The Massachusetts House of Representatives is the lower house of the Massachusetts General Court, the state legislature of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. It is composed of 160 members elected from 14 counties each divided into single-member electoral districts across the Commonwealth; the House of Representatives convenes at the Massachusetts State House in Boston. Representatives were apportioned by town. For the first 150 persons, one representative was granted, this ratio increased as the population of the town increased; the largest membership of the House was 749 in 1812. The original distribution was changed to the current regional population system in the 20th century; until 1978, there were 240 members of a number in multi-member districts. Today, each Representative represents about 40,000 residents, their districts are named for the counties they are in and tend to stay within one county, although districts cross county lines. Representatives serve two-year terms. Within the House's debating chamber hangs the Sacred Cod of Massachusetts.
The 5-foot-long pine carving of the cod was offered by Representative John Rowe in 1784 in commemoration of the state's maritime economy and history. Two previous carvings of the cod existed during the legislature's colonial era. Since 1784, the current Sacred Cod has been present at nearly every House session, moved to its current location when the House began convening in the State House in 1798. In 1933, members of the Harvard Lampoon stole the cod carving as part of a prank; the theft sparked a large statewide search by the Massachusetts State Police. Following outrage from Boston newspapers and the General Court itself, the cod was anonymously handed back; the Democrats hold a supermajority in the House. The Speaker of the House presides over the House of Representatives; the Speaker is elected by the majority party caucus followed by confirmation of the full House through the passage of a House Resolution. As well as presiding over the body, the Speaker is the chief leader, controls the flow of legislation.
Other House leaders, such as the majority and minority leaders, are elected by their respective party caucuses relative to their party's strength in the House. The current Speaker of the House is Robert DeLeo of the 19th Suffolk District; the most recent election of members was held on November 6, 2018. Representatives serve two-year terms; the current standing committees in the Massachusetts House of Representatives are as follows: The following is a complete list of Members of the House of Representatives in the 191st General Court, by district: 6 Representatives 4 Representatives 14 Representatives 18 Representatives 2 Representatives 12 Representatives 3 Representatives 37 Representatives 15 Representatives 12 Representatives 19 Representatives 18 Representatives List of current Massachusetts House of Representatives committees List of Speakers of the Massachusetts House of Representatives Massachusetts State House Massachusetts Senate Massachusetts General Court Massachusetts Government Representative Districts, accessed April 9, 2006 House Members of the General Court "Public Officers of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts: 1945-1946".
1945. "Public Officers of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts: 1947-1948". 1947. 1951, 1957, 1961, 1967, 1971, 1977, 1981, 1987, 1993, 1997, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007 "Massachusetts - State Legislative District Maps". United States Census Bureau
Jennifer Anson is from the Republic of Palau. She is a judoka. At the 2012 Summer Olympics Jennifer Anson competed in the Women's 63 kg, but was defeated in the initial elimination round of 32. Anson was on her back and out as soon as her first fight had started, overwhelmed by a far superior and younger Mongolian opponent, Munkhzaya Tsedevsuren. In only 46 seconds, the 26-year-old Mongolian pummeled and strangled Anson resulting in an Ippon, or technical knockout, a perfect score of 110 to 0, the highest possible score in judo; the strangling technique used is called okuri eri jime. The bout has been described as a cameo Olympic appearance for Anson; the 46 second round was the shortest contest in the elimination round of 32 which entitled Anson to be one of London 2012's "unusual athletes". After the match, Anson stated that, "when I was out there, everything blacked out in my head" and the fight was over before she could think of what to do, it is unclear if this was the result of the strangling or a panicked athlete, but Anson did say that, “when the fight started, I forgot everything.
I wanted to be still trying to be aggressive. All of sudden I was on the mat and the fight was lost.” Anson's quick defeat is attributed to her inexperience as she filled a quota slot for Oceania after finishing 86th out of 178 places. At 35 years, she was the oldest competitor among the 24 contestants in the 63k category, followed by 33-year-old Elisabeth Willeboordse of the Netherlands; the majority of the Olympic athletes were in their 20s. After the stunning length of the fight, Anson explained that she intended to set an example for younger members of her judo club in Palau of which there are 10 members with 40 kids learning the sport
Danielle Campo, is a Canadian Paralympic swimmer. Campo first competed for Canada at the 2000 Summer Paralympics in Sydney, where she won gold in the 100 metre freestyle S7 in a world record time of 1:14.64, gold in the 50 metre freestyle S7 in a Paralympic record time of 34.98, silver in the 400 metre freestyle S7 in 5:35.08 and with Jessica Sloan, Andrea Cole and Stéphanie Dixon won gold in the 4×100 metre freestyle 34pts in a world record time of 4:38.01. At the 2002 Commonwealth Games in Manchester, Campo won bronze in the 50 metre EAD freestyle. Competing against swimmers in other classifications, Campo covered the distance in a Games record time of 35.02, 0.04 seconds over her target time. At the 2002 IPC World Championships in Mar del Plata, Campo won gold in the 50 metre freestyle S7 in 34.77, gold in the 100 metre freestyle S7 in 1:15.88 and silver in the 400 metre freestyle S7 in 5:46.16. At the 2004 Summer Paralympics in Athens, Campo won bronze in the 50 metre freestyle S7 in 35.17, bronze in the 400 metre freestyle S7 in 5:39.13, finished 4th in the 100 metre freestyle S7 in 1:15.97, finished 11th in the 50 metre butterfly S7 in 48.56 and with Dixon and Anne Polinario won silver in the 4×100 metre freestyle 34pts in 4:41.70.
For her sporting success, Campo was awarded the Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal in 1992, the Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal in 2012 and in 2001 became a member of the Order of Ontario. Danielle Campo at the International Paralympic Committee