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Matthew III Csák

Máté Csák or Matthew III Csák Máté Csák of Trencsén, was a Hungarian oligarch who ruled de facto independently the north-western counties of Medieval Hungary. He held the offices of master of the horse and master of the treasury, he could maintain his rule over his territories after his defeat at the Battle of Rozgony against King Charles I of Hungary. In the 19th century, he was described as a symbol of the struggle for independence in both the Hungarian and Slovak literatures, he was a member of the Hungarian genus Csák. Around 1283, Matthew and his brother, Csák, who served as bearer of the sword in 1293, inherited their father's possessions, Komárom and Szenic. At about that time, they inherited their uncles' possessions around Nagytapolcsány, Hrussó and Tata, their father had started to expand his influence over the territories that surrounded his possessions. Matthew was born around 1260s. A diploma recorded his lameness which caused by a result of a war injury, he was first mentioned by a charter issued by the Somogyvár Abbey on 5 August 1284, where the sons of the late Peter were summoned in a case of Kötcse possession.

Historian Gyula Kristó argues that the document mentions the possible elder brothers of Matthew and Csák as they first appeared in contemporary sources only in 1291. Following Peter's death, the members of the rival Kőszegi family from the Héder clan strengthened in Pozsony and Sopron Counties taking advantage of that the Csák clan has been weakened due to the death of Matthew II and Peter I; the Kőszegis defeated the local Osl clan in Sopron County and forged ahead to Pozsony County where captured Pozsony Castle for a short time. In 1291, Matthew took part in the campaign of King Andrew III of Hungary against Austria. In the next year, when Nicholas I Kőszegi rebelled against King Andrew III and occupied Pozsony and Detrekő, Matthew managed to reoccupy the castles on behalf of the king. Henceforward, the Danube became the border between the developing domains of the Kőszegi and Csák families. King Andrew appointed him to master of the horse and he became the ispán of Pozsony County. On 28 October 1293, Matthew issued a charter and promised that he would respect the liberties of the burghers of the city of Pozsony that King Andrew had confirmed before.

During this period, Matthew started to augment his possessions not only by the king's donations, but by using force. In 1296, he bought Vöröskő from its former holders for money, he was ready to occupy territories. Around the end of 1296, Matthew acquired Trencsén and afterwards, he was named after the castle. In 1296 King Andrew appointed him Palatine, but shortly afterwards the king absolved one of Matthew's opponents, Andrew of Gimes from the Hont-Pázmány clan of all responsibility for the damage he had caused to Matthew; the document proves that the relationship of the king and Matthew worsened and the king deprived him of his office of Palatine in 1297. At the same time, the king granted Pozsony County to his queen, Agnes of Austria. Matthew continued to style himself Palatine after 1297, he managed to overcome Andrew of Gimes and his family and thus expanded his influence along the Zsitva River. In 1298, King Andrew III allied himself with King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia. In the next year, King Andrew sent his troops against him.

Before 1300, Matthew entered into negotiations with the representatives of King Charles II of Naples and reassured him that he would assist the claim of his grandson, Charles for the throne against King Andrew III. However, in the summer of 1300, Matthew visited Andrew's court, but the king, the last male member of the Árpád dynasty, died on 14 January 1301, following his death a struggle commenced among the several claimants for the throne. At that time, Matthew's brother, Csák died childless and therefore Matthew inherited his possessions. Following the death of King Andrew III, he became the Neapolitan prince's follower, but shortly afterwards, he joined the party that offered the crown to Wenceslaus, the son of King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia, he was present at the coronation of the young Bohemian prince who granted him Trencsén and Nyitra counties. In the following years, Matthew Csák occupied the possessions of the Balassa family in the two counties and he took several castles in Nógrád and Hont counties.

King Wenceslaus could not strengthen his rule against his opponent and he had to leave the kingdom. By that time Matthew Csák had left King Wenceslau

Biernat of Lublin

Biernat of Lublin was a Polish poet, fabulist and physician. He was one of the first Polish-language writers known by name, the most interesting of the earliest ones, he expressed plebeian and religiously liberal opinions. Biernat wrote the first book printed in the Polish language: printed in 1513, in Kraków at Poland's first printing establishment, operated by Florian Ungler—a prayer-book, Raj duszny. Biernat penned the first secular work in Polish literature: a collection of verse fables and anticlerical in nature: Żywot Ezopa Fryga, 1522. Raj duszny, 1513 Żywot Ezopa Fryga, 1522 Dialog Polinura z Charonem Physician writer Fable Fables and Parables "Biernat z Lublina", Encyklopedia Polski, Kraków, Wydawnictwo Ryszard Kluszczyński, 1996, ISBN 83-86328-60-6, p. 57

