E. Thomas Lawson
Ernest Thomas Lawson is an honorary professor at the Institute of Cognition and Culture at Queen's University Belfast. He is the executive editor of the Journal of Cognition and Culture and co-founder of the North American Association for the Study of Religion, he is a founding member and has served as the first President of the International Association for the Cognitive Science of Religion. Lawson is considered to be the founder of the cognitive science of religion field, he has published the books Religions of Africa: Traditions in Transformation and, with Robert N. McCauley, Rethinking Religion: Connecting Cognition and Culture and Bringing Ritual to Mind: Psychological Foundations of Ritual Forms, he played a leading role in the establishment of departments of religion at public universities in the United States during the 1960s. A festschrift in his honor, Religion as a Human Capacity: A Festschrift in Honor of E. Thomas Lawson, was published in 2004, he is Emeritus Professor of Comparative Religion at Western Michigan University.
Lawson is a "Senior Researcher and Distinguished Professor in Residence" at LEVYNA at Masaryk University in Brno, Czech Republic. In addition to his research activities Lawson is an avid painter, science fiction reader, bird watcher. Institute of Cognition and Culture International Association for the Cognitive Science of Religion LEVYNA
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Cora Du Bois
Cora Alice Du Bois was an American cultural anthropologist and a key figure in culture and personality studies and in psychological anthropology more generally. Du Bois was born in New York City on October 26, 1903 to Mattie Schreiber Du Bois and Jean Du Bois, immigrants to the U. S. from Switzerland. She spent most of her childhood in New Jersey, she spent a year studying library science at the New York Public Library and attended Barnard College, graduating with a B. A. in history in 1927. She earned an M. A. in history from Columbia University in 1928. Encouraged by an anthropology course taught by Ruth Benedict and Franz Boas at Columbia, DuBois moved to California to study anthropology with Native American specialists Alfred L. Kroeber and Robert Lowie, she received her Ph. D. in anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley in 1932. In part due to prejudices against women academics, she was unable to find a university position, she remained at Berkeley as a teaching fellow and research assistant from 1932 to 1935.
She conducted salvage ethnography on several Native American groups of northern California and the Pacific Northwest, including the Wintu Indians of northern California. She published The 1870 Ghost Dance in 1939, a study of a religious movement among Native Americans in the Western U. S. In 1935, Du Bois received a National Research Council Fellowship to undertake clinical training and explore possible collaborations between anthropology and psychiatry, she spent six months at the Boston Psychopathic Hospital, now the Massachusetts Mental Health Center, six months at the New York Psychoanalytic Society. In New York she worked with psychiatrist Abram Kardiner, who became her mentor and collaborator for several projects in cross-cultural diagnosis and the psychoanalytic study of culture. Du Bois taught at Hunter College in 1936-1937 while developing a fieldwork project to test their new ideas. From 1937 to 1939, DuBois lived and conducted research on the island of Alor, part of the Netherlands East Indies, now Indonesia.
She collected detailed case studies, life-history interviews, administered various personality tests, which she interpreted in collaboration with Kardiner and published as The People of Alor: A Social-Psychological Study of an East Indian Island in 1944. One of her major theoretical advances in this work was the concept of "modal personality structure". With this notion she modified earlier ideas in the Culture and Personality school of anthropology on "basic personality structure" by demonstrating that, while there is always individual variation within a culture, each culture favors the development of a particular type or types, which will be the most common within that culture, her work influenced other psychiatric anthropologists, including Robert I. Levy, with his person-centered ethnography, Melford Spiro. Like many other American social scientists during World War II, DuBois served as a member of the Office of Strategic Services working in the Research and Analysis Branch as Chief of the Indonesia section.
In 1944 she moved to Ceylon to serve as chief of research and analysis for the Army's Southeast Asia Command. There she began a lesbian relationship with Jeanne Taylor, another OSS employee, they lived together as a couple and in the mid-1950s they visited Paul and Julia Child in Paris. DuBois and Taylor, "her companion," according to her Harvard Library biographer, "enjoyed an active social life" in the 1970s, she left the OSS after World War II and from 1945 to 1949 was Southeast Asia Branch Chief in the State Department's Office of Intelligence Research. In 1950, she declined an appointment to succeed Kroeber as head of the anthropology department at Berkeley rather than sign the California Loyalty Oath required of all faculty members. DuBois worked for the World Health Organization in 1950-51. In 1954, she accepted an appointment at Harvard University as the second person to hold the Zimurray Chair at Radcliffe College, she was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1955.
