House of Habsburg
The House of Habsburg, called House of Hapsburg, or House of Austria, was one of the most influential royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs between 1438 and 1740, from the sixteenth century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they maintained close relations. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the name as his own. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, by 1276, Count Radbots seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg had moved the familys power base from Habsburg Castle to the Duchy of Austria. Rudolph had become King of Germany in 1273, and the dynasty of the House of Habsburg was truly entrenched in 1276 when Rudolph became ruler of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918.
A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to expand its domains to include Burgundy and its colonial empire, Hungary. In the 16th century, the separated into the senior Habsburg Spain and the junior Habsburg Monarchy branches. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the 18th century, the senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. It was succeeded by the Vaudemont branch of the House of Lorraine, the new successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, although it was often referred to as simply the House of Habsburg. His grandson Radbot, Count of Habsburg founded the Habsburg Castle, the origins of the castles name, located in what is now the Swiss canton of Aargau, are uncertain. There is disagreement on whether the name is derived from the High German Habichtsburg, or from the Middle High German word hab/hap meaning ford, the first documented use of the name by the dynasty itself has been traced to the year 1108.
The Habsburg Castle was the seat in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries. The Habsburgs expanded their influence through arranged marriages and by gaining political privileges, in the 13th century, the house aimed its marriage policy at families in Upper Alsace and Swabia. They were able to high positions in the church hierarchy for their members. Territorially, they often profited from the extinction of other families such as the House of Kyburg. By the second half of the 13th century, count Rudolph IV had become one of the most influential territorial lords in the area between the Vosges Mountains and Lake Constance
Bohemia is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic. Bohemia was a duchy of Great Moravia, an independent principality, a kingdom in the Holy Roman Empire, and subsequently a part of the Habsburg Monarchy, after World War I and the establishment of an independent Czechoslovak state, Bohemia became a part of Czechoslovakia. Between 1938 and 1945, border regions with sizeable German-speaking minorities of all three Czech lands were joined to Nazi Germany as the Sudetenland, in 1990, the name was changed to the Czech Republic, which become a separate state in 1993 with the dissolution of Czechoslovakia. Until 1948, Bohemia was a unit of Czechoslovakia as one of its lands. Bohemia was bordered in the south by Upper and Lower Austria, in the west by Bavaria and in the north by Saxony and Lusatia, in the northeast by Silesia, and in the east by Moravia. In the 2nd century BC, the Romans were competing for dominance in northern Italy, the Romans defeated the Boii at the Battle of Placentia and the Battle of Mutina.
After this, many of the Boii retreated north across the Alps, much Roman authors refer to the area they had once occupied as Boiohaemum. The earliest mention was by Tacitus Germania 28, and mentions of the name are in Strabo. The name appears to include the tribal name Boi- plus the Germanic element *haimaz home and this Boiohaemum was apparently isolated to the area where King Marobods kingdom was centred, within the Hercynian forest. The Czech name Čechy is derived from the name of the Slavic ethnic group, the Czechs, like neighbouring Bavaria, is named after the Boii, who were a large Celtic nation known to the Romans for their migrations and settlement in northern Italy and other places. Another part of the nation moved west with the Helvetii into southern France, to the south, over the Danube, the Romans extended their empire, and to the southeast in Hungaria, were Sarmatian peoples. In the area of modern Bohemia the Marcomanni and other Suebic groups were led by their king Marobodus and he took advantage of the natural defenses provided by its mountains and forests.
