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Mathias Rust

Mathias Rust is a German aviator known for his illegal landing near Red Square in Moscow on 28 May 1987. An amateur pilot, the teenager flew from Helsinki, Finland, to Moscow, being tracked several times by Soviet air defence and interceptors; the Soviet fighters never received permission to shoot him down, several times his aeroplane was mistaken for a friendly aircraft. He landed on Bolshoy Moskvoretsky Bridge next to Red Square near the Kremlin in the capital of the Soviet Union. Rust said he wanted to create an "imaginary bridge" to the East, he has said that his flight was intended to reduce tension and suspicion between the two Cold War sides. Rust's flight through a impenetrable air defence system had great effect on the Soviet military and led to the dismissal of many senior officers, including Minister of Defence Marshal of the Soviet Union Sergei Sokolov and the Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet Air Defence Forces, former World War II fighter ace pilot Chief Marshal Alexander Koldunov.

The incident aided Mikhail Gorbachev in the implementation of his reforms, by allowing him to dismiss numerous military officials opposed to his policies. Rust was sentenced to four years in prison, he was pardoned by the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Andrei Gromyko, released after 14 months in prison. Rust, aged 18, was an inexperienced pilot, with about 50 hours of flying experience at the time of his flight. On 13 May 1987, Rust left Uetersen near Hamburg and his home town Wedel in his rented Reims Cessna F172P D-ECJB, modified by removing some of the seats and replacing them with auxiliary fuel tanks, he spent the next two weeks travelling across northern Europe, visiting the Faroe islands, spending a week in Iceland, visiting Bergen on his way back. He was quoted as saying that he had the idea of attempting to reach Moscow before the departure, he saw the trip to Iceland as a way to test his piloting skills. On 28 May 1987, Rust refuelled at Helsinki-Malmi Airport, he told air traffic control that he was going to Stockholm, took off at 12:21.

After his final communication with traffic control, he turned his plane to the east near Nummela. Air traffic controllers tried to contact him as he was moving around the busy Helsinki–Moscow route, but Rust turned off all his communications equipment. Rust disappeared from the Finnish air traffic radar near Espoo. Control personnel presumed an emergency and a rescue effort was organized, including a Finnish Border Guard patrol boat, they found an oil patch near Sipoo where Rust disappeared from radar, performed an underwater search with no results. Rust turned towards Moscow. At 14:29 he appeared on Soviet Air Defence Forces radar and, after failure to reply to an IFF signal, was assigned combat number 8255. Three SAM battalions of 54th Air Defence Corps tracked him for some time, but failed to obtain permission to launch at him. All air defences were brought to readiness and two interceptors were sent to investigate. At 14:48 near Gdov one of the pilots observed a white sport plane similar to a Yakovlev Yak-12 and asked for permission to engage, but was denied.

The fighters lost contact with Rust soon after this. While they were being directed back to him he disappeared from radar near Staraya Russa. West German magazine Bunte speculated that he might have landed there for some time, noting that he changed his clothes during his flight and that he took too much time to fly to Moscow considering his plane's speed and the weather conditions. Air defence re-established contact with Rust's plane several times but confusion followed all of these events; the PVO system had shortly before been divided into several districts, which simplified management but created additional overhead for tracking officers at the districts' borders. The local air regiment near Pskov was on maneuvers and, due to inexperienced pilots' tendency to forget correct IFF designator settings, local control officers assigned all traffic in the area friendly status, including Rust. Near Torzhok there was a similar situation, as increased air traffic was created by a rescue effort for an air crash the previous day.

Rust, flying a slow propeller-driven aircraft, was confused with one of the helicopters taking part in the rescue. He was given false friendly recognition twice. Rust was considered as a domestic training plane defying regulations, was issued least priority. Around 19:00 Rust appeared above Moscow, he had intended to land in the Kremlin, but he reasoned that landing inside, hidden by the Kremlin walls, would have allowed the KGB to arrest him and deny the incident. Therefore, he changed his landing spot to Red Square. Heavy pedestrian traffic did not allow him to land there either, so after circling about the square one more time, he was able to land on Bolshoy Moskvoretsky Bridge by St. Basil's Cathedral. A inquiry found that trolleybus wires strung over the bridge—which would have prevented his landing there—had been removed for maintenance that morning, were replaced the next day. After taxiing past the cathedral he stopped about 100 metres from the square, where he was greeted by curious passersby and was asked for autographs.

