Linares is one of four provinces of the central Chilean region of Maule. The provincial capital and most populous center is the city of Linares; as a province, Cachapoal is a second-level administrative division of Chile, governed by a provincial governor, appointed by the president. The provincial governor is Claudia Jorquera Coria; the province comprises eight communes, each governed by a municipality consisting of an alcalde and municipal council. Linares San Javier Villa Alegre Yerbas Buenas Colbún Longaví Retiro Parral The province is located at the center of mainland Chile, its capital lies 303 km south of Santiago and 50 km south of Talca, the regional capital, in the middle of a rich agricultural and wine-growing area. According to the 2002 census by the National Statistics Institute, the province spans an area of 10,041.2 km2 and had a population of 270,990 inhabitants, giving it a population density of 25.3/km2. Between the 1992 and 2002 censuses, the population grew by 3.1%. Forty five percent of the population of the province live in rural areas, as compared with 33% in the Maule Region and 13% in Chile as a whole.
This characteristic gives Linares a special cultural and socioeconomic profile among the Chilean provinces. Linares has a mild Mediterranean climate; the summers are hot and dry with temperatures reaching up to 32 degrees Celsius on the hottest days. The winters tend to be rather humid and rainy, with typical maximum daily temperatures of 15 degrees Celsius, minimum just above freezing; the rainfall is more abundant in the eastern as well as the southern part of the province, the effects of this are seen in the good conditions for rice cultivation in the latter area. Irrigation is used to a large extent. Thanks to favorable climatic conditions and good natural irrigation, the province of Linares has been able to diversify its agriculture; the wine making industry has been making inroads in both national and international markets. The province's major and more profitable crops include cereals, legumes and sugar beets. Several varieties of wine are produced in the province, part of the Maule Valley, a sub-region of the viticultural region of the Chilean Central Valley.
Linares produces 74% of the Chilean rice crop in the area around Parral. The province exports wines, table grapes, kiwi fruit and several other agricultural products; the city of Linares is an important center of the Chilean sugar-beet industry. A remarkable number of writers, poets and, in general, intellectuals have been born in the province of Linares. Among them is Pablo Neruda, the famous poet and Nobel prize-winner, born in the city of Parral; the province of Linares is home to some of the best folklore in Chile, one of its most famous folklorists is Margot Loyola Palacios, noted singer and folklore researcher and erudite. There are many active folklore groups in the province. Pablo Neruda, famous poet and Nobel Prize winner, born in Parral, Linares Province Juan Ignacio Molina, a Chilean priest and naturalist. Carlos Ibáñez del Campo, Army General and twice the President of Chile.
The Pan-American Highway is a network of roads stretching across the American continents and measuring about 30,000 kilometres in total length. Except for a rainforest break of 160 km, called the Darién Gap, the roads link all of the Pacific coastal countries of the Americas in a connected highway system. According to Guinness World Records, the Pan-American Highway is the world's longest "motorable road". However, because of the Darién Gap, it is not possible to cross between South America and Central America with conventional highway vehicles. Without an all-terrain vehicle, it is necessary to circumnavigate this terrestrial stretch by sea; the Pan-American Highway passes through many diverse climates and ecological types, from dense jungles, to arid deserts, to barren tundra, some of which are passable only during the dry season, in many regions driving is hazardous. The Pan-American Highway system is physically complete and extends in de facto terms from Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, in North America to the lower reaches of South America.
Several southern highway termini are claimed to exist, including the cities of Puerto Montt and Quellón in Chile and Ushuaia in Argentina. West and north of the Darién Gap, it is known as the Inter-American Highway through Central America and Mexico where it splits into several spurs leading to the Mexico–US border; the concept of an overland route from one tip of the Americas to the other was proposed at the First Pan-American Conference in 1889 as a railroad. The idea of building a highway emerged at the Fifth International Conference of American States in 1923; the first conference regarding construction of the highway occurred on October 5, 1925. On July 29, 1937, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Peru and the United States signed the Convention on the Pan-American Highway, whereby they agreed to speedy construction, by all adequate means. In 1950, Mexico became the first Latin American country to complete its portion of the highway. In practice the concept of the Pan-American Highway is more publicly embraced in Latin American countries than in North America.