In late classical times and the early Middle Ages, two new Suebic groupings appeared to the west of Bohemia in southern Germany, the Alemanni, many Suebic tribes from the Bohemian region took part in such movements westwards, even settling as far away as Spain and Portugal. With them were tribes who had pushed from the east, such as the Vandals, other groups pushed southwards towards Pannonia. These are precursors of todays Czechs, though the amount of Slavic immigration is a subject of debate. The Slavic influx was divided into two or three waves, the first wave came from the southeast and east, when the Germanic Lombards left Bohemia. Soon after, from the 630s to 660s, the territory was taken by Samos tribal confederation and his death marked the end of the old Slavonic confederation, the second attempt to establish such a Slavonic union after Carantania in Carinthia. Other sources divide the population of Bohemia at this time into the Merehani, Beheimare, Christianity first appeared in the early 9th century, but only became dominant much later, in the 10th or 11th century
Melchior Klesl was an Austrian statesman and cardinal of the Roman Catholic church during the time of the Counter-Reformation. Klesl was appointed Bishop of Vienna in 1598 and elevated to cardinal in 1616. J. He received minor orders in 1577, when he was assigned a canonry, in 1579 he became doctor of philosophy and provost of St. Stephens in Vienna, which dignity carried with it the chancellorship of the university, and was finally ordained to the priesthood. As early as the year he was appointed councillor of the Bishop of Passau for Lower Austria. Rudolf II, impressed by the vigour and success of his campaign against Protestantism, entrusted him with the work of the Counter-Reformation, which became his life work. Klesl brought back into the fold the cities of Baden, Krems, in 1585 he was made imperial councillor by Rudolf II, who three years appointed him court chaplain and administrator of the Diocese of Wiener Neustadt. It took him but a short time to restore the Catholic rule in this thoroughly disorganized bishopric.
In 1598 Klesl was named Bishop of Vienna, a diocese which was spiritually and materially in a state of degradation, on 30 Mar 1614, he was consecrated bishop by Placido della Marra, Bishop of Melfi e Rapolla. He received the purple from Paul V in 1616, in 1611 Matthias placed Klesl at the head of his privy council. As such he held sway in the government, stoutly opposing the concessions to the Hungarian Protestants in 1606. This counsel was displeasing to Archduke Maximilian of Tyrol and to Archduke Ferdinand of Styria and they believed that Klesl was hostile to the candidature of the latter prince. It was, impossible to shake his influence with the emperor, Klesl could not be induced to take energetic measures against them and was seized by order of the archdukes and imprisoned at Schloss Ambras in Tyrol. A short time he was arrested by Cardinal Fabrizio Verospi and brought to the castle of Innsbruck. In November 1622, Italy became his place of confinement by order of Pope Gregory XV and he was granted his freedom by the emperor in June of the following year, but was to remain in Rome.
Klesl lived to enjoy the satisfaction of seeing himself solemnly brought back to Vienna on 25 January 1628, and reinstated as bishop and he died in Wiener Neustadt in 1630. His heart reposes before the altar of the cathedral of Wiener Neustadt while his body rests in the cathedral of St. Stephens. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Charles
King of Hungary
The King of Hungary was the head of state of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1000 to 1918. Before 1000 AD, Hungary was not recognized as a kingdom, the first King of Hungary, Stephen I. was crowned on 25 December 1000 with the crown Pope Sylvester II had sent him and with the consent of Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor. Following King Stephen Is coronation, all the monarchs of Hungary used the title King, from the 13th century a certain process was established to confirm the legitimacy of the King. This meant a level of protection to the integrity of the Kingdom such as that for example stealing the Holy Crown of Hungary was no longer enough to become legitimate King. The King Charles I of Hungary was crowned in May 1301 with a crown in Esztergom by the Archbishop of this city. In this time the Holy Crown wasnt used and he was crowned in Buda by the archbishop of Esztergom, however his third coronation was finally in 1310, in the city of Székesfehérvár, with the Holy Crown and effectuated by the archbishop of Esztergom.