Frederick C. Tillis

Frederick Charles Tillis, is an American composer, jazz saxophonist and music educator at the collegiate level. Born in Galveston, Texas on January 5, 1930, Frederick Tillis was raised by his mother, Zelma Bernice Gardner, née Tillis, his stepfather, General Gardner, his maternal grandparents, Willie Tillis and Jessie Tillis-Hubbard, his first musical experiences were courtesy of his mother, who played piano and sang to him as a child. At George Washington Carver Elementary School, Tillis decided to join the school's drum and bugle corps; as he became more proficient on trumpet, Tillis found his first professional job as a musician in jazz bands when he was twelve years old, earning him the nickname "Baby Tillis". Tillis' band director at Central Side High School, Fleming S. Huff, suggested that he start playing the saxophone. In 1946, Tillis was accepted at Wiley College on a music scholarship, thus became the first person in his family to receive a college education, he graduated from Wiley in 1949 with a B.

A. in music, accepting the position of college band director there immediately. He married fellow Wiley music major Louise at this time, they moved from Texas in 1951 so that Tillis could attend the University of Iowa for graduate music studies. At this time, he decided to volunteer in the United States Air Force at the outbreak of the Korean War, became director of the 356th Air Force Band, he went back to get his PhD under the GI Bill at University of North Texas College of Music, but returned to the University of Iowa to finish his doctoral studies. Completing his PhD in 1963, Tillis held a succession of academic positions at Wiley College, Grambling College, Kentucky State University. In 1970, Randolph Bromery recruited Tillis to the faculty of the University of Massachusetts Amherst, he and his family moved to Massachusetts. Joining the faculty as an associate professor of music, Tillis held many faculty and administrative positions during his tenure at the University of Massachusetts, he retired in 1997, but still holds the title of Professor Emeritus in the Department of Music and Dance.

Tillis serves as Director Emeritus of the University Fine Arts Center and Director of the Jazz in July Workshops in Improvisation at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Tillis had been writing music since the age of twenty, was influenced by Schoenberg, Prokofiev, African-American composers, world music; some of Tillis' more notable compositions include A Symphony of Songs, a choral/orchestral work based on poems by Wallace Stevens and commissioned by The Hartford Chorale, Inc.. Tillis has written several books of poetry, as well as the textbook Jazz Theory and Improvisation. Autumn Concerto for Trumpet – Jazz orchestra. Duration: 10 minutes The Blue Express – Jazz orchestra. Duration: 5 minutes Blue Stone Differencia – Jazz orchestra. Duration: 5 minutes Brass Quintet – Duration: 10 minutes. Publisher: New York, General Music. Premiere: 1972. Recording: Serenus 12066 Celebration, Grand March – Concert band. Duration: ca. 5 minutes 30 seconds. Commissioned by Morehouse College, Georgia. Premiere: 1966.

Two parts. Duration: 19 minutes. Premiere: 1977. In two parts. Revised 1982. Duration: ca. 20 minutes. Commissioned by Springfield Symphony Orchestra. Written for Billy Taylor. Publisher: New York, Composer Facsimile Edition Concerto for Trio Pro Viva And Orchestra – Flute, violoncello and orchestra. Duration: 21 minutes 7 seconds. Commissioned by the Richmond Symphony Orchestra; the Cotton Curtain – Orchestra. Duration: 4 minutes 45 seconds. Publisher: New York, Composer Facsimile Edition. NOTE: Written for student orchestra. Designs for Orchestra, Nos. 1 and 2 – Duration: No. 1 ca. 7 minutes. Publisher: New York, Composer Facsimile Edition. Premiere: 1968. NOTE: Ph. D. Dissertation. Can be performed separately ElegyJazz orchestra. Duration: 5 minutes 6 seconds. Commissioned by the Howard University Jazz Ensemble Fantasy on a Theme by Julian Adderley – Jazz orchestra. Duration: 10 minutes. Premiere: 4 November 1975. Five Spirituals for Chorus and Brass Choir – Contents: 1. I'm Gonna Sing; the Urgency. Salve Savage in the Spin.