Much of the road system in Latin America is explicitly marked as Pan-American. The Northern Pan-American Highway travels through 9 countries: The Southern Pan-American Highway travels through 8 countries: Important spurs lead into 4 countries: The Alaska Highway through Alaska and British Columbia is considered a de facto northerly extension of the Pan-American Highway, as well as the Dalton Highway in Alaska. In Canada, no particular road has been designated as the Pan-American Highway; the National Highway System, which includes but is not limited to the Trans-Canada Highway, is the country's only official interprovincial highway system. However, there are several Canadian routes that are a natural extension of several key American highways that reach the Canada–US border. British Columbia Highway 97 and Highway 2 to Alberta both pick up where the southern end of the Alaska highway leaves off. Highway 97 becomes U. S. Route 97 at the Canada–US border. British Columbia Highway 99 provides an alternate route from Highway 97 just north of Cache Creek that runs through Whistler and Vancouver before ending at the Canada–US border at the north end of Interstate 5 in Washington State, the beginning of the official Pan-American route south of British Columbia.
Meanwhile, Alberta Highway 2 runs south and east to Alberta Highway 3 leading into Lethbridge south on Alberta Highway 4 to the Canada–US border where it becomes Interstate 15 in Montana, the first official stretch of the Pan-American Highway south of the Alberta route. In 1966, the Federal Highway Administration designated the entire Interstate Highway System part of the Pan-American Highway System, although this has never been reflected in any of the official interstate signage. Of the many freeways that make up this comprehensive system, there are several that stand out because of their north-south orientation and their links to the main Mexican route and its spurs as well as to key routes in Canada that link to the Alaska Highway; these include the following: I-5 Runs north from San Diego to Seattle links indirectly with British Columbia Highway 97 north of the Canada–US border. A technically direct link between the same interstate and the highway 97 system can be found near Weed, California.
US route 97 runs northeast north from this junction and becomes BC highway 97 at the border with Canada. I-15 links San Diego with Alberta Highway 2 that crosses into British Columbia and ends at the southern terminus of the Alaska Highway. Interstate 8 provides an east-west link from San Diego to Interstate 10 near Arizona; the latter continues to Tuscon and links with Interstate 19 that becomes a spur of the Pan-American highway through Mexico at the Nogales border crossing. Interstate 25 runs north from Interstate 10 at New Mexico to Interstate 90 in Wyoming; this route has no direct extension into Canada, but links indirectly to Interstate 15. Interstate 25 in Albuquerque, New Mexico, was named the Pan-American Freeway, as an extension of highway 45, the Mexican spur linking El Paso to the original route along highway 85 north of Mexico City; this portion of I-25 follows the historic Camino Real, thus serves a culturally significant portion of the Pan American system. Like I-15, the complete route of Interstate 25 is an official northerly continuation towards Alberta, where Highway 2 provides a direct but unofficial Canadian link to the Alaska Highway.
Interstate 35 is a northerly continuation of the
Constitución is a city and commune of Talca Province, Maule Region, Chile. It was a popular seaside resort. However, following the growth of the industrial sector tourism has since declined. Constitución is minor port in Chile. Before the arrival of the Spanish, the area that would be the city of Constitución was inhabited by the Chango people and the Mapuche tribe. Both indigenous groups used the area for seasonal habitation; when the Spaniards came to the region, the European explorers, those who followed, used the area as a port for their galleons and merchant ships on their voyages to South American and other Pacific ports. While numerous attempts were made to establish a permanent settlement in the area, Santiago Oñederra was the first successful colonizing pioneer, circa 1791; the founding of the settlement was proposed by Oñederra to the Chilean government, authorized by Governor Ambrosio O'Higgins in 1794. The settlement was named New Bilbao after the Basque city in Northern Spain. In 1828, New Bilbao was renamed Constitución.
On 4 August 1828, Congress approved the designation of Constitución as a major Chilean port. Four days Vice President Jose Antonio Pinto signed the decree. Beginning in 1828, Constitución was designated as part of Maule Region and included in the Talca Province. After the devastating 8.8 magnitude earthquake that struck Chile on 27 February 2010, an estimated 350 people died in Constitución from a tsunami. Two weeks before the earthquake, the local people were trained to head for the hills if unable to stand during the tremor, as the likelihood of a tsunami was high; the tsunami was estimated to be 15 m high. Pedro Muñoz, a fisherman, with his skiff, rescued celebrants of the end of summer from an island on the Maule River, making two trips between the island and the riverbank, before being swamped and killed by the third tsunami wave, on his third trip. Constitución was damaged by subsequent tsunami. Restoring power in the city in the immediate aftermath was impossible because of damage from the tsunami.