Then the Kings coronation was considered absolutely legitimate, a similar situation occurred with the Matthias Corvinus, when he negotiated to get back the Holy Crown which was in the possession of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III. Then after obtaining it he was legitimately crowned, as in all the traditional monarchies, the heir descended through the male line from a previous King of Hungary. In accordance with Hungarian tradition, this right passed to younger brothers, before passing to the son of the previous King. The founder of the first Hungarian royal house was Árpád, who led his people into the Carpathian Basin in 895 and his descendants, who ruled for more than 400 years, included Saint Stephen I, Saint Ladislaus I, Andrew II, and Béla IV. The same happened with John Zápolya, who was elected in 1526 after the death of Louis II in the battle of Mohács. After this, the House of Habsburg inherited the throne, over the centuries, the Kings of Hungary acquired or claimed the crowns of several neighboring countries, and they began to use the royal titles connected to those countries.
The title Apostolic King was confirmed by Pope Clement XIII in 1758, the title of King of Slavonia referred to the territories between the Drava and the Sava Rivers. That title was first used by Ladislaus I and it was Ladislaus I who adopted the title King of Croatia in 1091. Coloman added the phrase King of Dalmatia to the style in 1105. The title King of Rama, referring to the claim to Bosnia, was first used by Béla II in 1136 and it was Emeric who adopted the title King of Serbia. The phrase King of Galicia was used to indicate the supremacy over Halych, while the title King of Lodomeria referred to Volhynia, in 1233, Béla IV began to use the title King of Cumania which expressed the rule over the territories settled by the Cumans at that time. The phrase King of Bulgaria was added to the style by Stephen V
Maria of Austria, Holy Roman Empress
Archduchess Maria of Austria was the spouse of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia and Hungary. She was the daughter of Emperor Charles V and twice served as regent of Spain, Maria was born in Madrid to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain, and Isabella of Portugal. She grew up mostly between Toledo and Valladolid with her siblings and Joanna and they built a strong family bond despite their fathers regular absences. Maria and her brother, shared similar strong personal views, on 15 September 1548, aged twenty, she married her first cousin Archduke Maximilian. The couple had sixteen children during the course of a twenty-eight-year marriage, while her father was occupied with German affairs and Maximilian acted as regents of Spain from 1548 to 1551 during the absence of Prince Philip. Maria stayed at the Spanish court until August 1551, and in 1552 the couple moved to live at the court of Maximilians father in Vienna. During another absence of her brother, now King Philip II, from 1558 to 1561, Maria was again regent of Spain and returned to Madrid during that time.
After her return to Germany, her husband succeeded his father Ferdinand I as ruler of Germany and Hungary. Maria was a devout Catholic and frequently disagreed with her religiously ambiguous husband and she had great influence over her sons, the future emperors Rudolf and Matthias. Maria returned to Spain in 1582, taking her youngest surviving child Margaret with her, promised to marry Philip II of Spain, Margaret finally refused and took the veil as a Poor Clare. Commenting that she was happy to live in a country without heretics, Maria settled in the Convent of Las Descalzas Reales in Madrid. She was the patron of the noted Spanish composer Tomás Luis de Victoria, Maria exerted some influence together with Queen Margaret, the wife of Philip III of Spain. Margaret, the sister of the future Emperor Ferdinand II, would be one of three women at Philips court who would apply considerable influence over the king, Margaret continued to fight an ongoing battle with Lerma for influence until her death in 1611.
Philip had an affectionate, close relationship with Margaret, and paid her additional attention after she bore him a son, named Philip and they were successful, for example, in convincing Philip to provide financial support to Ferdinand from 1600 onwards. Philip steadily acquired other religious advisors
Further Austria mainly comprised the Sundgau territory with the town of Belfort in southern Alsace and the adjacent Breisgau region east of the Rhine, including Freiburg im Breisgau after 1368. During the Habsburg Monarchy they were humorously called tail feathers of the Imperial Eagle, some estates in Vorarlberg possessed by the Habsburgs were considered part of Further Austria, though they were temporarily directly administered from Tyrol. These territories were never considered part of Further Austria - except for the Fricktal region around Rheinfelden and Laufenburg, from 1406 until 1490 Further Austria together with the Habsburg County of Tyrol was included in the definition of Upper Austria. From 1469 to 1474 Archduke Sigismund gave large parts in pawn to the Burgundian duke Charles the Bold, at the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, the Sundgau became part of France. After the Ottoman wars many inhabitants of Further Austria were encouraged to emigrate and settle in the newly acquired Transylvania region, in the 18th century, the Habsburgs acquired a few minor new Swabian territories, such as Tettnang in 1780.