When asked where he was from, he replied "Germany" making the bystanders think he was from East Germany. A British doctor videotaped Rust landing on the bridge. Rust was arrested two hours la

South Fairmount, Cincinnati

South Fairmount is a neighborhood in Cincinnati, Ohio. It contains one of the highest concentrations of Section 8 housing in Hamilton County; the population was 2,368 at the 2010 census. South Fairmount lies just south of the North Fairmount neighborhood. Fairmount began as a sprinkling of farm homes in the early 1800s; as the Mill Creek valley became industrialized, the creek bed was spanned and factories were located at the base of the hill. A brewery was established as early as 1825, several more beer makers arrived in the next decades; the first newcomers were a few German immigrants. The community attracted Italians near the turn of the century. Fairmount developed distinct neighborhoods, I.e. North Fairmount, South Fairmount and English Woods; the Metropolitan Sewer District of Greater Cincinnati is in the design stage of a stream daylighting project to restore the Lick Run which used to flow between Queen City Avenue and Westwood Avenue. MSD is required to remove 85% of the annual 14 billion gallons of the combined sewer overflows that occur each year in the outdated sewer system during rain events.

The largest contributor to the overflows is CSO 5 in the Lick Run Watershed which dumps 1.7 billion gallons of raw sewage into the Mill Creek annually. By separating the storm water from the sanitary sewage most of the rain water can be sent straight into a creek, thus alleviating the watershed from CSOs. Two plans have been proposed by MSD to solve the issue; the preferred plan is to daylight the stream, allowing the rain water to collect in the restored Lick Run and discharge into the Mill Creek. This option is anticipated to cost $195 million; some community opposition has been raised for this alternative with a few residents likening it to an "open drainage ditch" and concern about the existing businesses and building stock between the two thoroughfares. The alternative "grey" solution would consist of constructing a new 25-foot diameter tunnel to replace the 19.5-foot tunnel in place. This alternative would not separate the storm water from the sanitary sewage so MSD would still be responsible for treating the storm water as if it is sewage.

This alternative is expected to cost about $312 million


Montanism, known by its adherents as the New Prophecy, was an early Christian movement of the late 2nd century referred to by the name of its founder, Montanus. Montanism held similar views about the basic tenets of Christian doctrine to those of the wider Christian Church, but it was labelled a heresy for its belief in new prophetic revelations; the prophetic movement called for a reliance on the spontaneity of the Holy Spirit and a more conservative personal ethic. Parallels have been drawn between Montanism and modern-day movements such as Pentecostalism and the charismatic movement, it originated in Phrygia, a province of Asia Minor, flourished throughout the region, leading to the movement being referred to elsewhere as "Cataphrygian" or as "Phrygian". It spread to other regions in the Roman Empire before Christianity was tolerated or legal, it persisted in some isolated places into the 6th century. Scholars debate as to when Montanus first began his prophetic activity, having chosen dates varying from c.

AD 135 to as late as AD 177. Montanus was a recent convert when he first began prophesying during the proconsulate of Gratus in a village in Mysia named Ardabau; some accounts claim that before his conversion to Christianity, Montanus was a priest of Apollo or Cybele. He believed that the Paraclete spoke through him. Montanus proclaimed the towns of Pepuza and Tymion in west-central Phrygia as the site of the New Jerusalem, making the larger - Pepuza - his headquarters. Phrygia as a source for this new movement was not arbitrary. Hellenization never took root in Phrygia, unlike many of the surrounding Eastern regions of the Roman Empire; this sense of difference, while having easy access to the rest of the Mediterranean Christian world, encouraged the foundation of this separate sect of Christianity. Montanus had two female colleagues and Maximilla, who claimed the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, their popularity exceeded Montanus' own. "The Three" spoke in ecstatic visions and urged their followers to fast and to pray, so that they might share these revelations.

Their followers claimed they received the prophetic gift from the prophets Quadratus and Ammia of Philadelphia, figures believed to have been part of a line of prophetic succession stretching all the way back to Agabus and to the daughters of Philip the Evangelist. In time, the New Prophecy spread from Montanus's native Phrygia across the Christian world, to Africa and to Gaul; the response to the New Prophecy split the Christian communities, the proto-orthodox clergy fought to suppress it. Opponents believed that evil spirits possessed the Phrygian prophets, both Maximilla and Priscilla were the targets of failed exorcisms; the churches of Asia Minor pronounced the prophecies profane and excommunicated New Prophecy adherents. Around 177, Bishop of Hierapolis, presided over a synod which condemned the New Prophecy; the leaders of the churches of Lyons and Vienne in Gaul responded to the New Prophecy in 177. Their decision was communicated to the churches in Asia and Pope Eleuterus, but it is not known what this consisted of, only that it was "prudent and most orthodox".