The town is dominated both economically and geographically by the large celulose plant of Celulosa Arauco y Constitución. Celulosa Arauco y Constitución has had numerous legal cases with regards to contamination of the local environment; the artificial forests of eucalyptus and pinewood dominate the local landscape. Critics argue that this destroys the natural habitat for local wildlife and leaves the soil acidic and infertile. According to the 2002 census of the National Statistics Institute, Constitución spans an area of 1,343.6 km2 and has 46,081 inhabitants. Of these, 37,202 lived in urban areas and 8,879 in rural areas; the population grew by 14.2 % between the 2002 censuses. As a commune, Constitución is a third-level administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council, headed by an alcalde, directly elected every four years. In 2008-2012 the alcalde was Hugo Tilleria Torres, replaced by Carlos Valenzuela Gajardo. Within the electoral divisions of Chile, Constitución is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Pablo Lorenzini and Pedro Pablo Alvarez-Salamanca as part of the 38th electoral district.
The commune is represented in the Senate by Juan Antonio Coloma Correa and Andrés Zaldívar Larraín as part of the 10th senatorial constituency. Celulosa Arauco y Constitución funds social and economic regeneration projects in constitucion, providing much needed funding for the municipality. Critics argue this dependence prevents the administration from being able to question issues regarding pollution with Arauco; the Maule region of which Constitucion is part has the second lowest income per capita in Chile, with only Aysen receiving less income per capita. The residents of Maule receive per capita less than 25% of the national average income and around 10% of the income per capita in Antofagasta. Illiteracy is 7% in Maule versus the 3% country wide average; the main employment sources are the primary sectors, farming and low level artesanal production. One of the city's main employers is Celulosa Arauco y Constitución, a wood pulp, engineered wood, forestry company; until his 2007 death, the company was owned and controlled by Italian-born Santiago billionaire Anacleto Angelini and has since been taken over by his nephew, Roberto Angelini Rossi, current chairman of Angelini's holding company, AntarChile.
Despite lawsuits and protests, AntarChile was given permission in 2006 to discharge pollutants from the plant into the sea. An earthquake and tsunami in 2010 caused the plant's closure for three months due to power outages and damage. Railway expansion first came to the Maule Region in mid-1889 when rail-line construction began by the North and South American Company. Service began on August 1892 when lines were opened between Talca and Curtiduría; the next railway portion to be completed was to Pichamán on November 1, 1894. Rails were laid opposite Constitución. Constitución's first station was established in 1902. and remained in use until 1915 when a new station was constructed. Constitución is home for the end-of-the-line station of the Ramal de Maule known as the Ramal Talca-Constitución, a rural train that runs an 80 kilometer rail line from Talca; the scenic train affords views of the Andean foothills as well as the Pacific Ocean. The Ramal is facing shutdown due to lack of use. From the late 1800s on
The Ramal Talca-Constitución known as the Ramal de Maule is the last remaining narrow-gauge ramal in Chile. Its 88-kilometre route follows the north bank of the Maule River and crosses the communes of Talca, Maule and Constitución, with Constitución the last station on the line; the route features views of the Pacific Ocean. The line can support a speed of 50 miles per hour; the railway is facing closure due to an increased preference for private transport. Chile's last passenger metre gauge railway, the ramal runs through an area not served by other ground transportation; the Banco de Arena Railway Bridge over the Maule River, designed by architect Gustave Eiffel, was built from 1908 and 1915 by Schneider and Company. On May 25, 2007 the line was declared a national monument, a valued asset to the country which cannot be destroyed, it is included on the World Monuments Fund's 2018 list of monuments at risk, following damage from forest fires. Rail transport came to the Maule Region when the North and South American Company began construction in 1889.