His heir as his son-in-law was Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este, the uncle of Emperor Francis II, minor estates passed to Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and the Grand Duchy of Hesse. Fricktal had already become a French protectorate in 1799 and part of the Helvetic Republic in 1802, the Further Austrian territories were held by the Habsburg Dukes of Austria from 1278 onwards. Becker, Irmgard Christa, ed. Vorderösterreich, Nur die Schwanzfeder des Kaiseradlers, die Habsburger zwischen Rhein und Donau. Auflage, Erziehungsdepartement des Kantons Aargau, Aarau 1996, ISBN 3-9520690-1-9, maier and Volker Press, eds. Rommel, Klaus, ed. Das große goldene Medaillon von 1716, Andreas, Bernhard Rüth, Hans-Joachim Schuster and Edwin Ernst Weber, eds. Vorderösterreich an oberem Neckar und oberer Donau, map of South-Western Germany in 1789
Ban /ˈbɑːn/ was a noble title used in several states in Central and Southeastern Europe between the 7th century and the 20th century. In English, common term for the province governed by ban is banate, in the 30th chapter, describing how the Croatian state was divided into eleven ζουπανίας, the ban βοάνος, καὶ ὁ βοάνος αὐτῶν κρατεῖ τὴν Κρίβασαν, τὴν Λίτζαν καὶ τὴν Γουτζησκά. In 1029 was published a Latin charter by Jelena, sister of ban Godemir, in Obrovac, in it she is introduced as Ego Heleniza, soror Godemiri bani. Franjo Rački noted that if is not an original, is certainly a transcript from the same 11th century, in the 12th century, the title was mentioned by Byzantine historian John Kinnamos, anonymous monk of Dioclea, and in the Supetar Cartulary. The Byzantine historian John Kinnamos wrote the title in the form μπάνος. In the Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, which is dated to 12th and 13th century, in the Latin redaction is written as banus, bano, and in the Croatian redaction only as ban.
The Supetar Cartulary includes information until the 12th century, but the writing about bans is dated to the late 13th and early 14th century. It mentions that there existed seven bans and they were elected by the six of twelve Croatian noble tribes, the Late Proto-Slavic word *banъ is not of native Slavic lexical stock and is generally considered to be a borrowing from a Turkic language. The titles origin among medieval Croats is not completely understood, and as much is hard to determine the exact source and to reconstruct the primal form of the Turkic word it is derived from. It is generally explained as a derivation from the Avar name Bayan, the Proto-Turkic root *bāj- is sometimes explained as a native Turkic word, however, it is generally considered a borrowing from the Iranian bay. Within the Altaic theory, the Turkic word is inherited from the Proto-Altaic *bēǯu numerous, the title word ban was derived from the name Bojan, and there were additionally proposed Iranian, and Indo-European, language origin.
Some scholars assume that the name was a possible misinterpretation of a title, but Bayan already had a title of khagan, the title ban among the Avars has never been attested to in the historical sources. It was used as evidence throughout the history of historioraphy to prove ideological assumptions on Avars, the starting point of the debate was year 1837, and the work of historian and philologist Pavel Jozef Šafárik, whose thesis has influenced generations of scholars. However, modern scholars until now proved the opposite, that Avars never lived in Dalmatia proper, and that statement occurred somewhere in Pannonia. Franc Miklošič wrote that the word, of Croatian origin, probably was expanded by the Croats among the Bulgarians and Serbs, Đuro Daničić decided for an intermediate solution, by origin is Avar or Persian from bajan. Bury derived the title from the name of Avar khagan Bayan I, tadija Smičiklas and Vatroslav Jagić thought that the title should not derive from bajan, but from bojan, as thus how it is written in the Greek historical records.
