The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol e− or β−, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge. Electrons belong to the first generation of the lepton particle family, are thought to be elementary particles because they have no known components or substructure; the electron has a mass, 1/1836 that of the proton. Quantum mechanical properties of the electron include an intrinsic angular momentum of a half-integer value, expressed in units of the reduced Planck constant, ħ; as it is a fermion, no two electrons can occupy the same quantum state, in accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle. Like all elementary particles, electrons exhibit properties of both particles and waves: they can collide with other particles and can be diffracted like light; the wave properties of electrons are easier to observe with experiments than those of other particles like neutrons and protons because electrons have a lower mass and hence a longer de Broglie wavelength for a given energy. Electrons play an essential role in numerous physical phenomena, such as electricity, magnetism and thermal conductivity, they participate in gravitational and weak interactions.
Since an electron has charge, it has a surrounding electric field, if that electron is moving relative to an observer, it will generate a magnetic field. Electromagnetic fields produced from other sources will affect the motion of an electron according to the Lorentz force law. Electrons absorb energy in the form of photons when they are accelerated. Laboratory instruments are capable of trapping individual electrons as well as electron plasma by the use of electromagnetic fields. Special telescopes can detect electron plasma in outer space. Electrons are involved in many applications such as electronics, cathode ray tubes, electron microscopes, radiation therapy, gaseous ionization detectors and particle accelerators. Interactions involving electrons with other subatomic particles are of interest in fields such as chemistry and nuclear physics; the Coulomb force interaction between the positive protons within atomic nuclei and the negative electrons without, allows the composition of the two known as atoms.
Ionization or differences in the proportions of negative electrons versus positive nuclei changes the binding energy of an atomic system. The exchange or sharing of the electrons between two or more atoms is the main cause of chemical bonding. In 1838, British natural philosopher Richard Laming first hypothesized the concept of an indivisible quantity of electric charge to explain the chemical properties of atoms. Irish physicist George Johnstone Stoney named this charge'electron' in 1891, J. J. Thomson and his team of British physicists identified it as a particle in 1897. Electrons can participate in nuclear reactions, such as nucleosynthesis in stars, where they are known as beta particles. Electrons can be created through beta decay of radioactive isotopes and in high-energy collisions, for instance when cosmic rays enter the atmosphere; the antiparticle of the electron is called the positron. When an electron collides with a positron, both particles can be annihilated, producing gamma ray photons.
The ancient Greeks noticed. Along with lightning, this phenomenon is one of humanity's earliest recorded experiences with electricity. In his 1600 treatise De Magnete, the English scientist William Gilbert coined the New Latin term electrica, to refer to those substances with property similar to that of amber which attract small objects after being rubbed. Both electric and electricity are derived from the Latin ēlectrum, which came from the Greek word for amber, ἤλεκτρον. In the early 1700s, Francis Hauksbee and French chemist Charles François du Fay independently discovered what they believed were two kinds of frictional electricity—one generated from rubbing glass, the other from rubbing resin. From this, du Fay theorized that electricity consists of two electrical fluids and resinous, that are separated by friction, that neutralize each other when combined. American scientist Ebenezer Kinnersley also independently reached the same conclusion. A decade Benjamin Franklin proposed that electricity was not from different types of electrical fluid, but a single electrical fluid showing an excess or deficit.
He gave them the modern charge nomenclature of negative respectively. Franklin thought of the charge carrier as being positive, but he did not identify which situation was a surplus of the charge carrier, which situation was a deficit. Between 1838 and 1851, British natural philosopher Richard Laming developed the idea that an atom is composed of a core of matter surrounded by subatomic particles that had unit electric charges. Beginning in 1846, German physicist William Weber theorized that electricity was composed of positively and negatively charged fluids, their interaction was governed by the inverse square law. After studying the phenomenon of electrolysis in 1874, Irish physicist George Johnstone Stoney suggested that there existed a "single definite quantity of electricity", the charge of a monovalent ion, he was able to estimate the value of this elementary charge e by means of Faraday's laws of electrolysis. However, Stoney could not be removed. In 1881, German physicist Hermann von Helmholtz argued that both positive and negative charges were divided into elementary parts, each of which "behaves like atoms of electricity".