It is they called for moderation in dealing with the movement. There was real doubt at Rome, its bishop wrote letters in support of Montanism, although he was persuaded by Praxeas to recall them. In 193, an anonymous writer found the church at Ancyra in Galatia torn in two, opposed the "false prophecy" there. Montanist teachings came to be regarded as heresy by the orthodox Church for a number of reasons; the clash of basic beliefs between the movement's proponents and the greater Christian world was enough for such conflict to occur. Additionally, in the opinion of anti-Montanists, the movement's penchant for dramatic public displays by its adherents brought unwanted attention to the still fledgling religion. Thus, fears concerning the appearance of Montanist practices to their non-Christian rulers fueled anti-Montanist sentiment; the imperial government carried out sporadic executions of Christians under the reign of Marcus Aurelius, circa AD 161–180, which coincides with the spread of Montanism.

There was never a uniform excommunication of New Prophecy adherents, in many places they maintained their standing within the orthodox community. This was the case at Carthage. While not without tension, the church there avoided schism over the issue. There were women prophesying at Carthage, prophecy was considered a genuine charism, it was the responsibility of the council of elders to test all prophecy and to determine genuine revelation. Tertullian, undoubtedly the best-known defender of the New Prophecy, believed that the claims of Montanus were genuine beginning c. 207. He believed in the validity of the New Prophecy and admired the movement's discipline and ascetic standards. A common misconception is that Tertullian decisively left the orthodox church and joined a separate Montanist sect. Although what became the orthodox Christian church prevailed against Montanism within a few generations, inscriptions in the Tembris valley of northern Phrygia, dated between 249 and 279 proclaim allegiance to the New Prophecy.

Speros Vryonis considers these inscriptions remarkable in that they are the only set of inscriptions which reveal the religious affiliations of the deceased before the period of toleration, when Christians dared not to do so. A letter of Jerome to Marcella, written in 385, re


Lepanthopsis, abbreviated as Lpths in horticultural trade, is a genus of orchids with about 43 known species. They are distributed in the Andes and the Caribbean, with some species in Central America, southern Mexico and Florida. Lepanthopsis orchids are small with flowers measuring less than 1 centimeter across. Species accepted as of June 2014: Lepanthopsis abbreviata Luer & Hirtz Lepanthopsis acetabulum Luer Lepanthopsis acuminata Ames Lepanthopsis anthoctenium Ames Lepanthopsis apoda Luer Lepanthopsis aristata Dod Lepanthopsis astrophora Garay Lepanthopsis atrosetifera Dod Lepanthopsis barahonensis Garay Lepanthopsis calva Dod ex Luer Lepanthopsis comet-halleyi Luer Lepanthopsis constanzensis Garay Lepanthopsis cucullata Dod Lepanthopsis culiculosa Luer Lepanthopsis densiflora Ames Lepanthopsis dewildei Luer & R. Escobar Lepanthopsis dodii Garay Lepanthopsis farrago Luer Lepanthopsis floripecten Ames Lepanthopsis glandulifera Dod Lepanthopsis hirtzii Luer Lepanthopsis hotteana Garay Lepanthopsis lingulata Dod Lepanthopsis melanantha Ames Lepanthopsis micheliae Dod Lepanthopsis microlepanthes Ames Lepanthopsis moniliformis Dod Lepanthopsis obliquipetala Luer Lepanthopsis ornipteridion Dod Lepanthopsis peniculus Garay Lepanthopsis pristis Luer & R.