She was the first woman tenured in Harvard's Anthropology Department and the second woman tenured in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences at Harvard. She conducted research between 1961 and 1967 in the temple city of Bhubaneswar in the Indian state of Orissa, where a number of graduate students in Anthropology and Social Relations conducted fieldwork. DuBois was president of the American Anthropological Association in 1968-69 and of the Association for Asian Studies in 1969-70, the first woman to be allowed that honor. In 1970 she retired from Harvard but continued teaching as Professor-at-large at Cornell University and for one term at the University of California, San Diego, she died in Brookline, Massachusetts, on April 7, 1991. Most of her research materials and personal papers are held in Tozzer Library at Harvard University; some are in the Regenstein Library at the University of Chicago. Abram Kardiner, psychiatrist Ralph Linton, anthropologist Jean Briggs and psychological anthropologist, Canadian Inuit Richard Taub, sociologist Richard A. Shweder, cultural anthropologist and cultural psychologist, Orissa Seymour, Susan C..
Cora Du Bois: anthropologist, agent. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 9780803274303. Du Bois, Cora A; the Feather Cult of the Middle Columbia. Menasha, WI: George Banta Publishing Company. Du Bois, Cora A; the 1870 Ghost Dance. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Du Bois, C. A; the people of Alor. With analyses by Abram Kardiner and Emil Oberholzer. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Du Bois, Cora (1959
Gregory Bateson was an English anthropologist, social scientist, visual anthropologist and cyberneticist whose work intersected that of many other fields. In the 1940s, he helped extend cybernetics to the social and behavioral sciences, he spent the last decade of his life developing a "meta-science" of epistemology to bring together the various early forms of systems theory developing in different fields of science. His writings include Steps to an Ecology of Mind and Nature. Angels Fear was co-authored by his daughter Mary Catherine Bateson. In Palo Alto, California and his colleagues Donald Jackson, Jay Haley and John H. Weakland developed the double-bind theory. Bateson's interest in systems theory and cybernetics forms a thread running through his work, he was one of the original members of the core group of the Macy conferences in Cybernetics, the set on Group Processes, where he represented the social and behavioral sciences. Bateson was interested in the relationship of these fields to epistemology.
His association with the editor and author Stewart Brand helped to widen his influence. From the 1970s until his last years, a broader audience of university students and educated people working in many fields came to know his thought. In 1956, he became a naturalised citizen of the United States. Bateson was a member of William Irwin Thompson's Lindisfarne Association. In the 1970s, he taught at the Humanistic Psychology Institute in San Francisco, he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1976. In 1976, California Governor Jerry Brown appointed Bateson to the Regents of the University of California, in which position he served until his death, he died on 1980, in the guest house of the San Francisco Zen Center. Bateson was born in Grantchester in Cambridgeshire, England, on 9 May 1904, he was the third and youngest son of Beatrice Durham and the distinguished geneticist William Bateson. He was named Gregory after Gregor Mendel, the Austrian monk who founded the modern science of genetics.
The younger Bateson attended Charterhouse School from 1917 to 1921, obtained a Bachelor of Arts in biology at St. John's College, Cambridge, in 1925, continued at Cambridge from 1927 to 1929. Bateson lectured in linguistics at the University of Sydney in 1928. From 1931 to 1937, he was a Fellow of St. John's College, spent the years before World War II in the South Pacific in New Guinea and Bali doing anthropology. During 1936–1950, he was married to Margaret Mead. At that time he applied his knowledge to the war effort before moving to the United States. Bateson's life, according to Lipset, was affected by the death of his two brothers. John Bateson, the eldest of the three, was killed in World War I. Martin Bateson, the second brother, was expected to follow in his father's footsteps as a scientist, but came into conflict with his father over his ambition to become a poet and playwright; the resulting stress, combined with a disappointment in love, resulted in Martin's public suicide by gunshot under the statue of Anteros in Piccadilly Circus on 22 April 1922, John's birthday.
After this event, which transformed a private family tragedy into public scandal, all William and Beatrice's ambitious expectations fell on Gregory, their only surviving son. Bateson's first marriage, in 1936, was to American cultural anthropologist Margaret Mead. Bateson and Mead had a daughter, Mary Catherine Bateson, who became an anthropologist. Bateson separated from Mead in 1947, they were divorced in 1950. In 1951, he married his second wife Elizabeth "Betty" Sumner, the daughter of the Episcopalian Bishop of Oregon, Walter Taylor Sumner, they had a son, John Sumner Bateson, as well as twins who died shortly after birth in 1953. Bateson and Sumner were divorced in 1957, after which Bateson married his third wife, the therapist and social worker Lois Cammack, in 1961, they had Nora Bateson. Bateson was a lifelong atheist; the 2014 novel Euphoria by Lily King is a fictionalized account of Bateson's relationships with Mead and Reo Fortune in pre-WWII New Guinea. Where others might see a set of inexplicable details, Bateson perceived simple relationships.