Stoney coined the term
Setauket-East Setauket, New York
Setauket-East Setauket, more known as the Setaukets, is a census-designated place in Suffolk County, New York, on the North Shore of Long Island. As of the 2010 United States Census, the CDP population was 15,477; the CDP encompasses the hamlets of East Setauket. It was founded in the first settlement in what would become the Town of Brookhaven. Setauket was founded as an agricultural community in the mid-17th century, was a regional center of activity during the American Revolutionary War noted for the Culper spy ring and the Battle of Setauket. Many of Setauket's early structures now form the Old Setauket Historic District; the Setaukets remain a residential area, while bordering the more commercial enclaves of Port Jefferson and Stony Brook. The handful of businesses within the community cater to the over 24,500 students of Stony Brook University, adjacent to the CDP; the name Setauket is derived from the historic Algonquian-speaking Setalcott Indians, who had lived in the area prior to its colonial period.
In 1655, a handful of land-speculating colonists orchestrated the purchase of the Setauket area from the local natives. The region's first European settlers were English migrants from New England; this was the first settlement in what became the Town of Brookhaven, both the hamlet and town use the 1655 date as their origin. During the 17th century, Setauket was synonymous with the colonial town of Brookhaven. During the 1660s the settlement was temporarily renamed Ashford; this change was facilitated by Captain John Scott, a professional mercenary hired to clear out the Native American Indians, an early settler of Setauket and an important leader in Long Island's early history who served under the title of President of Long Island. A crafty land speculator, Scott claimed at one point to own a third of the island including the Setauket area. Despite the questionable nature of many of his claims, John Scott had enough power and support to rename Setauket for his ancestral homeland in England, Kent, to construct a stately home named Egerton.
John Woolman, a well known preacher and journalist, noted having attended a Quaker meeting at "Setawket" in the spring of 1747. In the American Revolutionary War, the 1777 Battle of Setauket was fought on the village green. At the time, Loyalists controlled Setauket and had fortified the Presbyterian church for use as their stronghold. A Patriot force led by General Samuel Holden Parsons sailed across the Long Island Sound from Fairfield, proposing to attack the Loyalists. Three hours of gunfire ensued before Parsons withdrew and returned to Connecticut with minimal casualties for either side. During the gunfight, Parsons' men took cover behind Patriots' Rock, which remains near the village green with a commemorative plaque; some of the bullets were embedded into the walls of the extant Caroline Church of Brookhaven. From 1778 to 1781, the Culper Spy Ring passed information about British troop movements gathered in New York City to George Washington; the spy ring consisted of Setauket residents, including its leader Benjamin Tallmadge and key agent Abraham Woodhull.
The Culper ring was successful and alerted Washington to such plots as a surprise attack on the newly allied French forces, a scheme to counterfeit Continental currency, the secret defection of a general in the Continental Army. Washington spent a night in Setauket during his 1790 tour of Long Island. During the British occupation, residents held religious services at the c.1729 Caroline Church while British forces occupied the Setauket Presbyterian Church. The pulpit of the Presbyterian church was destroyed and a number of gravestones from the surrounding cemetery were moved as part of the fortifications. Services resumed after the war until lightning hit the church in 1812; the Presbyterian church was rebuilt in 1812. The village green continues to be owned by both churches; the 19th century brought industry to East Setauket. Shipbuilding, which had begun as early as 1662, prospered as new shipyards populated the section of Setauket Harbor known as Dyers Neck; these supplemented larger operations in neighboring Port Jefferson.
Among the vessels built at Setauket were the Adorna in 1870 by David Brewster Bayles, the largest square-rigged sailing ship built on Long Island outside of Brooklyn. A likeness of the Adorna has pride of place today above the main entrance of Setauket's high school. Better known is the famous, or infamous, schooner yacht Wanderer built at Setauket in 1857 by William J. Rowland at the direction of captain Thomas B. Hawkins who would command her; the Wanderer was sold to new owners after her first cruise and they tried to have the vessel secretly converted into a slaver at Port Jefferson in 1858 employing outsiders but suspicious residents alerted authorities and the vessel was captured by the USS Harriet Lane off Port Jefferson as it attempted a hasty departure. Sadly, authorities in New York returned the vessel to its owners, she completed what is considered the last successful American slaving voyage to Africa, she did so without Captain Hawkins. What is less well known is that the Wanderer served in the Union navy during the Civil War as the USS Wanderer and captured two small blockade runners.