He mentioned both thesis, as well the German-Gothic theory derivation, ferdo Šišić considered that is impossible it directly originated from a personal name of an Avar ruler because the title needs a logical continuity. He doubted its existence among Slavic tribes during the great migration, the thesis of alleged Avar governor title Šišić based on his personal derivation of bajan from the title khagan
Kingdom of Bohemia
The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom, was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic. It was an Imperial State in the Holy Roman Empire, the kings of Bohemia, besides Bohemia ruled the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, which at various times included Moravia and parts of Saxony and Bavaria. Numerous kings of Bohemia were elected Holy Roman Emperors and the capital Prague was the seat in the late 14th century. After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the became part of the Habsburg Austrian Empire. The Czech language was the language of the Diet and the nobility until 1627. German was formally made equal with Czech and eventually prevailed as the language of the Diet until the Czech national revival in the 19th century. German was used as the language of administration in many towns after Germans immigrated and populated some areas of the country in the 13th century. The royal court used the Czech and German languages, depending on the ruler, following the defeat of the Central Powers in World War I, both the Kingdom and Empire were dissolved.
Bohemia became the part of the newly formed Czechoslovak Republic. In 1204 Ottokars royal status was accepted by Otto IV as well as by Pope Innocent III and it was officially recognized in 1212 by the Golden Bull of Sicily issued by Emperor Frederick II, elevating the Duchy of Bohemia to Kingdom status. Under these terms, the Czech king was to be exempt from all obligations to the Holy Roman Empire except for participation in the imperial councils. The imperial prerogative to ratify each Bohemian ruler and to appoint the bishop of Prague was revoked, the kings successor was his son Wenceslaus I, from his second marriage. Corresponding with the Pope, she established the Knights of the Cross with the Red Star in 1233, four other military orders were present in Bohemia, the Order of St. John of Jerusalem from c. 1160, the Order of Saint Lazarus from the late 12th century, 1200–1421, and the Knights Templar from 1232–1312. The 13th century was the most dynamic period of the Přemyslid reign over Bohemia, at the same time, the Mongol invasions absorbed the attention of Bohemias eastern neighbors and Poland.
Přemysl Ottokar II married a German princess, Margaret of Babenberg and he thereby acquired Upper Austria, Lower Austria, and part of Styria. He conquered the rest of Styria, most of Carinthia, and he was called the king of iron and gold. He campaigned as far as Prussia, where he defeated the natives and in 1256, founded a city he named Královec in Czech
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a house, historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the dynasty may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends. The word dynasty itself is often dropped from such adjectival references, until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty, that is, to increase the territory and power of his family members. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husbands ruling house, some states in Africa, determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mothers dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
It is extended to unrelated people such as poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team. The word dynasty derives via Latin dynastia from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to power, dominion and it was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, power or ability, from dýnamai, to be able. A ruler in a dynasty is referred to as a dynast. For example, following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the House of Windsor. A dynastic marriage is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, the marriage of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, to Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child is expected to inherit the Dutch crown eventually. But the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support, thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, lost his title as a Prince of the Netherlands, and left his children without dynastic rights.
