Maui Nui or Greater Maui, is a modern geologists' name given to a prehistoric Hawaiian Island built from seven shield volcanoes. Nui means "great/large" in the Hawaiian language. 1.2 million years ago, Maui Nui was 14,600 square kilometres, 40% larger than the present-day island of Hawaiʻi. Sea levels were lower than today's, due to distant glaciation locking up the Earth's water during ice ages, thus exposing more land; as the volcanoes settled by subsidence, due to the weight of the shield volcanoes and erosion, the saddles between them flooded, forming four islands: Maui, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe by about 200,000 years ago. Another former volcanic island lying west of Molokaʻi was submerged, covered with a cap of coral; the sea floor between these four islands is shallow, about 500 metres deep, all of the islands except Kahoʻolawe were joined during the low sea levels of the last glacial maximum, about 20,000 years ago. But at the outer edges of former Maui Nui, as with the edges of all Hawaiian Islands, the floor plummets to the abyssal ocean floor of the Pacific Ocean.
The steep slopes can result in massive landslides due to flank collapse, including one which removed most of the northern half of East Molokaʻi. Administratively, the current islands remaining from Maui Nui comprise Maui County
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Kealia Pond National Wildlife Refuge
Kealia Pond National Wildlife Refuge is a coastal salt marsh along the south-central coast of the Hawaiian Island of Maui. The refuge is located between the towns of Kīhei and Māʻalaea, on both sides of North Kihei Road, Route 31; the wetland is a 691-acre bird sanctuary, home to 30 species of waterfowl and migratory ducks, including the ʻaukuʻu and the endangered āeʻo and ʻalae kea. Kealia Pond was selected as a wildlife refuge in 1953; the refuge joined the National Wildlife Refuge System in 1992. In the rainy winter season, high water levels enlarge the freshwater pond to more than 400 acres. By spring, water levels begin dropping and by summer, the pond shrinks to half its winter size, leaving a salty residue behind: this accounts for its name, "Kealia", meaning "salt encrusted place"; the low water levels cause a 98% dieback in the tilapia population, which can produce a foul stench in the area. Kealia was once an ancient fishpond supplied with water from the Waikapu Stream in the West Maui Mountains and Kolaloa Gulch originating from Haleakalā.
Native Hawaiians may have raised awa and amaʻama using a system of ditches and sluice gates to let nearby fish from Māʻalaea Beach into the pond. Towards the west, the area between Kealia and the town of Māʻalaea contains another shallow pond and mudflats that are used by the birds during the winter and spring flooding; when the mudflats dry out during the summer, the birds move to Kealia Pond. This area was once a runway serving one of Māʻalaea Airport. During World War II, Kealia Pond was used for training the 4th Marine Divisions; the site has hosted numerous vagrant birds, most notably Garganey, Curlew Sandpiper, Marbled Godwit, American Avocet, Spotted Sandpiper, Eared Grebe. A new boardwalk and 14-stall parking lot opened on North Kihei Road on September 8, 2009; the area encompasses the bird sanctuary next to Sugar Beach between Māʻalaea. It is patrolled by private security. Broadbent, Scott. "More Errors and Red Tape Delay Kealia Pond Boardwalk Project". Local News. Maui Weekly. Retrieved 2008-07-10.
Official site Kealia Pond National Wildlife Refuge: profile Pacific Islands: Kealia Pond National Wildlife Refuge U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Kealia Pond National Wildlife Refuge
Honolulu County, Hawaii
Honolulu County is a consolidated city–county in the U. S. state of Hawaii. The city–county includes both the city of Honolulu and the rest of the island of Oʻahu, as well as several minor outlying islands, including all of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands except Midway Atoll; the consolidated city-county was established in the city charter adopted in 1907 and accepted by the Legislature of the Territory of Hawaiʻi. As a municipal corporation and jurisdiction it manages aspects of government traditionally exercised by both municipalities and counties in the rest of the United States; as of the 2010 census, the population was 953,207. Because of Hawaii's municipal structure, the United States Census Bureau divides Honolulu County into several census-designated places for statistical purposes; the mayor of Honolulu County is Kirk Caldwell, who in 2013 reclaimed the job from Peter Carlisle, who had defeated him in a 2010 special election. The county motto is "Haʻaheo No ʻO Honolulu". About 70% of the state's population lives in Honolulu County.