In "From Versailles to Cybernetics," Bateson argues that the history of the twentieth century can be perceived as the history of a malfunctioning relationship. In his view, the Treaty of Versailles exemplifies a whole pattern of human relationships based on betrayal and hate, he therefore claims that the treaty of Versailles and the development of cybernetics—which for him represented the possibility of improved relationships—are the only two anthropologically important events of the twentieth century. Although reluctant to join the intelligence services, Bateson served in OSS during World War II along with dozens of other anthropologists, he was stationed in the same offices as Julia Child, Paul Cushing Child, others. He spent much of the war designing'black propaganda' radio broadcasts, he was deployed on covert operations in Burma and Thailand, worked in China and Ceylon as well. Bateson used his theory of schismogenesis to help foster discord among enemy fighters, he was upset by his wartime experience and disagreed with his wife over whether
Georges Devereux was a Hungarian-French ethnologist and psychoanalyst considered the founder of ethnopsychiatry. He was born into a Jewish family in the Austria-Hungary, his family moved to France following World War I. He studied the Malayan language in Paris. In 1933 he changed his name to Georges Devereux. At that time, he traveled for the first time to the United States to do fieldwork among the Mohave Indians, completing his doctorate in anthropology at University of California at Berkeley in 1936. In the postwar years, Devereux became a psychoanalyst, working with the Winter Veterans Hospital and Menninger Clinic in Topeka, Kansas, he treated Native Americans by drawing on his anthropology background. A pioneer, he is "well regarded among French and American scholars interested in psychoanalytic anthropology". Devereux taught at several colleges in the United States, returning to Paris about 1962 at the invitation of anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss, he was appointed as director of studies of Section VI at the noted École pratique des hautes études in Paris, where he worked from 1963 to 1981.
In addition, he had a private clinical practice. Devereux published more than 400 texts. In 1993 the Centre George Devereux was founded in his honor at the University of Paris 8 Saint-Denis, to offer care to students and people in the community, his 1951 work and Dream, about his ethnopsychoanalysis of a Native American Blackfoot man, was adapted as a French film, Jimmy P: Psychotherapy of a Plains Indian and directed by Arnaud Desplechin. George Devereux is buried in the Colorado River Indian Tribes cemetery in Arizona; the land is the CRIT reservation. He was born György Dobó in 1908, in Lugoj, the Banat, now in Romania and part of Austria-Hungary, his family was Hungarian bourgeois. His father was a lawyer, his mother of ethnic German Jewish background. Devereux had a rather difficult relationship with his mother, he said that the "insincerity of the adults", their "lack of respect for the world of the children" was a formative experience of his childhood and youth. His cousin was Edward Teller.
As a youngster growing up in that imperial and cosmopolitan world, in France, Dobó learned and spoke four languages: Hungarian, Romanian and French. He studied piano as a youth but, after an unsuccessful operation to correct a problem with his hand, had to give up his dream of performing professionally, his older brother committed suicide. Following the breakup of Austria-Hungary after World War I, the Dobó family left Romania for France; as a youth, Georgy studied physics with Marie Curie in Paris. He was looking for ` subjective' truth in music. In his writings, he referred to notions taken from the natural sciences, he had to interrupt his studies. After recovering, Dobó moved to Germany, to begin an apprenticeship in a publishing house, he returned to Paris upon completion and, taking a new direction, he enrolled at the École des langues orientales, known as INALCO, where he studied the Malay language, qualifying in 1931. He became a pupil of Marcel Mauss and Paul Rivet in anthropology, graduating from the Institut d'ethnologie.
He befriended Klaus Mann. During this period, Dobó wrote a novel, Le faune dans l’enfer bourgeois, which has not been published. From 1931 to 1935, Dobó worked at the Musee d'histoire naturelle as a junior researcher. After completing his licence ès lettres, he received a grant/scholarship in 1932 from the Rockefeller Foundation in New York to do fieldwork in the United States, he moved to the southwest, doing fieldwork among the Mohave, Hopi and Cocopa in the California and Arizona areas. His early days in the United States proved to be difficult. "Among the young American anthropologists with whom he collaborated during his preparative stage he encountered only distrust and contempt. This was the first of five periods when he studied them, he noted. He learned, he said they "converted him to Freud". In 1933 György Dobó converted to Catholicism, adopted the French name of Georges Devereux; as part of his anthropology work, he traveled to Indochina to live among and study the Sedang Moi. Devereux completed his PhD in anthropology in 1936 at the University of California-Berkeley, working under Alfred Kroeber.
