Alsace is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland. From 1982 to 2016, Alsace was the smallest administrative région in metropolitan France, consisting of the Bas-Rhin and Haut-Rhin departments. Territorial reform passed by the French legislature in 2014 resulted in the merger of the Alsace administrative region with Champagne-Ardenne and Lorraine to form Grand Est. Alsatian is an Alemannic dialect related to Swabian and Swiss German, although since World War II most Alsatians speak French. Internal and international migration since 1945 has changed the ethnolinguistic composition of Alsace. For more than 300 years, from the Thirty Years' War to World War II, the political status of Alsace was contested between France and various German states in wars and diplomatic conferences; the economic and cultural capital of Alsace, as well as its largest city, is Strasbourg. The city is the seat of bodies; the name "Alsace" can be traced to the Old High German Ali-saz or Elisaz, meaning "foreign domain".
An alternative explanation is from a Germanic Ell-sass, meaning "seated on the Ill", a river in Alsace. In prehistoric times, Alsace was inhabited by nomadic hunters. By 1500 BC, Celts began to settle in Alsace and cultivating the land, it should be noted that Alsace is a plain surrounded by the Vosges mountains and the Black Forest mountains. It creates Foehn winds which, along with natural irrigation, contributes to the fertility of the soil. In a world of agriculture, Alsace has always been a rich region which explains why it suffered so many invasions and annexations in its history. By 58 BC, the Romans had established Alsace as a center of viticulture. To protect this valued industry, the Romans built fortifications and military camps that evolved into various communities which have been inhabited continuously to the present day. While part of the Roman Empire, Alsace was part of Germania Superior. With the decline of the Roman Empire, Alsace became the territory of the Germanic Alemanni; the Alemanni were agricultural people, their Germanic language formed the basis of modern-day dialects spoken along the Upper Rhine.
Clovis and the Franks defeated the Alemanni during the 5th century AD, culminating with the Battle of Tolbiac, Alsace became part of the Kingdom of Austrasia. Under Clovis' Merovingian successors the inhabitants were Christianized. Alsace remained under Frankish control until the Frankish realm, following the Oaths of Strasbourg of 842, was formally dissolved in 843 at the Treaty of Verdun. Alsace formed part of the Middle Francia, ruled by the eldest grandson Lothar I. Lothar died early in 855 and his realm was divided into three parts; the part known as Lotharingia, or Lorraine, was given to Lothar's son. The rest was shared between Louis the German; the Kingdom of Lotharingia was short-lived, becoming the stem duchy of Lorraine in Eastern Francia after the Treaty of Ribemont in 880. Alsace was united with the other Alemanni east of the Rhine into the stem duchy of Swabia. At about this time, the surrounding areas experienced recurring fragmentation and reincorporations among a number of feudal secular and ecclesiastical lordships, a common process in the Holy Roman Empire.
Alsace experienced great prosperity during the 13th centuries under Hohenstaufen emperors. Frederick I set up Alsace as a province to be ruled by ministeriales, a non-noble class of civil servants; the idea was that such men would be more tractable and less to alienate the fief from the crown out of their own greed. The province had a central administration with its seat at Hagenau. Frederick II designated the Bishop of Strasbourg to administer Alsace, but the authority of the bishop was challenged by Count Rudolf of Habsburg, who received his rights from Frederick II's son Conrad IV. Strasbourg began to grow to become the commercially important town in the region. In 1262, after a long struggle with the ruling bishops, its citizens gained the status of free imperial city. A stop on the Paris-Vienna-Orient trade route, as well as a port on the Rhine route linking southern Germany and Switzerland to the Netherlands and Scandinavia, it became the political and economic center of the region. Cities such as Colmar and Hagenau began to grow in economic importance and gained a kind of autonomy within the "Décapole", a federation of ten free towns.