From 1876 until 1904, East Setauket ran a rubber factory for the Long Island Rubber Company. By the early 20th century, nearly all industrial activity withi
Edward Teller was a Hungarian-American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as "the father of the hydrogen bomb", although he did not care for the title. He made numerous contributions to nuclear and molecular physics and surface physics, his extension of Enrico Fermi's theory of beta decay, in the form of Gamow–Teller transitions, provided an important stepping stone in its application, while the Jahn–Teller effect and the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller theory have retained their original formulation and are still mainstays in physics and chemistry. Teller made contributions to Thomas–Fermi theory, the precursor of density functional theory, a standard modern tool in the quantum mechanical treatment of complex molecules. In 1953, along with Nicholas Metropolis, Arianna Rosenbluth, Marshall Rosenbluth, Augusta Teller, Teller co-authored a paper, a standard starting point for the applications of the Monte Carlo method to statistical mechanics. Throughout his life, Teller was known both for his scientific ability and for his difficult interpersonal relations and volatile personality.
Teller emigrated to the United States in the 1930s. He was an early member of the Manhattan Project, charged with developing the first atomic bomb. After his controversial testimony in the security clearance hearing of his former Los Alamos Laboratory superior, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Teller was ostracized by much of the scientific community, he continued to find support from the U. S. government and military research establishment for his advocacy for nuclear energy development, a strong nuclear arsenal, a vigorous nuclear testing program. He was a co-founder of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, was both its director and associate director for many years. In his years, Teller became known for his advocacy of controversial technological solutions to both military and civilian problems, including a plan to excavate an artificial harbor in Alaska using thermonuclear explosive in what was called Project Chariot, he was a vigorous advocate of Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. Ede Teller was born on January 1908, in Budapest, Austria-Hungary, into a Jewish family.
His parents were Ilona, a pianist, Miksa Teller, an attorney. He learned in the Fasori Lutheran Gymnasium in the Minta Gymnasium in Budapest. Jewish of origin in life Teller became an agnostic Jew. "Religion was not an issue in my family", he wrote, "indeed, it was never discussed. My only religious training came because the Minta required that all students take classes in their respective religions. My family celebrated the Day of Atonement, when we all fasted, yet my father said prayers for his parents on all the Jewish holidays. The idea of God that I absorbed was that it would be wonderful if He existed: We needed Him but had not seen Him in many thousands of years." Like Einstein and Feynman, Teller was a late talker. He developed the ability to speak than most children, but became interested in numbers, would calculate large numbers in his head for fun. Teller left Hungary in 1926 due to the discriminatory numerus clausus rule under Miklós Horthy's regime; the political climate and revolutions in Hungary during his youth instilled a lingering animosity for both Communism and Fascism in Teller.
When he was a young student, his right foot was severed in a streetcar accident in Munich, requiring him to wear a prosthetic foot, leaving him with a lifelong limp. Werner Heisenberg said that it was the hardiness of Teller's spirit, rather than stoicism, that allowed him to cope so well with the accident. Teller graduated in chemical engineering at the University of Karlsruhe, received in 1930 his Ph. D. in physics under Werner Heisenberg at the University of Leipzig. Teller's dissertation dealt with one of the first accurate quantum mechanical treatments of the hydrogen molecular ion. In 1930 he befriended Russian physicists Lev Landau. Teller's lifelong friendship with a Czech physicist, George Placzek, was very important for his scientific and philosophical development, it was Placzek who arranged a summer stay in Rome with Enrico Fermi in 1932, thus orienting Teller's scientific career in nuclear physics. In 1930, Teller moved to the University of Göttingen one of the world's great centers of physics due to the presence of Max Born and James Franck, but after Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in January 1933, Germany became unsafe for Jewish people, he left through the aid of the International Rescue Committee.