The line opened on August 13, 1892, the first train ran from Talca to Curtiduría. The second segment of the line, from Curtiduria to Pichamán was completed on November 1, 1894. In 1902 construction progressed towards the northern bank of the Maule River, where the first Constitución station was built on a sandbank; the station was difficult to reach. It was used for 13 years, until 1915. Construction of the line took 25 years, under seven governments: Jose Manuel Balmaceda Jorge Montt Alvarez Federico Errazuriz Echaurren Germán Riesco Pedro Montt Montt Emiliano Figueroa Ramon Barros Luco Juan Luis Sanfuentes The line had an uptick in tourism boom after the documentary, The Last Ramal, aired by several channels around the world. Televisión Nacional de Chile broadcast Fruit of the Country; the line followed the coast in Constitución to the now-abandoned Sea Baths, a popular Victorian-era tourist resort. Another stop was added before the Celulosa Arauco y Constitucion pulp-mill station. To reach the Celco plant, the trains ran through the streets of Constitución.
This created many problems and was banned by the municipality during the early 1970s, although the trains continued to run into the 1990s. Name - Ramal Talca-Constitución or Ramal de Maule Home station - Talca Terminus - Constitución Location - Talca Province, Maule Region Distance - 88 km Opening date - August 13, 1892 Status - Operating Type - Passenger Operator - Empresa de los Ferrocarriles del Estado Gauge - Narrow Fuel - Diesel Cars - German Ferrobús-Buscarril railcar models, such as the ADM 253, 255 and 256 Maximum speed - 60 km/h Weight - 30.3 tons Length - 25.5 metres Nearly all the villages connected by the Ramal Talca-Constitución are not connected to major cities and communes by other transport methods. The Ministry of Transport and Telecommunications requested tenders for a transportation system which could connect these remote locations, Empresa de los Ferrocarriles del Estado won the tender; the company maintains a regular service for the thousands of local inhabitants. Distances below are approximate.
Talca The home station, where trains begin daily at 7:30 and 16:45 Chilean time Colín 12 km from Talca, its name was derived from a bird, once abundant. Rauquén Former station before the bridge crossing the Claro River Corinto Formerly known as Pocoa, it is 27 km from Talca and named after a Greek businessman. El Morro Named for Morro de Arica, in a similar area, it is near the mouth of the Light and Loncomilla Rivers. Curtiduría The first train on the line ran from Talca. Los Llocos The station, 36 km from Talca, is in a village of the same name. Tricahue 38 km from Talca, in a former monastery El Peumo 41 km from Talca. González Bastías The midpoint of the line, the station was known as Infiernillo. Toconey 48 km from Talca and known as San Antonio and Tanhuao, it is one of the ramal's busiest stations. Pichamán Oriente 50.5 km from Talca Pichamán 52 km from Talca Los Romeros One of the busiest stations, 55 km from Talca Los Maquis 57.5 km from Talca Forel 62 km from Talca, it owes its current name to Swiss biologist François-Alphonse Forel.
Huinganes 68 km from Talca, it is one of the line's best-preserved stations and was named after a shrub, abundant in the area. Los Digüeñes The fifth-from-last station Maquehua 74 km from Talca Astillero 78 km from Talca Banco de Arena 83 km from Talca, it was the terminus of the line until 1912. Constitución Terminus of the line, trains depart at the same time as from Talca. González Bastías is a small town, it is an obligatory stop for trains in both directions, since there is only one track and they must pass each other. During the stop-over, people buy rescoldo: a hearty bread with pork sausage and hard-boiled eggs; the station is a storehouse for abandoned railcars. González Bastías was known as Infiernillo for its summer heat and winter isolation; the town was renamed in honor of
Colonialism is the policy of a nation seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories with the aim of opening trade opportunities. The colonizing country seeks to benefit from the colonized land mass. In the process, colonizers imposed their religion and medicinal practices on the natives; some argue this was a positive move toward modernization, while other scholars counter that this is an intrinsically Eurocentric rationalization, given that modernization is itself a concept introduced by Europeans. Colonialism is regarded as a relationship of domination of an indigenous majority by a minority of foreign invaders where the latter rule in pursuit of its interests. Early records of colonization go as far back as Phoenicians, an enterprising maritime trading culture that spread across the Mediterranean from 1550 BC to 300 BC and the Greeks and Persians continued on this line of setting up colonies; the Romans would soon follow, setting up colonies throughout the Mediterranean, Northern Africa, Western Asia.