As in much of Europe, the prosperity of Alsace came to an end in the 14th century by a series of harsh winters, bad harvests, the Black Death. These hardships were blamed on Jews, leading to the pogroms of 1336 and 1339. In 1349, Jews of Alsace were accused of poisoning the wells with plague, leading to the massacre of thousands of Jews during the Strasbourg pogrom. Jews were subsequently forbidden to settle in the town. An additional natural disaster was the Rhine rift earthquake of 1356, one of Europe's worst which made ruins of Basel. Prosperity returned to Alsace under Habsburg administration during the Renaissance. Holy Roman Empire central power had begun to decline following years of imperial adventures in Italian lands ceding hegemony in Western Europe to France, which had long since centralized power. France began an aggressive policy of expanding eastward, first to the riv
Martin Waldseemüller was a German cartographer. He and Matthias Ringmann are credited with the first recorded usage of the word America, on the 1507 map Universalis Cosmographia in honour of the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci. Waldseemüller was born in Wolfenweiler near Freiburg im Breisgau and he studied at the University of Freiburg. On 25 April 1507, as a member of the Gymnasium Vosagense at Saint Diey in the Duchy of Lorraine, he produced a globular world map and a large 12-panel world wall map using the information from Columbus and Vespucci's travels, both bearing the first use of the name "America"; the globular and wall maps were accompanied by a book Cosmographiae Introductio, an introduction to cosmography. The book, first printed in the city of Saint-Dié-des-Vosges, includes in its second part, a translation to Latin of the Quattuor Americi Vespuccij navigationes, a letter written by Amerigo Vespucci, although some historians consider it to have been a forgery written by its supposed recipient in Italy.
In the seventh chapter of the Cosmographiæ Introduction, written by Matthias Ringmann, it is explained why the name America was proposed for the New World, or the Fourth Part of the World: Atque in sexto climate Antarcticum versus et pars extrema Africæ nuper reperta.... Et quarta orbis pars sitae sunt Translation: And in the sixth climate toward the Antarctic, the discovered farther part of Africa... and a fourth part of the world are situated In the ninth chapter of the same book the reasons for the name America are given in more detail: Nunc vero et hæ partes sunt latius lustratæ et alia quarta pars per Americum Vesputium inventa est, quam non video cur quis jure vetet ab Americo Inventore sagacis ingenii viro, Amerigen quasi Americi terram sive Americam dicendam. Translation: But now these parts have been more explored, another fourth part has been discovered by Americus Vesputius, I do not see why anyone should justifiably forbid it to be called Amerige, as if "Americus' Land", or America, from its discoverer Americus, a man of perceptive character.
In 1513, Waldseemüller appears to have had second thoughts about the name due to contemporary protests about Vespucci’s role in the discovery and naming of America, or just waiting for the official discovery of the whole northwestern coast of what is now called North America, as separated from East Asia. In his reworking of the Ptolemy atlas, the continent is labelled Terra Incognita. Despite the revision, 1,000 copies of the world maps had since been distributed, the original suggestion took hold. While North America was still called Indies in documents for some time, it was called America as well; the wall map was lost for a long time, but a copy was found in Schloss Wolfegg in southern Germany by Joseph Fischer in 1901. It is still the only copy known to survive, it was purchased by the United States Library of Congress in May 2003 after an agreement was reached in 2001. Five copies of the globular map survive in the form of "gores": printed maps that were intended to be cut out and pasted onto a wooden globe.
