Automobiles Ettore Bugatti was a French car manufacturer of high-performance automobiles, founded in 1909 in the German city of Molsheim, Alsace by Italian-born Ettore Bugatti. Bugatti cars were known for their beauty and for their many race victories. Famous Bugattis include the Type 35 Grand Prix cars, the Type 41 Royale, the Type 57 Atlantic and the Type 55 sports car. The death of Ettore Bugatti in 1947 proved to be the end for the marque, no more than about 8,000 cars were made. The company struggled financially, and released one last model in the 1950s, in the 1990s, an Italian entrepreneur revived it as a builder of limited production exclusive sports cars. Today, the name is owned by German automobile manufacturing group Volkswagen, the company was known both for the level of detail of its engineering in its automobiles, and for the artistic manner in which the designs were executed, given the artistic nature of Ettores family. During the war Ettore Bugatti was sent away, initially to Milan and to Paris and he exhibited three light cars, all of them closely based on their pre-war equivalents, and each fitted with the same overhead camshaft 4-cylinder 1, 368cc engine with four valves per cylinder.
Smallest of the three was a Type 13 with a body and using a chassis with a 2,000 mm wheelbase. The others were a Type 22 and a Type 23 with wheelbases of 2,250 and 2,400 mm respectively, the company enjoyed great success in early Grand Prix motor racing, in 1929 a privately entered Bugatti won the first ever Monaco Grand Prix. Racing success culminated with driver Jean-Pierre Wimille winning the 24 hours of Le Mans twice, Bugatti cars were extremely successful in racing. The little Bugatti Type 10 swept the top four positions at its first race, the 1924 Bugatti Type 35 is probably the most successful racing car of all time, with over 2,000 wins. The Type 35 was developed by Bugatti with master engineer and racing driver Jean Chassagne who drove it in the car’s first ever Grand Prix in 1924 Lyon, Bugattis swept to victory in the Targa Florio for five years straight from 1925 through 1929. Louis Chiron held the most podiums in Bugatti cars, and the modern marque revival Bugatti Automobiles S. A. S.
named the 1999 Bugatti 18/3 Chiron concept car in his honour. But it was the racing success at Le Mans that is most remembered—Jean-Pierre Wimille and Pierre Veyron won the 1939 race with just one car. In the 1930s, Ettore Bugatti got involved in the creation of a racer airplane and this would be the Bugatti 100P, which never flew. It was designed by Belgian engineer Louis de Monge who had already applied Bugatti Brescia engines in his Type 7.5 lifting body, Ettore Bugatti designed a successful motorised railcar, the Autorail Bugatti. The death of Ettore Bugattis son, Jean Bugatti, on 11 August 1939 marked a point in the companys fortunes. Jean died while testing a Type 57 tank-bodied race car near the Molsheim factory, World War II left the Molsheim factory in ruins and the company lost control of the property
1963 Formula One season
The 1963 Formula One season was the 17th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 14th FIA World Championship of Drivers, the sixth International Cup for F1 Manufacturers, the World Championship commenced on 26 May 1963, and ended on 28 December after ten races. Jim Clark won his first championship with seven wins to two by Graham Hill and one by John Surtees in a revised Ferrari. However, unlike 1963 which only consisted of ten races, both the 1984 and 1988 seasons consisted of 16 races giving Clark a better winning ratio than either Prost or Senna. The ATS venture, founded by workers, a complete disaster which ruined Phil Hills Grand Prix career, was unrelated to the late 1970s German operation which was marginally more successful. The following teams and drivers competed in the 1963 FIA World Championship, points were awarded on a 9–6–4–3–2–1 basis at each round, with only the best six round results retained. Italics indicate fastest lap Bold indicates pole position ‡ No points awarded as Hills car was pushed at the start line, points were awarded on a 9–6–4–3–2–1 basis at each round with only the best six round results retained.