In the 9th century a new wave of Mediterranean colonization had begun between competing states such as the Islamic Ottomans and the Venetians and Amalfians, invading the wealthy Byzantine or Eastern Roman islands and lands. Venice began with the conquest of Dalmatia and reached its greatest nominal extent at the conclusion of the Fourth Crusade in 1204, with the declaration of the acquisition of three octaves of the Byzantine Empire. In the 15th century some European states established their own empires during the European colonial period; the Belgian, Danish, French, Russian and Swedish empires established colonies across large areas. Imperial Japan, the Ottoman Empire and the United States acquired colonies, as did imperialist China and in the late 19th century the German and the Italian. At first, European colonizing countries followed policies of mercantilism, in order to strengthen the home economy, so agreements restricted the colonies to trading only with the metropole. By the mid-19th century, the British Empire gave up mercantilism and trade restrictions and adopted the principle of free trade, with few restrictions or tariffs.
Christian missionaries were active in all of the colonies because the Colonialists were Christians. Historian Philip Hoffman calculated that by 1800, before the Industrial Revolution, Europeans controlled at least 35% of the globe, by 1914, they had gained control of 84%. In the aftermath of World War II, the archetypal European colonial system ended between 1945–1975, when nearly all Europe's colonies gained political independence. Collins English Dictionary defines colonialism as "the policy and practice of a power in extending control over weaker peoples or areas". Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary defines colonialism as "the system or policy of a nation seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories"; the Merriam-Webster Dictionary offers four definitions, including "something characteristic of a colony" and "control by one power over a dependent area or people". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy "uses the term'colonialism' to describe the process of European settlement and political control over the rest of the world, including the Americas and parts of Africa and Asia".
It discusses the distinction between colonialism and imperialism and states that "given the difficulty of distinguishing between the two terms, this entry will use colonialism as a broad concept that refers to the project of European political domination from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries that ended with the national liberation movements of the 1960s". In his preface to Jürgen Osterhammel's Colonialism: A Theoretical Overview, Roger Tignor says "For Osterhammel, the essence of colonialism is the existence of colonies, which are by definition governed differently from other territories such as protectorates or informal spheres of influence." In the book, Osterhammel asks, "How can'colonialism' be defined independently from'colony?'" He settles on a three-sentence definition: Colonialism is a relationship between an indigenous majority and a minority of foreign invaders. The fundamental decisions affecting the lives of the colonized people are made and implemented by the colonial rulers in pursuit of interests that are defined in a distant metropolis.
Rejecting cultural compromises with the colonized population, the colonizers are convinced of their own superiority and their ordained mandate to rule. Historians distinguish between various overlapping forms of colonialism, which are classified into four types: settler colonialism, exploitation colonialism, surrogate colonialism, internal colonialism. Settler colonialism involves large-scale immigration motivated by religious, political, or economic reasons, it pursues to replace the original population. Here, a large number of people emigrate to the colony for the purpose of staying and cultivating the land. Australia, Israel, South Africa, the United States are all examples of current settler colonial societies. Exploitation colonialism involves fewer colonists and focuses on the exploitation of natural resources or population as labor to the benefit of the metropole; this category includes trading posts as well as larger colonies where colonists would constitute much of the political and economic administration.
Prior to the end of the slave trade and widespread abolition, when indigenous labor was unavailable, slaves were imported to the Americas, first by the Portuguese Empire, by the Spanish, Dutch and British. Surrogate colonialism involves a set
Chilean War of Independence
The Chilean War of Independence was a war between pro-independence Chilean criollos seeking political and economic independence from Spain and royalist criollos supporting continued allegiance to the Captaincy General of Chile and membership of the Spanish Empire. Traditionally, the beginning of the war is dated as September 18, 1810. Depending on what terms are used to define its end, it lasted until 1821, when royalist forces were defeated by José de San Martín. A declaration of independence was issued by Chile on February 12, 1818 and formally recognized by Spain in 1844, when full diplomatic relations were established; the Chilean War of Independence was part of the more aroused Spanish American wars of independence. Independence did not have unanimous support among Chileans, who were divided between independentists and royalists. What started as a political movement among elites against the colonial power, ended as a full-fledged civil war. Traditionally, the process is divided into three stages: the Patria Vieja, 1810–1814.