Only one of these lies in the Americas today, residing at the James Ford Bell Library University of Minnesota. Waldseemüller died intestate 16 March 1520 in Sankt Didel a canon of the collegiate Church of Saint-Dié. Waldseemüller map Naming of America Discoverer of the Americas Richard Amerike History of cartography List of Roman Catholic scientist-clerics List of German inventors and discoverers Peter W. Dickson: "The Magellan Myth: Reflections on Columbus and the Waldseemueller Map of 1507", Printing Arts Press, 2007, 2009 John Hessler: The Naming of America: Martin Waldseemüller's 1507 World Map and the Cosmographiae Introductio, Library of Congress, 2007 Seymour Schwartz: Putting "America" on the Map, the Story of the Most Important Graphic Document in the History of the United States, Prometheus Books, New York, 2007 David Brown: 16th-Century Mapmaker's Intriguing Knowledge, in: Washington Post, 2008-11-17, p. A7 Toby Lester: Putting America on the Map, Volume 40, Number 9, p. 78, December 2009 Toby Lester: The Fourth Part of the World, The Epic Story of History's Greatest Map, Profile Books, London, 2009 Chet van Duzer and Benoît Larger: Martin Waldseemüller Death Date, Imago Mundi, Volume 63, Part 2: 219-221, 2011 The Cosmographiæ Introductio of Martin Waldseemüller, via Google Books.
Joseph Fischer. "Martin Waldseemüller". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. "16th-Century Mapmaker's Intriguing Knowledge", David Brown, The Washington Post. November 17, 2008. "You Are Here—The Library of Congress buys'America's birth certificate'.", John J. Miller, The Wall Street Journal. July 25, 2003. "The map that changed the world", Toby Lester The BBC, October 28, 2009. "Naming of America", BBC. "Waldseemüller, Martin". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1900. World Digital Library presentation of Universalis cosmographia secu
Gaius Julius Caesar, known by his nomen and cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician, military general, historian who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. He wrote Latin prose. In 60 BC, Caesar and Pompey formed the First Triumvirate, a political alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years, their attempts to amass power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar rose to become one of the most powerful politicians in the Roman Republic through a number of his accomplishments, notably his victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC. During this time, Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both the English Channel and the Rhine River, when he built a bridge across the Rhine and crossed the Channel to invade Britain. Caesar's wars extended Rome's territory to past Gaul; these achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC.
With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Leaving his command in Gaul meant losing his immunity from being charged as a criminal for waging unsanctioned wars; as a result, Caesar found himself with no other options but to cross the Rubicon with the 13th Legion, leaving his province and illegally entering Roman Italy under arms. This began Caesar's civil war, his victory in the war put him in an unrivaled position of power and influence. After assuming control of government, Caesar began a program of social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar, he gave citizenship to many residents of far regions of the Roman Empire. He initiated land support for veterans, he centralized the bureaucracy of the Republic and was proclaimed "dictator for life", giving him additional authority. His populist and authoritarian reforms angered the elites. On the Ides of March, 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of rebellious senators led by Gaius Cassius Longinus, Marcus Junius Brutus and Decimus Junius Brutus, who stabbed him to death.
A new series of civil wars broke out and the constitutional government of the Republic was never restored. Caesar's adopted heir Octavian known as Augustus, rose to sole power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. Octavian set about solidifying his power, the era of the Roman Empire began. Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns and from other contemporary sources the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust; the biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are major sources. Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history, his cognomen was subsequently adopted as a synonym for "Emperor". He has appeared in literary and artistic works, his political philosophy, known as Caesarism, inspired politicians into the modern era. Gaius Julius Caesar was born into a patrician family, the gens Julia, which claimed descent from Iulus, son of the legendary Trojan prince Aeneas the son of the goddess Venus.
The Julii were of Alban origin, mentioned as one of the leading Alban houses, which settled in Rome around the mid-7th century BC, after the destruction of Alba Longa. They were granted patrician status, along with other noble Alban families; the Julii existed at an early period at Bovillae, evidenced by a ancient inscription on an altar in the theatre of that town, which speaks of their offering sacrifices according to the lege Albana, or Alban rites. The cognomen "Caesar" originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor, born by Caesarean section; the Historia Augusta suggests three alternative explanations: that the first Caesar had a thick head of hair. Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favored this interpretation of his name. Despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not politically influential, although they had enjoyed some revival of their political fortunes in the early 1st century BC. Caesar's father called Gaius Julius Caesar, governed the province of Asia, his sister Julia, Caesar's aunt, married Gaius Marius, one of the most prominent figures in the Republic.
His mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential family. Little is recorded of Caesar's childhood. In 85 BC, Caesar's father died so Caesar was the head of the family at 16, his coming of age coincided with a civil war between his uncle Gaius Marius and his rival Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Both sides carried out bloody purges of their political opponents whenever they were in the ascendancy. Marius and his ally Lucius Cornelius Cinna were in control of the city when Caesar was nominated as the new Flamen Dialis, he was married to Cinna's daughter Cornelia. Following Sulla's final victory, Caesar's connections to the old regime made him a target for the new one, he was stripped of his inheritance, his wife's dowry, his priesthood, but he refused to divorce Cornelia and was forced to go into hiding. The threat against hi
Alsatian is a Low Alemannic German dialect spoken in most of Alsace, a disputed region in eastern France that has passed between French and German control five times since 1681. A dialect of Alsatian German is spoken in the United States by the so-called Swiss Amish, whose ancestors emigrated there in the middle of the 19th century; the 7,000 speakers are located in Allen County, with "daughter settlements" elsewhere. Alsatian is related to other nearby Alemannic dialects, such as Swiss German and Markgräflerisch as well as Kaiserstühlerisch, it is confused with Lorraine Franconian, a more distantly related Franconian dialect spoken in the northwest corner of Alsace and in neighbouring Lorraine. Like other dialects and languages, Alsatian has been influenced by outside sources. Words of Yiddish origin can be found in Alsatian, modern conversational Alsatian includes adaptations of French words and English words concerning new technologies. Many speakers of Alsatian could, write in reasonable standard German.
For most this would be rare and confined to those who have learned German through work. As with other dialects, various factors determine when and with whom one might converse in Alsatian; some dialect speakers are unwilling to speak standard German, at times, to certain outsiders and prefer to use French. In contrast, many people living near the border with Basel, will speak their dialect with a Swiss person from that area, as they are mutually intelligible for the most part; some street names in Alsace may use Alsatian spellings. C, Q, X are only used in loanwords. Y is used in native words such as Dytschi, but is more common in loanwords. Alsatian has a set of 19 consonants: Three consonants are restricted in their distribution: /kʰ/ and /h/ only occur at the beginning of a word or morpheme, only if followed by a vowel. Alsatian, like some German dialects, has lenited all obstruents but, its lenes are, voiceless as in all Southern German varieties. Therefore, they are here transcribed /b̥/, /d̥/, /ɡ̊/.
The phoneme /ç/ has a velar allophone after back vowels, palatal elsewhere. In southern dialects, there is a tendency to pronounce it /x/ in all positions, in Strasbourg the palatal allophone tends to conflate with the phoneme /ʃ/. Short vowels: /ʊ/, /o/, /ɒ/, /a/, /ɛ/, /ɪ/, /i/, /y/. Long vowels: /ʊː/, /oː/, /ɒː/, /aː/, /ɛː/, /eː/, /iː/, /yː/ Since 1992, the constitution of the Fifth Republic states that French is the official language of the Republic. However, along with other regional languages, is recognized by the French government in the official list of languages of France. France is a signatory to the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages but has never ratified the law and has not given regional languages the support that would be required by the charter; the policies of the Paris government have had the deliberate effect of weakening the prevalence of native languages in France that are not "French." As a result, the Alsatian dialect of German has gone from being the prevalent language of the region to one in decline.