Only the best placed car from each manufacturer at each round was eligible to score points, Bold results counted to championship totals. ‡ No points awarded as Hills car was pushed at the start line, other Formula One races were held in 1963, which did not count towards the World Championship
Formula One is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been the form of racing since the inaugural season in 1950. The formula, designated in the name, refers to a set of rules, the F1 season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, held worldwide on purpose-built F1 circuits and public roads. The results of each race are evaluated using a system to determine two annual World Championships, one for drivers, one for constructors. The racing drivers are required to be holders of valid Super Licences, the races are required to be held on tracks graded 1, the highest grade a track can receive by the FIA. Most events are held in locations on purpose-built tracks, but there are several events in city centres throughout the world. Formula One cars are the fastest road racing cars in the world. Formula One cars race at speeds of up to approximately 375 km/h with engines currently limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 RPM, the cars are capable of lateral acceleration in excess of five g in corners.
The performance of the cars is very dependent on electronics – although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008 – and on aerodynamics, the formula has radically evolved and changed through the history of the sport. F1 had a global television audience of 425 million people during the course of the 2014 season. Grand Prix racing began in 1906 and became the most popular internationally in the second half of the twentieth century. The Formula One Group is the holder of the commercial rights. Its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, since 2000 the sports spiraling expenditures and the distribution of prize money favoring established top teams have forced complaints from smaller teams and led several teams to bankruptcy. On 23 January 2017 it was confirmed that Liberty Media had completed its $8 billion acquisition of Delta Topco, the Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1920s and 1930s.
The formula is a set of rules that all cars must meet. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958, national championships existed in South Africa and the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for years, but due to the increasing cost of competition
Ferrari 312 P
The Ferrari 312 P was a Group 6 Prototype-Sports Car used for racing in 1969 and 1970. The new 1971 version of the prototype came with a flat-12 engine. Many publications added the letter B after the P of its name to indicate its engine type, after boycotting sports car racing in 1968 to protest a rule change that banned their 4-litre 330 P4, Ferrari built a 3000cc prototype in 1969, the 312 P. It was hardly more than a 3-litre F1 Ferrari 312 with open Barchetta, the first registered race was at the 12 Hours of Sebring in 1969. Ferrari started only one 312 P. Mario Andretti got pole position and this raised hopes for a prospective Ferrari victory. At the ensuing test weekend at Le Mans, a different car,0870, and it was clear that better aerodynamics were necessary. The 0870 raced at the BOAC500 in Brands Hatch, at 1000km Monza, Chris Amon took the pole with the 312 P spider, ahead of Jo Sifferts 908-01, but had to retire. The 312 P was not entered in the second Italian race, the Targa Florio, at the 1000 km Spa race, a 312 P was second behind the Siffert/Redman 908-01LH.
Two 312 Ps were entered in the 196924 Hours of Le Mans and they were fifth and sixth on the grid, but didnt finish. During the 1969 season, the appearance of the Porsche 917 had made clear only a similar new 5-litre car would be able to challenge it. Since mid-1969, Ferrari spent some of the millions earned in the Fiat deal for the construction of the series of 25 new 5-litre V12 Group 5 sports cars. At the end of the season the two remaining 312 Ps were sold to Luigi Chinettis North American Racing Team, since the European branch of Ferrari racing would rely on the Ferrari 512 in 1970. The 312 Ps returned to Europe for the 197024 Hours of Le Mans, the car was among the 16 cars still running at the end
John Surtees, CBE was an English Grand Prix motorcycle road racer and Formula One driver. He founded the Surtees Racing Organisation team that competed as a constructor in Formula One, Formula 2 and he was the ambassador of the Racing Steps Foundation. Surtees was the son of a south London motorcycle dealer and he had his first professional outing, which they won, in the sidecar of his fathers Vincent. However, when officials discovered Surteess age, they were disqualified. He entered his first race at 15 in a grasstrack competition, in 1950, at the age of 16, he went to work for the Vincent factory as an apprentice. He made his first headlines in 1951 when he gave Norton star Geoff Duke a strong challenge in an ACU race at the Thruxton Circuit, in 1955, Norton race chief Joe Craig gave Surtees his first factory sponsored ride aboard the Nortons. He finished the year by beating reigning world champion Duke at Silverstone, in 1956 Surtees won the 500cc world championship, MV Agustas first in the senior class.