Interested in the use of dreams, Devereux decided to study psychoanalysis, still a new field of study in the United States. He was analyzed by Robert Jokl, he completed his analytical training in 1952 at the Topeka Institute of Psychoanalysis in Kansas, now part of the Menninger Clinic. In the early 21st century, the Clinic moved to Houston and became affiliated with Baylor College of Medicine. From 1945 to 1953 Devereux was associated with the Winter Veterans Hospital in Topeka as ethnologist and research director, he treated and studied several Native Americans suffering from mental illness in this period, including Jimmy Picard, a Blackfoot whom he wrote about. He drew from his anthropology background to treat these men. From 1953 to 1955 Devereux worked in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania with children and teenagers at the Devereux School. In 1956 he was appointed as professor of ethnopsychiatr
Caen, is a commune in northwestern France. It is the prefecture of the Calvados department; the city proper has 108,365 inhabitants, while its urban area has 420,000, making Caen the largest city in former Lower Normandy. It is the third largest municipality in all of Normandy after Le Havre and Rouen and the third largest city proper in Normandy, after Rouen and Le Havre; the metropolitan area of Caen, in turn, is the second largest in Normandy after that of Rouen, the 21st largest in France. It is located 15 kilometres inland from the English Channel, 200 kilometres north-west of Paris, connected to the south of England by the Caen--Portsmouth ferry route. Caen is located in the centre of its northern region, it is a centre of political and cultural power. Located a few miles from the coast, the landing beaches, the bustling resorts of Deauville and Cabourg, Norman Switzerland and Pays d'Auge, Caen is considered the archetype of Normandy. Caen is known for its historical buildings built during the reign of William the Conqueror, buried there, for the Battle for Caen—heavy fighting that took place in and around Caen during the Battle of Normandy in 1944, destroying much of the city.
The city has now preserved the memory by erecting a memorial and a museum dedicated to peace, the Mémorial de Caen. Current arms: Gules, a single-towered open castle Or, windowed and masoned sable. Under the Ancien Régime: Per fess and azure, 3 fleurs de lys Or. During the First French Empire: Gules, a single-towered castle Or, a chief of Good Imperial Cities. Today, Caen has no motto; as a result, its spelling has not been updated: Un Dieu, un Roy, une Foy, une Loy. This motto is reflected in a notable old Chant royal. Caen's home port code is CN. In 1346, King Edward III of England led his army against the city, it was expected that a siege of several weeks would be required, but the army took the city in less than a day, on 26 July 1346, storming and sacking it, killing 3,000 of its citizens, burning much of the merchants' quarter on the Ile Ste-Jean. During the attack, English officials searched its archives and found a copy of the 1339 Franco-Norman plot to invade England, devised by Philip VI of France and Normandy.
This was subsequently used as propaganda to justify the supplying and financing of the conflict and its continuation. Only the castle of Caen held out, despite attempts to besiege it. A few days the English left, marching to the east and on to their victory at the Battle of Crécy, it was captured by Henry V in 1417 and treated harshly for being the first town to put up any resistance to his invasion. During the Battle of Normandy in the Second World War, Caen was liberated from the Nazis in early July, a month after the Normandy landings those by British I Corps on 6 June 1944. British and Canadian troops had intended to capture the town on D-Day; however they were held up north of the city until 9 July, when an intense bombing campaign during Operation Charnwood destroyed 70% of the city and killed 2,000 French civilians. The Allies seized the western quarters, a month than Field Marshal Montgomery's original plan. During the battle, many of the town's inhabitants sought refuge in the Abbaye aux Hommes, built by William the Conqueror some 800 years before.
Both the cathedral and the university were destroyed by the British and Canadian bombing. Post-Second World War work included the reconstruction of complete districts of the city and the university campus, it led to the current urbanization of Caen. Having lost many of its historic quarters and its university campus in the war, the city does not have the atmosphere of a traditional Normandy town such as Honfleur, Cabourg and Bayeux; the Canadian Army Film and Photo Unit filmed the D-Day offensive and Orne breakout several weeks then returned several months to document the city's recovery efforts. The resulting film, is preserved in the National Archives of Canada; the first mentions of the name of Caen are found in different acts of the dukes of Normandy: Cadon 1021/1025, Cadumus 1025, Cathim 1026/1027. Year 1070 of the Parker manuscript of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle refers to Caen as Kadum, year 1086 of the Laud manuscript gives the name as Caþum. Despite a lack of sources as to the origin of the settlements, the name Caen would seem to be of Gaulish origin, from the words catu-, referring to military activities and magos, hence meaning "manoeuvre field" or "battlefield".