A 1999 INSEE survey counted 548,000 adult speakers of Alsatian in France, making it the second most-spoken regional language in the country. Like all regional languages in France, the transmission of Alsatian is declining. While 43% of the adult population of Alsace speaks Alsatian, its use has been declining amongst the youngest generations. Adolphe Stoeber François Héran, et al. "La Dynamique des langues en France au fil du XXe siècle". Population et sociétés Ined. "L'Alsacien, deuxième langue régionale de France" Insee, Chiffres pour l'Alsace no. 12, December 2002 Brunner, Jean-Jacques. L'Alsacien sans peine. ASSiMiL, 2001. ISBN 2-7005-0222-1 Laugel-Erny, Elsa. Cours d'alsacien. Les Editions du Quai, 1999. Matzen, Léon Daul. Wie Geht's? Le Dialecte à la portée de tous La Nuée Bleue, 1999. ISBN 2-7165-0464-4 Matzen, Léon Daul. Wie Steht's? Lexiques alsacien et français, Variantes dialectales, Grammaire La Nuée Bleue, 2000. ISBN 2-7165-0525-X Media related to Alsatian language at Wikimedia Commons'Hover & Hear' Alsatian pronunciations, compare with equivalents in English and other Germanic languages.
Euromosaic: The status of Germanic languages in France. Alsatian placenames Wörterbuch der elsässischen Mundarten Alsatian artists Webschnuffler, article in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung on new versions of Microsoft programs in Alsatian ^ When Amish communities become too big, a number of families move away and form a new settlement, referred to as a daughter settlement; the settlement from which they leave is the mother settlement
The Americas comprise the totality of the continents of North and South America. Together, they comprise the New World. Along with their associated islands, they cover 8% of Earth's total surface area and 28.4% of its land area. The topography is dominated by the American Cordillera, a long chain of mountains that runs the length of the west coast; the flatter eastern side of the Americas is dominated by large river basins, such as the Amazon, St. Lawrence River / Great Lakes basin, La Plata. Since the Americas extend 14,000 km from north to south, the climate and ecology vary from the arctic tundra of Northern Canada and Alaska, to the tropical rain forests in Central America and South America. Humans first settled the Americas from Asia between 17,000 years ago. A second migration of Na-Dene speakers followed from Asia; the subsequent migration of the Inuit into the neoarctic around 3500 BCE completed what is regarded as the settlement by the indigenous peoples of the Americas. The first known European settlement in the Americas was by the Norse explorer Leif Erikson.
However, the colonization never became permanent and was abandoned. The Spanish voyages of Christopher Columbus from 1492 to 1502 resulted in permanent contact with European powers, which led to the Columbian exchange and inaugurated a period of exploration and colonization whose effects and consequences persist to the present. Diseases introduced from Europe and West Africa devastated the indigenous peoples, the European powers colonized the Americas. Mass emigration from Europe, including large numbers of indentured servants, importation of African slaves replaced the indigenous peoples. Decolonization of the Americas began with the American Revolution in the 1770s and ended with the Spanish–American War in the late 1890s. All of the population of the Americas resides in independent countries; the Americas are home to over a billion inhabitants, two-thirds of which reside in the United States, Brazil, or Mexico. It is home to eight megacities: New York City, Mexico City, São Paulo, Los Angeles, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, Bogotá, Lima.
The name America was first recorded in 1507. Christie's auction house says a two-dimensional globe created by Martin Waldseemüller was the earliest recorded use of the term; the name was used in the Cosmographiae Introductio written by Matthias Ringmann, in reference to South America. It was applied to both North and South America by Gerardus Mercator in 1538. America derives from the Latin version of Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci's first name; the feminine form America accorded with the feminine names of Asia and Europa. In modern English and South America are considered separate continents, taken together are called America or the Americas in the plural; when conceived as a unitary continent, the form is the continent of America in the singular. However, without a clarifying context, singular America in English refers to the United States of America. In the English-speaking world, the term America used to refer to a single continent until the 1950s: According to historians Kären Wigen and Martin W. Lewis, While it might seem surprising to find North and South America still joined into a single continent in a book published in the United States in 1937, such a notion remained common until World War II.