In this Surtees was assisted by the FIMs decision to ban the defending champion, Geoff Duke, in the 1957 season, the MV Agustas were no match for the Gileras and Surtees battled to a third-place finish aboard a 1957 MV Agusta 500 Quattro. When Gilera and Moto Guzzi pulled out of Grand Prix racing at the end of 1957, Surtees and MV Agusta went on to dominate the competition in the two larger displacement classes. In 1958,1959 and 1960, he won 32 out of 39 races, in 1960, at the age of 26, Surtees switched from motorcycles to cars full-time, making his Formula 1 debut racing in the 1960 BRDC International Trophy at Silverstone for Team Lotus. On 25 September 1965, Surtees had an accident at the Mosport Circuit while practising in a Lola T70 sports racing car. A front upright casting had broken, baime in his book Go Like Hell says Surtees came out of the crash with one side of his body four inches shorter than the other. Doctors set most of the breaks nonsurgically, in part by physically stretching his body until the right-left discrepancy was under an inch –.
The 1966 season saw the introduction of new, larger 3-litre engines to Formula One, Surteess debut with Ferraris new F1 car was at the 1966 BRDC International Trophy at Silverstone, where he qualified and finished a close second behind Jack Brabhams 3-litre Brabham BT19. A few weeks later, Surtees led the Monaco Grand Prix, pulling away from Jackie Stewarts 2-litre BRM on the straights, a fortnight Surtees survived the first lap rainstorm which eliminated half the field and won the Belgian Grand Prix. Due to perennial strikes in Italy, Ferrari could afford to enter two cars for the 196624 Hours of Le Mans instead of its usual entry of three prototypes. Under Le Mans rules in 1966 each car was allowed only two drivers, Surtees was omitted from the line-up and one team Ferrari was to be driven by Mike Parkes and Ludovico Scarfiotti and the other by Jean Guichet and Lorenzo Bandini. This excuse was deeply upsetting to Surtees, and he quit the team
Naples is the capital of the Italian region Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy, after Rome and Milan. In 2015, around 975,260 people lived within the administrative limits. The Metropolitan City of Naples had a population of 3,115,320, Naples is the 9th-most populous urban area in the European Union with a population of between 3 million and 3.7 million. About 4.4 million people live in the Naples metropolitan area, Naples is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. Bronze Age Greek settlements were established in the Naples area in the second millennium BC, a larger colony – initially known as Parthenope, Παρθενόπη – developed on the Island of Megaride around the ninth century BC, at the end of the Greek Dark Ages. Naples remained influential after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, thereafter, in union with Sicily, it became the capital of the Two Sicilies until the unification of Italy in 1861. Naples was the most-bombed Italian city during World War II, much of the citys 20th-century periphery was constructed under Benito Mussolinis fascist government, and during reconstruction efforts after World War II.
The city has experienced significant economic growth in recent decades, and unemployment levels in the city, Naples still suffers from political and economic corruption, and unemployment levels remain high. Naples has the fourth-largest urban economy in Italy, after Milan, Rome and it is the worlds 103rd-richest city by purchasing power, with an estimated 2011 GDP of US$83.6 billion. The port of Naples is one of the most important in Europe, numerous major Italian companies, such as MSC Cruises Italy S. p. A, are headquartered in Naples. The city hosts NATOs Allied Joint Force Command Naples, the SRM Institution for Economic Research, Naples is a full member of the Eurocities network of European cities. The city was selected to become the headquarters of the European institution ACP/UE and was named a City of Literature by UNESCOs Creative Cities Network, the Villa Rosebery, one of the three official residences of the President of Italy, is located in the citys Posillipo district. Naples historic city centre is the largest in Europe, covering 1,700 hectares and enclosing 27 centuries of history, Naples has long been a major cultural centre with a global sphere of influence, particularly during the Renaissance and Enlightenment eras.