In Layamon's Brut, the poet asserts. Caen is in an area of high humidity; the Orne River flows through the city, as well as small rivers known as les Odons, most of which have been buried under the city to improve urban hygiene. Caen has a large flood zone, named "La prairie", located around the hippodrome, not far from the River Orne, submerged. Caen is 10 km from the Channel. A canal parallel to the Orne was built during the reign of Napoleon III to link the city to the sea at all times; the canal reaches the English Channel at Ouistreham. A lock keeps the tide out of the canal and lets large ships navigate up the canal to Caen's freshwater harbours. Caen has an oceanic climate, somewhat ameliorated due to its inland position. In spite of this, summers are still cool by French standards and the climate is maritime in terms of high precipitation modest
Cultural anthropology is a branch of anthropology focused on the study of cultural variation among humans. It is in contrast to social anthropology, which perceives cultural variation as a subset of the anthropological constant. Cultural anthropology has a rich methodology, including participant observation and surveys. One of the earliest articulations of the anthropological meaning of the term "culture" came from Sir Edward Tylor who writes on the first page of his 1871 book: "Culture, or civilization, taken in its broad, ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, art, law and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." The term "civilization" gave way to definitions given by V. Gordon Childe, with culture forming an umbrella term and civilization becoming a particular kind of culture; the anthropological concept of "culture" reflects in part a reaction against earlier Western discourses based on an opposition between "culture" and "nature", according to which some human beings lived in a "state of nature".
Anthropologists have argued that culture is "human nature", that all people have a capacity to classify experiences, encode classifications symbolically, teach such abstractions to others. Since humans acquire culture through the learning processes of enculturation and socialization, people living in different places or different circumstances develop different cultures. Anthropologists have pointed out that through culture people can adapt to their environment in non-genetic ways, so people living in different environments will have different cultures. Much of anthropological theory has originated in an appreciation of and interest in the tension between the local and the global; the rise of cultural anthropology took place within the context of the late 19th century, when questions regarding which cultures were "primitive" and which were "civilized" occupied the minds of not only Marx and Freud, but many others. Colonialism and its processes brought European thinkers into direct or indirect contact with "primitive others."
The relative status of various humans, some of whom had modern advanced technologies that included engines and telegraphs, while others lacked anything but face-to-face communication techniques and still lived a Paleolithic lifestyle, was of interest to the first generation of cultural anthropologists. Parallel with the rise of cultural anthropology in the United States, social anthropology, in which sociality is the central concept and which focuses on the study of social statuses and roles, groups and the relations among them—developed as an academic discipline in Britain and in France; the umbrella term socio-cultural anthropology draws upon both cultural and social anthropology traditions. Anthropology is concerned with the lives of people in different parts of the world in relation to the discourse of beliefs and practices. In addressing this question, ethnologists in the 19th century divided into two schools of thought. Some, like Grafton Elliot Smith, argued that different groups must have learned from one another somehow, however indirectly.
Other ethnologists argued that different groups had the capability of creating similar beliefs and practices independently. Some of those who advocated "independent invention", like Lewis Henry Morgan, additionally supposed that similarities meant that different groups had passed through the same stages of cultural evolution. Morgan, in particular, acknowledged that certain forms of society and culture could not have arisen before others. For example, industrial farming could not have been invented before simple farming, metallurgy could not have developed without previous non-smelting processes involving metals. Morgan, like other 19th century social evolutionists, believed there was a more or less orderly progression from the primitive to the civilized. 20th-century anthropologists reject the notion that all human societies must pass through the same stages in the same order, on the grounds that such a notion does not fit the empirical facts. Some 20th-century ethnologists, like Julian Steward, have instead argued that such similarities reflected similar adaptations to similar environments.
Although 19th-century ethnologists saw "diffusion" and "independent invention" as mutually exclusive and competing theories, most ethnographers reached a consensus that both processes occur, that both can plausibly account for cross-cultural similarities. But these ethnographers pointed out the superficiality of many such similarities, they noted that traits that spread through diffusion were given different meanings and function from one society to another. Analyses of large human concentrations in big cities, in multidisciplinary studies by Ronald Daus, show how new methods may be applied to the understanding of man living in a global world and how it was caused by the action of extra-European nations, so highlighting the role of Ethics in modern anthropology. Accordingly, most of these anthropologists showed less interest in comparing cultures, generalizing about human nature, or discovering universal laws of cultural development, than in understanding particular cultures in those cultures' own terms.
Such ethnographers and their students promoted the idea of "cultural relativi