At the start of 1808, the Captaincy General of Chile – one of the smallest and poorest colonies in the Spanish Empire – was under the administration of Luis Muñoz de Guzmán, an able and well-liked Royal Governor. In May 1808 the overthrow of Charles IV and Ferdinand VII, their replacement by Joseph Bonaparte and the start of the Peninsular War plunged the empire into a state of agitation. In the meantime, Chile was facing its own internal political problems. Governor Guzmán had died in February of that year and the crown had not been able to appoint a new governor before the invasion. After a brief interim regency by Juan Rodríguez Ballesteros, according to the succession law in place at the time, the position was laid claim to and assumed by the most senior military commander, who happened to be Brigadier Francisco García Carrasco. García Carrasco took over the post of Governor of Chile in April and in August the news of the Napoleonic invasion of Spain and of the conformation of a Supreme Central Junta to govern the Empire in the absence of a legitimate king reached the country.
In the meantime, Charlotte Joaquina, sister of Ferdinand and wife of the King of Portugal, living in Brazil made attempts to obtain the administration of the Spanish dominions in Latin America. Since her father and brother were being held prisoners in France, she regarded herself as the heiress of her captured family. Among her plan was to send armies to occupy Buenos Aires and northern Argentina and to style herself as Queen of La Plata. Brigadier García Carrasco was a man of crude and authoritarian manners, who managed in a short time to alienate the criollo elites under his command. In Chile, as in most of Latin America, there had been some independence agitation but minimal and concentrated in the ineffectual Conspiracy of the Tres Antonios back in 1781; the majority of the people were fervent royalists but were divided into two groups: those who favored the status quo and the divine right of Ferdinand VII and those who wanted to proclaim Charlotte Joaquina as Queen. A third group was composed of those who proposed the replacement of the Spanish authorities with a local junta of notable citizens, which would conform a provisional government to rule in the absence of the king and an independent Spain.
In 1809, Governor García Carrasco himself was implicated in a flagrant case of corruption that managed to destroy whatever remnants of moral authority he or his office had left. From that moment on the pressure for his removal began to build. In June 1810 news arrived from Buenos Aires that Napoleon Bonaparte's forces had conquered Andalusia and laid siege to Cádiz, the last redoubt against the French on Spanish soil. Moreover, the Supreme Central Junta, which had governed the Empire for the past two years, had abolished itself in favor of a Regency Council. García Carrasco, a supporter of the carlotist group, managed to magnify the political problems by taking arbitrary and harsh measures, such as the arrest and deportation to Lima without due process of well-known and prominent citizens under simple suspicions of having been sympathetic to the junta idea. Among those arrested were José Antonio de Rojas, Juan Antonio Ovalle and Bernardo de Vera y Pintado. Inspired by the May Revolution in Argentina, the autonomy movement had propagated through the criollo elite.
They resented the illegal arrests and, together with the news that Cádiz was all, left of a free Spain solidified in their opposition to the Governor. Brigadier García Carrasco was suspended from office and forced to resign on July 16, 1810, to be in turn replaced by the next most senior soldier, Mateo de Toro Zambrano Count of la Conquista though a legitimate Governor, Francisco Javier de Elío, had been appointed by the Viceroy of Peru. Count Toro Zambrano was, by all standards, a unorthodox selection, he was a old man and moreover a "criollo" as opposed to a "peninsular". After his appointment in July, the juntistas began to lobby him in order to obtain the formation of a junta. In August the Royal Appeals Court took a public loyalty oath to the Regency Council in front of a massive audience, which put added pressure on the Governor to define himself. After vacillating for some time over which party to follow, Toro Zambrano agreed to hold an open Cabildo meeting in Santiago
Chilean wine has a long history for a New World wine region, as it was the 16th century when the Spanish conquistadors brought Vitis vinifera vines with them as they colonized the region. In the mid-19th century, French wine varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Carmenère and Franc were introduced. In the early 1980s, a renaissance began with the introduction of stainless steel fermentation tanks and the use of oak barrels for aging. Wine exports grew quickly as quality wine production increased; the number of wineries has grown from 12 in 1995 to over 70 in 2005. A large number of French people immigrated to Chile during the late 20th century, bringing more vinicultural knowledge to the country. Chile is now the fifth largest exporter of wines in the world, the seventh largest producer; the climate has been described as midway between that of France. The most common grapes are Cabernet Sauvignon and Carmenère. So far Chile has remained free of the phylloxera louse, which means that the country's grapevines do not need to be grafted with phylloxera-resistant rootstocks.