All About Are the Cold Places. The Time. Duration: ca. 20 minutes. Text by Gwendolyn Brooks. Commissioned by the University of Massachusetts Amherst Choral. Publisher: New York, Composers Facsimile Edition. Premiere: Summer 1976. In a Spirited Mood – Brass quintet and baritone horn. Duration: 4 minutes 45 seconds. Publisher: New York, Joshua Corporation. Premiere: 1965. In Memory of – Double quartet and trumpet, tenor saxophone, drum set, string bass. In the Spirit and the Flesh – Orchestra and mixed chorus. Contents: 1. Life; every Time I Feel the Spirit. Duration: 20 minutes. Commissioned by the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra. Dedicated to Robert Shaw and the Memory of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Text

2006 Turner Prize

This article is about the 2006 Turner Prize for British contemporary art. There were four nominees for the 2006 Turner Prize and the winner was Tomma Abts; the nominees in alphabetical order were: Tomma Abts - nominated for her solo exhibitions at Kunsthalle Basel and greengrassi, London. Phil Collins - nominated for solo exhibitions at Milton Keynes Gallery, Tanya Bonakdar Gallery, New York City, his presentation in British Art Show 6 Mark Titchner - nominated for his solo exhibition at Arnolfini, Bristol. Rebecca Warren - nominated for her solo exhibitions at Matthew Marks Gallery, New York City, Galerie Daniel Buchholz and for her contribution to the Tate Triennial 2006; the Turner Prize is awarded for a show by the artist in the previous year. When nominees are told of their nomination they prepare exhibits for the Turner Prize exhibition at short notice; as such, the Turner Prize exhibition may not feature the works for which the artist was nominated by the judges. However the Turner Prize exhibition tends to be the basis on which public and press judge the artist's worthiness for nomination.

Tomma Abts exhibited. The works titles are all taken from a book of German Christian names and included: Ebe Abstract painting in blues and white of triangular and circular shapes. Lübbe Abstract painting in brown and pastel tones. Epko Abstract painting in light and dark browns. Ert Abstract painting in curved lines of blue-grey tones. Mehm Abstract painting with angular lines in red hues. Veeke Abstract painting with angular lines of various hues on grey background. Artist's statement: "I can't ever say what it will look like or how it will finish or what will make it work. It's a different moment for each painting. It's not really... I try so much with the composition and colour, get closer and closer, there's always a moment where there's a surprise, when I try something and... everything is in place."Gallery text: "She works to a format of 48 x 38 centimetres in acrylic and oil paint. She begins with no preconceived idea of the final result. Instead, her paintings take shape through a gradual process of accrual.

As the internal logic of each composition unfolds forms are defined and rediscovered until the painting becomes ‘congruent with itself’."Press coverage: "At most, her well-ordered geometric forms look mildly'trippy' but the trip doesn't lead anywhere." - The Guardian "I would vote for her" - The Independent "Seen in reproduction or from a distance, these low-keyed paintings look like nothing much at all. But step up close to any one of them, examine it with attention, you will be knocked off your feet." - The Telegraph "I hope that Abts takes the Turner Prize this year because her paintings have a lovely sense of inner congruence. They are impossible to describe, they have to be seen. Her work, quite works visually." - The Times Phil Collins' exhibited works were films and an installation consisting of a staffed and functioning production office. The return of the real / gercegin geri donusu A film in which people who have been on reality television or talk shows speak about how the experience had a negative impact on their lives.

Shady Lane Productions An installation consisting of a staffed production office. Baghdad screentests they shoot horses A seven-hour video of Palestinians disco dancing. Gallery text: "Phil Collins’s art investigates our ambivalent relationship with the camera as both an instrument of attraction and manipulation, of revelation and shame, he operates within forms of low-budget television and reportage-style documentary to address the discrepancy between reality and its representations." "gives that most tedious of cultural productions, the art video, a bad name. His interminable films are less riveting than the reality TV programmes that they set out to question."Press coverage: "thought-provoking and charming" - The Guardian " is, like Duchamp's urinal, art only because the artist says it is art." - The Independent Mark Titchner's exhibited works were installations and pictures, including: How To Change Behaviour Installation of multiple items, some looking like car batteries. A picture on the wall has "TINY MASTERS OF THE WORLD COME OUT" written on in large text..