Only Nevada has a higher percentage of its population living in its most populous county. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,128 square miles, of which 601 square miles is land and 1,527 square miles is water. However, the majority of this area is the Pacific Ocean. Maui County, Hawaiʻi - southeast Kauai County, Hawaiʻi - northwest James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge Oahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge USS Arizona Memorial Originally governed by a Board of Supervisors, the Honolulu County is administered under a mayor-council system of governance overseeing all municipal services: civil defense, emergency medical, fire and recreation, sanitation and water, among others. For 2013, the county has an annual operating budget of US$2.16 billion. The government of Honolulu County is simplified and streamlined and coalesces at three major divisions of municipal power; the mayor of Honolulu is the principal executor of administrative authority.
The mayor is elected on a non-partisan basis to a four-year term. The Honolulu City Council is the unicameral legislative body, its elected members are responsible for drafting and passing laws, as well as proposing budgets for various departments. Unlike other cities in the United States, the council is independent of the mayor, who does not make any appearances during any of the council sessions; the nine council members each represent one of nine districts, are elected on a non-partisan basis to staggered four-year terms. The Prosecuting Attorney of Honolulu is independently elected of the other two major divisions of municipal power, is charged with prosecuting criminal offenses committed within the county; the office is not charged with providing legal counsel to City Council. The prosecuting attorney is elected on a non-partisan basis to a four-year term; the Honolulu County is divided into 36 neighborhood boards. The office of neighborhood board member is an advisory position for public policy and civil investment.
Members are elected to two-year terms. Honolulu County is divided into smaller administrative districts. There are nine such districts; the boundaries of each district are revised every ten years in conjunction with the U. S. Census. DISTRICT I: ʻEwa, ʻEwa Beach, West Loch, Makakilo, Honokai Hale and Nanakai Gardens, Ko Olina, Nānākuli, Waiʻanae, Mākaha, Keaʻau, Mākua. DISTRICT II: Mililani Mauka, Wahiawā, Whitmore Village, Mokulēʻia, Haleʻiwa, Waimea, Pūpūkea, Sunset Beach, Kahuku, Lāʻie, Hauʻula, Punaluʻu, Kahana Bay, Kaʻaʻawa, Waiāhole, Kahaluʻu, ʻĀhuimanu, Heʻeia. DISTRICT III: Waimānalo, Kailua, Kāneʻohe. DISTRICT IV: Hawaiʻi Kai, Kuliʻouʻou, Niu Valley, ʻĀina Haina, Waiʻalae-Iki, Kalani Valley, Kāhala, Wilhelmina Rise, a portion of Kapahulu, a portion of Kaimukī, Diamond Head, Waikīkī, Ala Moana. DISTRICT V: Kapahulu, Kaimukī, Pālolo Valley, St. Louis Heights, Mānoa, Mōʻiliʻili, McCully, Kakaʻako, Ala Moana, Makiki. DISTRICT VI: Makiki, downtown Honolulu, Liliha, Pauoa Valley, Nuʻuanu, ʻĀlewa Heights, Papakōlea, Kalihi Valley, Kalihi.
DISTRICT VII: Kalihi, Kapālama, Sand Island, Māpunapuna, Hickam, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island, Āliamanu, Salt Lake, Foster Village, Aloha Stadium, Hālawa Valley Estates. DISTRICT VIII: Fort Shafter, Moanalua, Hālawa, ʻAiea, Pearl City, Crestview. DISTRICT IX: Waikele, Village Park, Mililani, Waipiʻo Gentry; the civic center is coextensive with. The official seat of governance for the Honolulu County is located within the district at Honolulu Hale, established in the 1920s as a city hall structure and houses the chambers of the mayor of Honolulu and the Honolulu City Council. In the 1960s and 1970s, Mayor Frank Fasi developed the modern civic center, he took controversial and aggressive measures to reclaim property, demolish massive concrete structures in the area, construct underground parking facilities and open a green campus above ground with manicured lawns and specially commissioned sculpted artwork. He oversaw the construction of new government buildings, to house the departments that fell within mayoral jurisdiction.
The most prominent of those new buildings were the Honolulu Municipal Building and Hale M