Escobar Lepanthopsis prolifera Garay Lepanthopsis pulchella Dunst. Lepanthopsis purpurata Dod ex Luer Lepanthopsis pygmaea C. Schweinf. Lepanthopsis rinkei Luer Lepanthopsis serrulata Hespenh. & Garay Lepanthopsis stellaris Dod Lepanthopsis steyermarkii Foldats Lepanthopsis ubangii Luer Lepanthopsis vellozicola R. C. Mota, F. Barros & Stehmann Lepanthopsis vinacea C. Schweinf. Lepanthopsis woodsiana Dod ex Luer Media related to Lepanthopsis at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Lepanthopsis at Wikispecies

William Howley

William Howley was a clergyman in the Church of England. He served as Archbishop of Canterbury from 1828 to 1848. Howley was born in 1766 at Ropley, where his father was vicar, he was educated in 1783 went to New College, Oxford. He became Chaplain to the Marquess of Abercorn in 1792, whose influence was critical in advancing his early career. In 1809 he was appointed Regius Professor of Divinity at Oxford University He was an active English Freemason, having joined the'Royal York Lodge' in Bristol on 21 December 1791, aged 25, served the lodge until around the turn of the century, including serving as Master of the Lodge. In October 1813, at Lambeth Palace, he was consecrated Bishop of London, a post he was to occupy until 1828, when he became Archbishop of Canterbury. Howley was Archbishop during the repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts, the Emancipation of the Catholics and the passing of the Great Reform Act; the bench of bishops was opposed to all three measures. As archbishop, Howley was their spokesman, his heart-felt opposition to the Great Reform Act led to his carriage being attacked in the streets of Canterbury.

Like many other bishops at that time, Howley was an "old-High Churchman." These inherited a tradition of high views of the sacraments from the Caroline Divines and their successors. They held Catholic beliefs but were anti-Roman, they were despised by the more extreme Tractarians and their beliefs were obscured, for example, in Richard William Church's classic account of the Oxford Movement. Archbishop Howley presided over the coronation of William IV and Queen Adelaide in 1831. At 5 a.m. on 20 June 1837, accompanied by the Lord Chamberlain, the Marquis Conyngham, the Archbishop went to Kensington Palace to inform Princess Victoria that she was now Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Architecture was of particular interest to him. During his career, he initiated the renovation and rebuilding of: his official house at Oxford, his town residence while Bishop of London, Fulham Palace, extensive renovations to Lambeth Palace; this last project was a virtual reconstruction of the Palace carried out by Edward Blore, the work beginning after 1828 and done in the Gothic Revival style.

It took several years and cost upwards of £60,000. William Howley was married on 29 August 1805 to Mary Frances Belli, a daughter of John Belli, EICS, of Southampton, Private Secretary to Warren Hastings; the Howleys had three daughters. One of his daughters married Sir George Howland Willoughby Beaumont, a nephew of Sir George Beaumont, 7th Baronet. William Howley was interred at Addington after an elaborate funeral. Garrard, James. Archbishop Howley 1828–1848; the Archbishops of Canterbury Series. Farnham: Ashgate. ISBN 978-1-4724-5133-0. Media related to William Howley at Wikimedia Commons Howley's papers as Bishop of London Bibliographic directory from Project Canterbury

Freewill Baptist Church-Peoples Baptist Church-New Hope Church

The Portsmouth Pearl is a center of arts and culture at 45 Pearl Street in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. It is located in the former Freewill Baptist Church—Peoples Baptist Church—New Hope Church, built in 1868; the building, a fine local example of Italianate ecclesiastical architecture once owned by an African-American congregation, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2003. It hosts art exhibitions, theatrical productions, has facilities available for event rental; the Portsmouth Pearl is located just outside Portsmouth's central downtown business district, at the junction of Pearl and Hanover Streets. It is a two-story wood frame structure, with clapboarded exterior, its main facade, facing Pearl Street, is three bays wide, with a center entrance set in a rounded-arch opening. The windows of the facade are elongated rounded-arch windows, set by pairs in round-arch opening in which the lozenge above is of stained glass. Rising from the roof ridge above the entrance is a short tower, with a flushboarded first stage that has corner pilasters, a second belfry stage with round-arch louvered openings.

The tower is finished with a short octagonal steeple. The church was built in 1857 shorter and without the tower, it was enlarged in 1868 by adding 10 feet to the front. It is an excellent local example of religious Italianate architecture, is further notable as the first church building in New Hampshire to be owned by a predominantly African-American congregation; the church was built for a Freewill Baptist congregation, which made the 1868 expansion. It was purchased in 1915 by an African-American offshoot of the Middle Street Baptist Church, which organized as the People's Baptist Church in 1893, it was the first church in Portsmouth to be owned by an African-American congregation. That congregation owned the building until 1984, when it moved to a new space. National Register of Historic Places listings in Rockingham County, New Hampshire