He went to England, moved for a year to Copenhagen, where he worked under Niels Bohr. In February 1934, he married his long-time girlfriend Augusta Maria "Mici" Harkanyi, the sister of a friend, he returned to England in September 1934. Mici had been a student in Pittsburgh, wanted to return to the United States, her chance came in 1935, thanks to George Gamow, Teller was invited to the United States to become a Professor of Physics at George Washington University, where he worked with Gamow until 1941. At George Washington University in 1937, Teller predicted the Jahn–Teller effect, which distorts molecules in certain situations. Teller and Hermann Arthur Jahn analyzed it as a piece of purely mathematical physics. In collaboration with
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the observable universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution. The model describes how the universe expanded from a high-density and high-temperature state, offers a comprehensive explanation for a broad range of phenomena, including the abundance of light elements, the cosmic microwave background, large scale structure and Hubble's law. If the observed conditions are extrapolated backwards in time using the known laws of physics, the prediction is that just before a period of high density there was a singularity, associated with the Big Bang. Physicists are undecided whether this means the universe began from a singularity, or that current knowledge is insufficient to describe the universe at that time. Detailed measurements of the expansion rate of the universe place the Big Bang at around 13.8 billion years ago, thus considered the age of the universe. After its initial expansion, the universe cooled sufficiently to allow the formation of subatomic particles, simple atoms.
Giant clouds of these primordial elements coalesced through gravity forming early stars and galaxies, the descendants of which are visible today. Astronomers observe the gravitational effects of dark matter surrounding galaxies. Though most of the mass in the universe seems to be in the form of dark matter, Big Bang theory and various observations seem to indicate that it is not made out of conventional baryonic matter but it is unclear what it is made out of. Since Georges Lemaître first noted in 1927 that an expanding universe could be traced back in time to an originating single point, scientists have built on his idea of cosmic expansion; the scientific community was once divided between supporters of two different theories, the Big Bang and the Steady State theory, but a wide range of empirical evidence has favored the Big Bang, now universally accepted. In 1929, from analysis of galactic redshifts, Edwin Hubble concluded that galaxies are drifting apart. In 1964, the cosmic microwave background radiation was discovered, crucial evidence in favor of the Big Bang model, since that theory predicted the existence of background radiation throughout the universe before it was discovered.
More measurements of the redshifts of supernovae indicate that the expansion of the universe is accelerating, an observation attributed to dark energy's existence. The known physical laws of nature can be used to calculate the characteristics of the universe in detail back in time to an initial state of extreme density and temperature. In 1922, Russian mathematician Alexander Friedmann proposed on theoretical grounds that the universe is expanding, rederived independently and observationally confirmed soon afterwards by Belgian astronomer and Catholic priest Georges Lemaître in 1927 Lemaître proposed what became known as the "Big Bang theory" of the creation of the universe calling it the "hypothesis of the primeval atom".: in his paper Annales de la Société Scientifique de Bruxelles under the title "Un Univers homogène de masse constante et de rayon croissant rendant compte de la vitesse radiale des nébuleuses extragalactiques", he presented his new idea that the universe is expanding and provided the first observational estimation of what is known as the Hubble constant.
What will be known as the "Big Bang theory" of the origin of the universe, he called his "hypothesis of the primeval atom" or the "Cosmic Egg". American astronomer Edwin Hubble observed that the distances to faraway galaxies were correlated with their redshifts; this was interpreted to mean that all distant galaxies and clusters are receding away from our vantage point with an apparent velocity proportional to their distance: that is, the farther they are, the faster they move away from us, regardless of direction. Assuming the Copernican principle, the only remaining interpretation is that all observable regions of the universe are receding from all others. Since we know that the distance between galaxies increases today, it must mean that in the past galaxies were closer together; the continuous expansion of the universe implies that the universe was denser and hotter in the past. Large particle accelerators can replicate the conditions that prevailed after the early moments of the universe, resulting in confirmation and refinement of the details of the Big Bang model.