In the immediate vicinity of Naples are numerous culturally and historically significant sites, including the Palace of Caserta, Naples is synonymous with pizza, which originated in the city. Neapolitan music has furthermore been highly influential, credited with the invention of the romantic guitar, according to CNN, the metro stop Toledo is the most beautiful in Europe and it won the LEAF Award 2013 as Public building of the year. Naples is the Italian city with the highest number of accredited stars from the Michelin Guide, Naples sports scene is dominated by football and Serie A club S. S. C. Napoli, two-time Italian champions and winner of European trophies, who play at the San Paolo Stadium in the south-west of the city, the Phlegraean Fields around Naples has been inhabited since the Neolithic period. The earliest Greek settlements were established in the Naples area in the second millennium BC, sailors from the Greek island of Rhodes established a small commercial port called Parthenope on the island of Megaride in the ninth century BC
Ferrari N. V. is an Italian sports car manufacturer based in Maranello. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1939 as Auto Avio Costruzioni, the company built its first car in 1940, however the companys inception as an auto manufacturer is usually recognized in 1947, when the first Ferrari-badged car was completed. Ferrari is the worlds most powerful according to Brand Finance. In May 2012 the 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO became the most expensive car in history, Fiat S. p. A. acquired 50 percent of Ferrari in 1969 and expanded its stake to 90 percent in 1988. In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles announced its intentions to separate Ferrari S. p. A. from FCA, through the remaining steps of the separation, FCAs interest in Ferraris business was distributed to shareholders of FCA, with 10 percent continuing to be owned by Piero Ferrari. The spin-off was completed on 3 January 2016, Ferrari road cars are generally seen as a symbol of speed and wealth. Enzo Ferrari was not initially interested in the idea of producing road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari in 1929, Scuderia Ferrari literally means Ferrari Stable and is usually used to mean Team Ferrari.
Ferrari bought and fielded Alfa Romeo racing cars for gentlemen drivers, in September 1939 Enzo Ferrari left Alfa Romeo under the provision that he would not use the Ferrari name in association with races or racing cars for at least four years. A few days he founded Auto Avio Costruzioni, headquartered in the facilities of the old Scuderia Ferrari, the new company ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft accessories. In 1940 Ferrari did in fact produce a race car – the Tipo 815 and it was the first Ferrari car and debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia, but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1943 the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained ever since, the factory was bombed by the Allies and subsequently rebuilt including a works for road car production. The first Ferrari-badged car was the 1947125 S, powered by a 1.5 L V12 engine, Enzo Ferrari reluctantly built, the Scuderia Ferrari name was resurrected to denote the factory racing cars and distinguish them from those fielded by customer teams.
In 1960 the company was restructured as a corporation under the name SEFAC S. p. A. Early in 1969, Fiat took a 50 percent stake in Ferrari, new model investment further up in the Ferrari range received a boost. In 1988, Enzo Ferrari oversaw the launch of the Ferrari F40, the last new Ferrari to be launched before his death that year, in 1989 the company was renamed as Ferrari S. p. A. From 2002 to 2004, Ferrari produced the Enzo, their fastest model at the time and it was to be called the F60, continuing on from the F40 and F50, but Ferrari was so pleased with it, they called it the Enzo instead. It was initially offered to loyal and reoccurring customers, each of the 399 made had a tag of $650,000 apiece. On 15 September 2012,964 Ferrari cars (worth over $162 million attended the Ferrari Driving Days event at Silverstone Circuit, on 29 October 2014, the FCA group, resulting from the merger between manufacturers Fiat and Chrysler, announced the split of its luxury brand, Ferrari
FCA US is one of the Big Three American automobile manufacturers. FCA US has its headquarters in Auburn Hills and sells vehicles worldwide under its flagship Chrysler brand, as well as the Dodge, other major divisions include Mopar, its automotive parts and accessories division, and SRT, its performance automobile division. The Chrysler Corporation was founded by Walter Chrysler in 1925, out of what remained of the Maxwell Motor Company, Chrysler greatly expanded in 1928, when Mr. The brand diversification efforts were inspired by Mr. Chryslers time working for General Motors, in the 1960s the company expanded into Europe, by taking control of French and Spanish auto companies, Chrysler Europe was sold in 1978 to PSA Peugeot Citroën for $1. Chrysler struggled through the 1970s to adapt to changing markets, increased US import competition, the company began an engineering partnership with Mitsubishi Motors, and began selling Mitsubishi vehicles branded as Dodge and Plymouth in North America.
By the late 1970s, Chrysler was on the verge of bankruptcy, New CEO Lee Iacocca was credited with returning the company to profitability in the 1980s. In 1985, Diamond-Star Motors was created, further expanding the Chrysler-Mitsubishi relationship, in 1987, Chrysler acquired American Motors Corporation, which brought the profitable Jeep brand under the Chrysler umbrella. Like the other Big Three automobile manufacturers, Chrysler was hit hard by the industry crisis of 2008–2010. On June 10,2009, Chrysler emerged from the proceedings with the United Auto Workers pension fund, Fiat S. p. A. The bankruptcy resulted in Chrysler defaulting on over $4 billion in debts, by May 24,2011, Chrysler finished repaying its obligations to the U. S. government five years early, although the cost to the American taxpayer was $1.3 billion. Over the next few years Fiat gradually acquired the other parties shares while removing much of the weight of the loans in a short period. On January 1,2014, Fiat S. p. A announced a deal to purchase the rest of Chrysler from the United Auto Workers retiree health trust.