In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a dynast is a member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchys rules still in force. Even since abolition of the Austrian monarchy and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position. The term dynast is sometimes used only to refer to descendants of a realms monarchs. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people, yet he is not a male-line member of the royal family, and is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor. Thus, in 1999 he requested and obtained permission from Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco. Yet a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time and that exclusion, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Catholic
Anna of Tyrol
Anna of Tyrol, was by birth Archduchess of Austria and member of the Tyrolese branch of the House of Habsburg and by marriage Holy Roman Empress, German Queen, Queen of Bohemia and Queen of Hungary. The first crowned Holy Roman Empress since the century, she was responsible from the moving of the Imperial court from Prague to Vienna. A proponent of the Counter-Reformation, she held an influence over her husband, with whom she founded the Imperial Crypt. Anna was born in Innsbruck on 4 October 1585 as the third and last daughter of Ferdinand II, Archduke of Further Austria and Count of Tyrol and she had two older sisters, Archduchesses Anna Eleonore and Maria, a nun. All them suffered from poor health since birth and her baptism was conducted with special solemnity, being organizated by her uncles Maximilian III, Archduke of Austria and Prince Ferdinand of Bavaria. The godfather of the princess was Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, for whom his son Archduke Ernest of Austria stood as proxy, Anna spend her childhood at the Innsbruck court, which thanks to her parents became in the center of Renaissance culture.
She lived in Ambras Castle and Ruelyust Palaces, in order to protect the health of her daughter, since 1590 Archduchess-Countess Anna Caterina had a personal cookbook. In January 1595, the princess lost her father and her widowed mother made every effort to give her daughters a good education. Anna discovered a musical talent, which was acquired for her clavichord. The love for music remained in the princess throughout her life, being raised in a strict Catholic environment, even as Holy Roman Empress, when she believed that she had committed a sin, engaged in self-flagellation to torment the flesh. The Dowager Archduchess-Countess made frequent pilgrimages, but didnt take her daughters with her due to their poor health, Annas older sister, followed their mothers example and took the veil in the same convent under the name of Anna Catherine. Upon reaching adulthood, Anna began to receive offers of marriage, the first proposal was made in 1603 by King Sigismund III of Poland, but Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor didnt gave his consent.
Then the Emperor expressed his intention to marry the princess and sent to Innsbruck his court painter to make a portrait of his intended bride. Once the Emperor showed his interest in Anna, her mother stopped taking other marriage proposals for her, the Emperors younger brother Archduke Matthias began to woo her, and some time later, Rudolf II allowed the marriage of his brother to his former fiancée. Matthias, although he was already in his fifties, hoped to sire an heir with his 26-year-old wife, four years later, when Anna became slightly stout, rumors began at the Imperial court that she had finally become pregnant. But soon courtiers began to joke that her corpulence wasnt related to a pregnancy, on 21 May 1612 Matthias was elected King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor. Anna was crowned Holy Roman Empress and Queen of Germany in Frankfurt on 15 June 1612 and she was the first crowned Empress since Eleanor of Portugal. Anna was crowned Queen of Hungary on 25 March 1613 in Pressburg, called the Good-natured and loving Empress, she had a great influence over her husband, jointly with Matthias mistress Susana Wachter
Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor
Rudolf II was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria. He was a member of the House of Habsburg, Rudolf was born in Vienna on 18 July 1552. Rudolf spent eight years, from age 11 to 19, in Spain. Rudolf would remain for the rest of his reserved, secretive. He suffered from bouts of melancholy, which was common in the Habsburg line. These became worse with age, and were manifested by a withdrawal from the world, like his contemporary, Elizabeth I of England, Rudolf dangled himself as a prize in a string of diplomatic negotiations for marriages, but never in fact married. It has been proposed by A. L. Rowse that he was homosexual, during his periods of self-imposed isolation, Rudolf reportedly had affairs with his court chamberlain, Wolfgang von Rumpf, and a series of valets. One of these, Philip Lang, ruled him for years and was hated by those seeking favour with the emperor, in addition, Rudolf was known to have had a succession of affairs with women, some of whom claimed to have been impregnated by him.