However, these accelerators can only probe so far into high energy regimes. The state of the universe in the earliest instants of the Big Bang expansion is still poorly understood and an area of open investigation and speculation; the first subatomic particles to be formed included protons and electrons. Though simple atomic nuclei formed within the first three minutes after the Big Bang, thousands of years passed before the first electrically neutral atoms formed; the majority of atoms produced by the Big Bang were hydrogen, along with helium and traces of lithium. Giant clouds of these primordial elements coalesced through gravity to form stars and galaxies, the heavier elements were synthesized either within stars or during supernovae; the Big Bang theory offers a comprehensive explanation for a broad range of observed phenomena
Ukraine, sometimes called the Ukraine, is a country in Eastern Europe. Excluding Crimea, Ukraine has a population of about 42.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. Its capital and largest city is Kiev. Ukrainian is the official language and its alphabet is Cyrillic; the dominant religions in the country are Greek Catholicism. Ukraine is in a territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula, which Russia annexed in 2014. Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2, making it the largest country within Europe and the 46th largest country in the world; the territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC. During the Middle Ages, the area was a key centre of East Slavic culture, with the powerful state of Kievan Rus' forming the basis of Ukrainian identity. Following its fragmentation in the 13th century, the territory was contested and divided by a variety of powers, including Lithuania, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Russia. A Cossack republic emerged and prospered during the 17th and 18th centuries, but its territory was split between Poland and the Russian Empire, merged into the Russian-dominated Soviet Union in the late 1940s as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.
In 1991 Ukraine gained its independence from the Soviet Union in the aftermath of its dissolution at the end of the Cold War. Before its independence, Ukraine was referred to in English as "The Ukraine", but most sources have since moved to drop "the" from the name of Ukraine in all uses. Following its independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state. In 2013, after the government of President Viktor Yanukovych had decided to suspend the Ukraine-European Union Association Agreement and seek closer economic ties with Russia, a several-months-long wave of demonstrations and protests known as the Euromaidan began, which escalated into the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that led to the overthrow of Yanukovych and the establishment of a new government; these events formed the background for the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014, the War in Donbass in April 2014. On 1 January 2016, Ukraine applied the economic component of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area with the European Union.
Ukraine is ranks 88th on the Human Development Index. As of 2018, Ukraine has the second lowest GDP per capita in Europe. At US$40, it has the lowest median wealth per adult in the world, it suffers from a high poverty rate and severe corruption. However, because of its extensive fertile farmlands, Ukraine is one of the world's largest grain exporters. Ukraine maintains the second-largest military in Europe after that of Russia; the country is home to a multi-ethnic population, 77.8 percent of whom are Ukrainians, followed by a large Russian minority, as well as Georgians, Belarusians, Crimean Tatars, Jews and Hungarians. Ukraine is a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers: legislative and judicial branches; the country is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, the GUAM organization, one of the founding states of the Commonwealth of Independent States. There are different hypotheses as to the etymology of the name Ukraine. According to the older widespread hypothesis, it means "borderland", while some more recent linguistic studies claim a different meaning: "homeland" or "region, country"."The Ukraine" used to be the usual form in English, but since the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine, "the Ukraine" has become less common in the English-speaking world, style-guides recommend not using the definite article.
"The Ukraine" now implies disregard for the country's sovereignty, according to U. S. ambassador William Taylor. The Ukrainian position is that the usage of "'The Ukraine' is incorrect both grammatically and politically." Neanderthal settlement in Ukraine is seen in the Molodova archaeological sites which include a mammoth bone dwelling. The territory is considered to be the location for the human domestication of the horse. Modern human settlement in Ukraine and its vicinity dates back to 32,000 BC, with evidence of the Gravettian culture in the Crimean Mountains. By 4,500 BC, the Neolithic Cucuteni–Trypillia culture flourished in wide areas of modern Ukraine including Trypillia and the entire Dnieper-Dniester region. During the Iron Age, the land was inhabited by Cimmerians and Sarmatians. Between 700 BC and 200 BC it was Scythia. Beginning in the sixth century BC, colonies of Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome and the Byzantine Empire, such as Tyras and Chersonesus, were founded on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea.