By the 1950s, however all American geographers had come to insist that the visually distinct landmasses of North and South America deserved separate designations. This shift did not seem to happen in Romance-speaking countries, where America is still considered a continent encompassing the North America and South America subcontinents, as well as Central America; the first inhabitants migrated into the Americas from Asia. Habitation sites are known in Alaska and the Yukon from at least 20,000 years ago, with suggested ages of up to 40,000 years. Beyond that, the specifics of the Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the dates and routes traveled, are subject to ongoing research and discussion. Widespread habitation of the Americas occurred during the late glacial maximum, from 16,000 to 13,000 years ago; the traditional theory has been that these early migrants moved into the Beringia land bridge between eastern Siberia and present-day Alaska around 40,000–17,000 years ago, when sea levels were lowered during the Quaternary glaciation.
These people are believed to have followed herds of now-extinct pleistocene megafauna along ice-free corridors that stretched between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets. Another route proposed is that, either on foot or using primitive boats, they migrated down the Pacific coast to South America. Evidence of the latter would since have been covered by a sea level rise of hundreds of meters following the last ice age. Both routes may have
Smithsonian is the official journal published by the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C; the first issue was published in 1970. The history of Smithsonian began when Edward K. Thompson, the retired editor of Life magazine, was asked by the then-Secretary of the Smithsonian, S. Dillon Ripley, to produce a magazine "about things in which the Smithsonian is interested, might be interested or ought to be interested."Thompson would recall that his philosophy for the new magazine was that it "would stir curiosity in receptive minds. It would deal with history, it would present art. It would peer of science and technology. Technical matters would be digested and made intelligible by skilled writers who would stimulate readers to reach upward while not turning them off with jargon. We would find the best writers and the best photographers—not unlike the best of the old Life."In 1973, the magazine turned a profit for the first time. By 1974, circulation had nearly quadrupled, to 635,000, it reached the one million milestone in 1975—one of the most successful launches of its time.
In 1980, Thompson was replaced by Don Moser, who had worked at Life, circulation reached upwards of two million, in turn, by Carey Winfrey upon his retirement in 2001. Smithsonian magazine provides in-depth analysis of varied topics within a diverse range of scientific areas, adds photography to supplement its comprehensive features; the monthly magazine looks at the topics and subject matters researched and exhibited by the Smithsonian Institution - science, art, popular culture and innovation - and chronicles them for its diverse readership. Every year since 2012, the Magazine has sponsored the American Ingenuity Awards, a recognition of innovation in the arts and technology. Winners have included Elon Musk, Lin-Manuel Miranda, OK Go, Dave Eggers, Aziz Ansari, Rosanne Cash, Jeff Bezos, Fred Armisen, Bill Hader and David Lynch. Presenters have included Stephen Hawking, Stephen Colbert, David Byrne, Herbie Hancock, Erin Brockovich, Ruben Blades, Bill Nye, Art Spiegelman and Senator Al Franken.
The American Ingenuity Award. Every year since 2003, Smithsonian magazine has run an international photography contest. Tens of thousands of images are submitted from over a hundred countries. 2017 Winners: Thong Huu, Sara Jacoby, Oreon Strusinski, Dan Fenstermacher, Tran Tuan Viet, SEYED MOHAMMAD SADEGH HOSSEINI, Adam Żądło and Mohammad Mohsenifar. 2016 Winners: Pradeep Raja Kannaiah, Milan Sachs, Prelena Soma Owen, Stephanie Foden, Peter Nutkins, Greta Rybus, João Borges, Jim Mneymneh and Alina Rudya. 2015 Winners: Albert Ivan Damanik, Alice Van Kempen, Hidetoshi Ogata, Lauren Pond, Tamina-Florentine Zuch, Tihomir Trichkov, Benedetta Ristori, Radim Schreiber, Jian Wang. 2014 Winners: Pham Ty, Nicolas Reusens, Lorenzo Mittiga, Olivier Douliery, David Martín Huamaní Bedoya, Joydeep Mukherjee, Jefflin Ling, Yilang Peng. 2013 Winners: Sergio Carbajo Rodriguez, Candy Feng, Graham McGeorge, Willie Huang, Nidal Adnan Kibria, Simon Morris, Shamma Esoof, Cesar Rodriguez. Notable past and current contributors to Smithsonian have included: Official website