The Memory of Our Will Will Was The Dirt From Your Feet If You Can Dream It, You Must Do It Picture of an outstretched hand with the title written above Ergo Ergot A tree like structure with motorised spiralsGallery text: "Mark Titchner’s art explores the tensions between the different belief systems that inform society, be they religious, scientific or political. His sculptural installations are provocative hybrids that combine new technologies with old techniques."Press coverage: "Titchner, whose work incorporates quotes from Heidegger and Nietzsche, doesn't have anything much to say." - The Guardian "The work is oddly artless in the sense of lacking guile, being unsophisticated and unworldly unaffected. Yet the objects have charm." - The Independent "I have written before with enthusiasm about Mark Titchener you need an instruction manual to figure out what he's banging on about in the ugly sculptures he is showing here." "left me wishing that the art work could at least have a visual point" - The Times Rebecca Warren's exhibited works were sculptures and installations, including: 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 or 2005 Loulou A sculpture of clay and acrylic paint.

Pony A figurative sculpture. Bronzes Bronze sculptures. Tea

Main Limes

The Main Limes called the Nasser Limes, was built around 90 A. D. and, as part of the Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes, formed the frontier of the Roman Empire in the area between the present day villages of Großkrotzenburg and Bürgstadt. In this section the limes adjoined the River Main, which forms a natural boundary for about 50 kilometres here, so "Main" refers to the river. In order to secure the riverbank, it was sufficient to erect free-standing towers backed up by the forts of the units stationed nearby. However, of the many watchtowers that stood along the Main, to date only one south of Obernburg am Main has been identified. On the other bank of the Main was the uninhabited Spessart, a wooded hill range which, like the Odenwald which borders it to the south-west, was interesting for the Romans because of its timber. In inscriptions, there are reports of the logging vexillationes of the 22nd Legion, which were stationed in Obernburg and Trennfurt. In the majority of forts, settlement activity continued after the fall of the limes, why, as in Obernburg Niedernberg and Großkrotzenburg, they are now located below the medieval village centres.

In Grosskrotzenburg, Hainstadt and Obernburg, Alamannic artefacts were discovered. North of the Main the limes runs through the marshy terrain of the Schifflache and Bulau before linking up with the Wetterau Limes. At the crossing of the Main at Großkrotzenburg a Roman bridge has been identified from post sockets. In the south it extended in its early period to Wörth; the exact start point of the Odenwald Limes has still not been identified. When the Odenwald Limes was abandoned in the 2nd century A. D. by Antoninus Pius and the establishment of the newer limes in the Bauland, the Main Limes was extended, because the forts in Trennfurt and Miltenberg were added. Because little remains of the forts, Roman artefacts are displayed in local museums such as Obernburg Romand Museum, Miltenberg Municipal Museum, Aschaffenburg Diocesan Museum and Großkrotzenburg Museum. Several fort sites such as Obernburg and Stockstadt have a rich collection of stone monuments. Dietwulf Baatz, Fritz-Rudolf Herrmann: Die Römer in Hessen.

Lizenzausgabe der 3rd edition, 1989, Hamburg, 2002, ISBN 3-933203-58-9. Bernhard Beckmann: Neuere Untersuchungen zum römischen Limeskastell Miltenberg-Altstadt. Verlag Michael Lassleben. Kallmünz, 2004, ISBN 3-7847-5085-0. Bernd Steidl: Welterbe Limes – Roms Grenze am Main. Begleitband zur Ausstellung in der Archäologischen Staatssammlung Munich, 2008. Logo, Obernburg, 2008, ISBN 3-939462-06-3. Kurt Stade: Die Mainlinie von Seligenstadt bis Miltenberg mit einem Nachtrage zur Abt. B Nr. 33 Kastell Stockstadt. In: Ernst Fabricius, Felix Hettner, Oscar von Sarwey: Der obergermanisch-raetische Limes des Roemerreiches. Abt. A, Strecke 6, pp. 3–70. Britta Rabold, Egon Schallmayer, Andreas Thiel: Der Limes. Die Deutsche Limes-Straße vom Rhein bis zur Donau. Verein Deutsche Limes-Straße, K. Theiss Verlag, Stuttgart, 2000, ISBN 3-8062-1461-1

Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux Cathedral

Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux Cathedral is a former Roman Catholic church located in the town of Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux, France. It was a national monument, it was the seat of the Bishop of Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux. The diocese was created in either the 4th or the 6th century and was abolished under the Concordat of 1801, when its territory was divided between the Diocese of Avignon and the Diocese of Valence, known since 1911 as the Diocese of Valence; the present cathedral was built in the 12th-13th centuries and replaced an earlier one, of which some mosaics survive. It is in the Provençal Romanesque style, of which it is a fine example, reusing Roman building materials. Catholic Hierarchy: Diocese of Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux Notre-Dame-et-Saint-Paul Church at Structurae Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux Picture of Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux Cathedral