He had several children with his mistress Catherina Strada. Their eldest son, Don Julius Caesar dAustria, was born between 1584 and 1586 and received an education and opportunities for political and social prominence from his father. In 1607, Rudolf sent Julius to live at Český Krumlov in Bohemia castle, Julius lived at Český Krumlov when in 1608 he reportedly abused and murdered the daughter of a local barber, who had been living in the castle, and disfigured her body. Rudolf condemned his sons act and suggested that he should be imprisoned for the rest of his life, Julius died in 1609 after showing signs of schizophrenia, refusing to bathe, and living in squalor, his death was apparently caused by an ulcer that ruptured. Many artworks commissioned by Rudolf are unusually erotic, the emperor was the subject of a whispering campaign by his enemies in his family and the Catholic Church in the years before he was deposed. Sexual allegations may well have formed a part of the campaign against him, historians have traditionally blamed Rudolfs preoccupation with the arts, occult sciences, and other personal interests as the reason for the political disasters of his reign.
Although raised in his uncles Catholic court in Spain, Rudolf was tolerant of Protestantism and he largely withdrew from Catholic observances, even in death denying last sacramental rites. He had little attachment to Protestants either, except as counter-weight to repressive Papal policies and he put his primary support behind conciliarists and humanists. His conflict with the Ottoman Empire was the cause of his undoing. Unwilling to compromise with the Turks, and stubbornly determined that he could all of Christendom with a new Crusade, he started a long
King of the Romans
King of the Romans was the title used by the German king following his election by the princes from the time of Emperor Henry II onward. The title was predominantly a claim to become Holy Roman Emperor and was dependent upon coronation by the Pope, the title originally referred to any elected king who had not yet been granted the Imperial Regalia and title of Emperor at the hands of the Pope. Later it came to be used solely for the apparent to the Imperial throne between his election and his succession upon the death of the Emperor. The territory of East Francia was not referred to as the Kingdom of Germany or Regnum Teutonicum by contemporary sources until the 11th century, during this time, the kings claim to coronation was increasingly contested by the papacy culminating in the fierce Investiture Controversy. Pope Gregory VII insisted on using the derogatory term Teutonicorum Rex in order to imply that Henrys authority was merely local, Henry continued to regularly use the title Romanorum Rex until he finally was crowned Emperor by Antipope Clement III in 1084.
Henrys successors imitated this practice, and were called Romanorum Rex before, candidates for the kingship were at first the heads of the Germanic stem duchies. As these units broke up, rulers of principalities and even non-Germanic rulers were considered for the position. The only requirements generally observed were that the candidate be a male, a Catholic Christian. The kings were elected by several Imperial Estates, often in the city of Frankfurt after 1147. They were the Prince-Archbishops of Mainz and Cologne as well as the King of Bohemia, the Count Palatine of the Rhine, the Saxon duke, after the Investiture Controversy, Charles intended to strengthen the legal status of the Rex Romanorum beyond Papal approbation. Consequently, among his successors only Sigismund and Frederick III were still crowned Emperors in Rome, the Golden Bull remained effective as constitutional law until the Empires dissolution in 1806. After his election, the new king would be crowned as King of the Romans, though the ceremony was no more than a symbolic validation of the election result, it was solemnly celebrated.
The details of Ottos coronation in 936 are described by the medieval chronicler Widukind of Corvey in his Res gestae saxonicae, the kings received the Imperial Crown from at least 1024, at the coronation of Conrad II. In 1198 the Hohenstaufen candidate Philip of Swabia was crowned Rex Romanorum at Mainz Cathedral, at some time after the ceremony, the king would, if possible, cross the Alps, to receive coronation in Pavia or Milan with the Iron Crown of Lombardy as King of Italy. Finally, he would travel to Rome and be crowned Emperor by the Pope, in such cases, the king might retain the title King of the Romans for his entire reign. At this time Maximilian took the new title King of the Germans or King in Germany, the following were ruling Kings of the Romans, i. e. men who ruled the Kingdom without subordination to another King but who had not yet been crowned Emperor. The Holy Roman Empire was an elective monarchy, no person had a legal right to the succession simply because he was related to the current Emperor.
However, the Emperor could, and often did, have an elected to succeed him after his death