European Vitis vinifera vines were brought to Chile by Spanish conquistadors and missionaries in the 16th century around 1554. Local legend states; the vines most came from established Spanish vineyards planted in Peru which included the "common black grape", as it was known, that Hernán Cortés brought to Mexico in 1520. This grape variety would become the ancestor of the planted Pais grape that would be the most planted Chilean grape till the 21st century. Jesuit priests cultivated these early vineyards, using the wine for the celebration of the Eucharist. By the late 16th century, the early Chilean historian Alonso de Ovalle described widespread plantings of "the common black grape", Torontel and Mollar. During the Spanish rule, vineyards were restricted in production with the stipulation that the Chilean should purchase the bulk of their wines directly from Spain itself. In 1641, wine imports from Chile and the Viceroyalty of Peru into Spain were banned damaging the wine industry in the colony.
The market loss caused the huge surplus of grapes to be made into aguardiente. The concentration on pisco production, nearly eliminated wine production in Peru. For the most part the Chileans ignored these restrictions, preferring their domestic production to the oxidized and vinegary wines that didn't fare well during the long voyages from Spain, they were so bold as to start exporting some of their wines to neighboring Peru with one such export shipment being captured at sea by the English privateer Francis Drake. When Spain heard of the event rather than being outraged at Drake, an indictment was sent back to Chile with the order to uproot most of their vineyards; this order, was ignored. In the 18th century, Chile was known for its sweet wines made from the Pais and Muscatel grapes. To achieve a high level of sweetness the wines were boiled which concentrated the grape must. Following his shipwreck off the coast at Cape Horn, Admiral John Byron traveled across Chile and came back to England with a glowing review of Chilean Muscatel comparing it favorably to Madeira.
The 19th century wine writer André Jullien was not as impressed, comparing Chilean wines to a "potion of rhubarb and senna". Despite being politically linked to Spain, Chile's wine history has been most profoundly influenced by French Bordeaux, winemaking. Prior to the phylloxera epidemic, wealthy Chilean landowners were influenced by their visits to France and began importing French vines to plant. Don Silvestre Errázuriz was the first, importing Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet franc, Sauvignon blanc and Sémillon, he hired a French oenologist to oversee his vineyard planting and to produce wine in the Bordeaux style. Errázuriz saw potential in Chile and experimented with the German wine grape Riesling. In events that parallel those of the Rioja wine region, the entrance of phylloxera into the French wine world turned into a positive event for the Chilean wine industry. With vineyards in ruin, many French winemakers traveled to South America, bringing their experience and techniques with them. At the time, Don Silvestre Ochagavía Echazarreta founded Ochagavia Wines in 1851 and Don Maximiano Errázuriz founded Viña Errázuriz in 1870, bringing and using grapes from France.
Chilean wine exports to Argentina were hampered by the lack of effective land transport and a series of war scares. This situation changed after the Pactos de Mayo were signed in 1902 and the inauguration of the Transandine Railway in 1909, making war unlikely and trade across the Andes easy. Governments agreed to sign a free trade agreement. Argentine winegrowers association, Centro Vitivinícola Nacional, dominated by European immigrants, protested vigorously against the free trade agreement since Chilean wines were considered a threat to the local industry; the complaints of Argentine wine growers in conjunction with that of cattle farmers in Chile ended up tearing down the plans for a free trade agreement. Political instability in the 20th century, coupled with bureaucratic regulations and high taxes tempered the growth of the Chilean wine industry. Prior to the 1980s, the vast majority of Chilean wine was considered low quality and consumed domestically; as awareness of Chile's favorable growing conditions for viticulture increased so did foreign investment in Chilean wineries.
This period saw many technical advances in winemaking as Chile earned a reputation for reasonably priced premium quality wines. Chile began to export extensively, becoming the third leading exporter, after France and Italy, into the United