These colonies thrived well into the 6th century AD. The Goths stayed in the area but came under the sway of the Huns from the 370s AD. In the 7th century AD, the territory of eastern Ukraine was the centre of Old Great Bulgaria. At the end of the century, the majority of Bulgar tribes migrated in different directions, the Khazars took over much of the land. In the 5th and 6th centuries, the Antes were located in the territory of; the Antes were the ancestors of Ukrainians: White Croats, Polans, Dulebes and Tiverians. Migrations from Ukraine throughout the Balkans established many Southern Slavic nations. Northern migrations, reaching to the Ilmen l
The Cavendish Laboratory is the Department of Physics at the University of Cambridge, is part of the School of Physical Sciences. The laboratory was opened in 1874 on the New Museums Site as a laboratory for experimental physics and is named after the British chemist and physicist Henry Cavendish; the laboratory has had a huge influence on research in the disciplines of biology. The laboratory moved to its present site in West Cambridge in 1974; as of 2011, 29 Cavendish researchers have won Nobel Prizes. Notable discoveries to have occurred at the Cavendish Laboratory include the discovery of the electron and structure of DNA; the Cavendish Laboratory was located on the New Museums Site, Free School Lane, in the centre of Cambridge. It is named after British chemist and physicist Henry Cavendish for contributions to science and his relative William Cavendish, 7th Duke of Devonshire, who served as chancellor of the university and donated funds for the construction of the laboratory. Professor James Clerk Maxwell, the developer of electromagnetic theory, was a founder of the laboratory and the first Cavendish Professor of Physics.
The Duke of Devonshire had given to Maxwell, as head of the laboratory, the manuscripts of Henry Cavendish's unpublished Electrical Works. The editing and publishing of these was Maxwell's main scientific work while he was at the laboratory. Cavendish's work aroused Maxwell's intense admiration and he decided to call the Laboratory the Cavendish Laboratory and thus to commemorate both the Duke and Henry Cavendish. Several important early physics discoveries were made here, including the discovery of the electron by J. J. Thomson the Townsend discharge by John Sealy Townsend, the development of the cloud chamber by C. T. R. Wilson. Ernest Rutherford became Director of the Cavendish Laboratory in 1919. Under his leadership the neutron was discovered by James Chadwick in 1932, in the same year the first experiment to split the nucleus in a controlled manner was performed by students working under his direction. Physical Chemistry had left the old Cavendish site, subsequently locating as the Department of Physical Chemistry in the new chemistry building with the Department of Chemistry in Lensfield Road: both chemistry departments merged in the 1980s.
In World War II the laboratory carried out research for the MAUD Committee, part of the British Tube Alloys project of research into the atomic bomb. Researchers included Nicholas Kemmer, Alan Nunn May, Anthony French, Samuel Curran and the French scientists including Lew Kowarski and Hans von Halban. Several transferred to Canada in 1943; the production of plutonium and neptunium by bombarding uranium-238 with neutrons was predicted in 1940 by two teams working independently: Egon Bretscher and Norman Feather at the Cavendish and Edwin M. McMillan and Philip Abelson at Berkeley Radiation Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley; the Cavendish Laboratory has had an important influence on biology through the application of X-ray crystallography to the study of structures of biological molecules. Francis Crick worked in the Medical Research Council Unit, headed by Max Perutz and housed in the Cavendish Laboratory, when James Watson came from the United States and they made a breakthrough in discovering the structure of DNA.
For their work while in the Cavendish Laboratory, they were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1962, together with Maurice Wilkins of King's College London, himself a graduate of St. John's College, Cambridge; the discovery was made on 28 February 1953. Sir Lawrence Bragg, the director of the Cavendish Laboratory, where Watson and Crick worked, gave a talk at Guy's Hospital Medical School in London on Thursday 14 May 1953 which resulted in an article by Ritchie Calder in the News Chronicle of London, on Friday 15 May 1953, entitled "Why You Are You. Nearer Secret of Life." The news reached readers of The New York Times the next day. The article ran in an early edition and was pulled to make space for news deemed more important.. The Cambridge University undergraduate newspaper Varsity ran its own short article on the discovery on Saturday 30 May 1953. Bragg's original announcement of the discovery at a Solvay Conference on proteins in Belgium on 8 April 1953 went unreported by the British press.
