts et Manufactures in 1806 and further, with the creation of a Conseil des Prud’hommes in 1813. However, over the years the textile industry suffered economic crises and by the end of the 19th century there was just one indiennerie remaining. Bolbec is the last French town in which Thomas Jefferson, his family, Sally and James Hemings stayed in 1789 prior to their arrival in Le Havre to return to America after their time in Paris. Little remains of the textile history of the town. A single former factory remains, that of the Desgenétais works, closed in 1986. In effect, this site is the last witness of the impact of the textile factories on Bolbec town planning: school, chapel, workers' and foremen's houses… The site provides an exceptional insight into the epoch.
Bolbec is the seat of the Chamber of Industry of Bolbec - Lillebonne. The principal employers in Bolbec are Oril Industrie, part of the Servier Pharmaceutical group, Cooper Standard Automotive, automobile equipment manufacturers specialising in waterproofing Saint-Michel Church Manoir de Cailletot Mills: Moulins Seminel et du Vallot Château du Val au Grès François Amable Ruffin, general Richard Charles Blondel, general Marion Gilbert, writer Jacques Prevel, poet Dominique Noguez, born 1942, writer Jacques Caudebec, Huguenot Settler in America Germany Ostercappeln Germany Bad Essen Germany Bohmte Communes of the Seine-Maritime department INSEE Edouard-Ferdinand Collen-Castaigne, Essai historique et statistique sur la ville de Bolbec, Rouen, 1839 Gustave F Mauconduit, Histoire des rues de Bolbec, Rouen, 1887 Pierre Dardel, Les Manufactures de toiles peintes et de serges imprimées à Rouen et à Bolbec aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles, Rouen, 1940 Jacques Vauquelin, La libération de Bolbec, Bolbec, 1969 Jacques Vauquelin, ses rues… ses places…, Bolbec, 1970 Jacques Vauquelin, Bolbec et son histoire…, Bolbec, 1974 Jacques Vauquelin, Chateaux - Manoirs - Monuments et Sites de la région Bolbécaise, Bolbec, 1977 Bolbec.
Les hôtels de ville, les statues du jardin public, 1982 Collège Roncherolles / L. E. P. Pierre de Coubertin, Bolbec et son canton <<Boulbai et son canton>>, Bolbec, 1982 Alain Avenel et Raymond Bernard, Splendeur des indiennes bolbécaises, Bolbec, 1996 Raymond Bernard, Bolbec. Ses rues d'hier à aujourd'hui, 2003 Alain Gilles / Jean-Marc Derrien, Bolbec dans les années 1900 - 1 - Monuments, lieux publics, rues... 2004 Alain Gilles / Jean-Marc Derrien, Bolbec de 1900 à 2000 - 3 - Travail et distractions des Bolbécais, biographie de Léon Desgenétais, divers... 2006 Raymond Bernard, Bolbec. Ses écoles d'hier à aujourd'hui, 2006 Philippe Delacroix, C. C. P. W. E n° 23. Le camp de prisonniers de guerre allemands de Bolbec