Sydney Brenner, Jack Dunitz, Dorothy Hodgkin, Leslie Orgel, Beryl M. Oughton, were some of the first people in April 1953 to see the model of the structure of DNA, constructed by Crick and Watson. All were impressed by the new DNA model Brenner who subsequently worked with Crick at Cambridge in the Cavendish Laboratory and the new Laboratory of Molecular Biology. According to the late Dr. Beryl Oughton Rimmer, they all travelled together in two cars once Dorothy Hodgkin announced to them that they were off to Cambridge to see the model of the structure of DNA. Orgel later worked with Crick at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies. Due to overcrowding in the old buildings, it moved to its present site in West Cambridge in the early 1970s
A physicist is a scientist who specializes in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe. Physicists are interested in the root or ultimate causes of phenomena, frame their understanding in mathematical terms. Physicists work across a wide range of research fields, spanning all length scales: from sub-atomic and particle physics, through biological physics, to cosmological length scales encompassing the universe as a whole; the field includes two types of physicists: experimental physicists who specialize in the observation of physical phenomena and the analysis of experiments, theoretical physicists who specialize in mathematical modeling of physical systems to rationalize and predict natural phenomena. Physicists can apply their knowledge towards solving practical problems or to developing new technologies; the study and practice of physics is based on an intellectual ladder of discoveries and insights from ancient times to the present.
Many mathematical and physical ideas used today found their earliest expression in ancient Greek culture, for example in the work of Euclid, Thales of Miletus and Aristarchus. Roots emerged in ancient Asian culture and in the Islamic medieval period, for example the work of Alhazen in the 11th century; the modern scientific worldview and the bulk of physics education can be said to flow from the scientific revolution in Europe, starting with the work of Galileo Galilei and Johannes Kepler in the early 1600s. Newton's laws of motion and Newton's law of universal gravitation were formulated in the 17th century; the experimental discoveries of Faraday and the theory of Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism were developmental high points during the 19th century. Many physicists contributed to the development of quantum mechanics in the early-to-mid 20th century. New knowledge in the early 21st century includes a large increase in understanding physical cosmology; the broad and general study of nature, natural philosophy, was divided into several fields in the 19th century, when the concept of "science" received its modern shape.
Specific categories emerged, such as "biology" and "biologist", "physics" and "physicist", "chemistry" and "chemist", among other technical fields and titles. The term physicist was coined by William Whewell in his 1840 book The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences. A standard undergraduate physics curriculum consists of classical mechanics and magnetism, non-relativistic quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, laboratory experience. Physics students need training in mathematics, in computer science. Any physics-oriented career position requires at least an undergraduate degree in physics or applied physics, while career options widen with a Master's degree like MSc, MPhil, MPhys or MSci. For research-oriented careers, students work toward a doctoral degree specializing in a particular field. Fields of specialization include experimental and theoretical astrophysics, atomic physics, biological physics, chemical physics, condensed matter physics, geophysics, gravitational physics, material science, medical physics, molecular physics, nuclear physics, radiophysics, electromagnetic field and microwave physics, particle physics, plasma physics.
The highest honor awarded to physicists is the Nobel Prize in Physics, awarded since 1901 by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. National physics professional societies have many awards for professional recognition. In the case of the American Physical Society, as of 2017, there are 33 separate prizes and 38 separate awards in the field; the three major employers of career physicists are academic institutions and private industries, with the largest employer being the last. Physicists in academia or government labs tend to have titles such as Assistants, Professors, Sr./Jr. Scientist, or postdocs; as per the American Institute of Physics, some 20% of new physics Ph. D.s holds jobs in engineering development programs, while 14% turn to computer software and about 11% are in business/education. A majority of physicists employed apply their skills and training to interdisciplinary sectors. Job titles for graduate physicists include Agricultural Scientist, Air Traffic Controller, Computer Programmer, Electrical Engineer, Environmental Analyst, Medical Physicist, Oceanographer, Physics Teacher/Professor/Researcher, Research Scientist, Reactor Physicist, Engineering Physicist, Satellite Missions Analyst, Science Writer, Software Engineer, Systems Engineer, Microelectronics Engineer, Radar Developer, Technical Consultant, etc.
A majority of Physics terminal bachelor's degree holders are employed in the private sector. Other fields are academia and military service, nonprofit entities and teaching. Typical duties of physicists with master's and doctoral degrees working in their domain involve research and analysis, data preparation, instrumentation and development of industrial or medical equipment and software development, etc. Chartered Physicist is a chartered status and a professional qualification awarded by the Institute of Physics, it is denoted by the postnominals "CPhys". Achieving chartered status in any profession denotes to the wider community a high level of specialised subject knowledge and professional competence. According to the Institute of Physics, holders of the award of the Chartered Physicist demonst