The deal was completed on January 21,2014, making Chrysler Group a subsidiary of Fiat S. p. A, in May 2014, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, NV was established by merging Fiat S. p. A. into the company. This was completed in August 2014, Chrysler Group LLC remained a subsidiary until December 15,2014, when it was renamed FCA US LLC, to reflect the Fiat-Chrysler merger. The Chrysler company was founded by Walter Chrysler on June 6,1925, Walter Chrysler arrived at the ailing Maxwell-Chalmers company in the early 1920s. He was hired to overhaul the companys troubled operations, in late 1923 production of the Chalmers automobile was ended. In January 1924, Walter Chrysler launched the well-received Chrysler automobile, the Chrysler was a 6-cylinder automobile, designed to provide customers with an advanced, well-engineered car, but at a more affordable price than they might expect. The original 1924 Chrysler included an air filter, high compression engine, full pressure lubrication
Mechanical engineering is the discipline that applies the principles of engineering and materials science for the design, analysis and maintenance of mechanical systems. It is the branch of engineering that involves the design, production and it is one of the oldest and broadest of the engineering disciplines. The mechanical engineering field requires an understanding of areas including mechanics, thermodynamics, materials science, structural analysis. Mechanical engineering emerged as a field during the Industrial Revolution in Europe in the 18th century, Mechanical engineering science emerged in the 19th century as a result of developments in the field of physics. The field has evolved to incorporate advancements in technology, and mechanical engineers today are pursuing developments in such fields as composites, mechatronics. Mechanical engineers may work in the field of biomedical engineering, specifically with biomechanics, transport phenomena, bionanotechnology. Mechanical engineering finds its application in the archives of various ancient, in ancient Greece, the works of Archimedes deeply influenced mechanics in the Western tradition and Heron of Alexandria created the first steam engine.
In China, Zhang Heng improved a water clock and invented a seismometer, during the 7th to 15th century, the era called the Islamic Golden Age, there were remarkable contributions from Muslim inventors in the field of mechanical technology. Al-Jazari, who was one of them, wrote his famous Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices in 1206 and he is considered to be the inventor of such mechanical devices which now form the very basic of mechanisms, such as the crankshaft and camshaft. Newton was reluctant to publish his methods and laws for years, gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz is credited with creating Calculus during the same time frame. On the European continent, Johann von Zimmermann founded the first factory for grinding machines in Chemnitz, education in mechanical engineering has historically been based on a strong foundation in mathematics and science. Degrees in mechanical engineering are offered at universities worldwide. In Spain and most of South America, where neither B. Sc. nor B.
Tech, programs have been adopted, the formal name for the degree is Mechanical Engineer, and the course work is based on five or six years of training. In Italy the course work is based on five years of education, and training, in Greece, the coursework is based on a five-year curriculum and the requirement of a Diploma Thesis, which upon completion a Diploma is awarded rather than a B. Sc. In Australia, mechanical engineering degrees are awarded as Bachelor of Engineering or similar nomenclature although there are a number of specialisations. The degree takes four years of study to achieve. To ensure quality in engineering degrees, Engineers Australia accredits engineering degrees awarded by Australian universities in accordance with the global Washington Accord, before the degree can be awarded, the student must complete at least 3 months of on the job work experience in an engineering firm. Similar systems are present in South Africa and are overseen by the Engineering Council of South Africa
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
Turning is a machining process in which a cutting tool, typically a non-rotary tool bit, describes a helix toolpath by moving more or less linearly while the workpiece rotates. The tools axes of movement may be literally a straight line, or they may be along some set of curves or angles, but they are essentially linear. Usually the term turning is reserved for the generation of external surfaces by this cutting action, thus the phrase turning and boring categorizes the larger family of processes. The cutting of faces on the workpiece, whether with a turning or boring tool, is called facing, Turning can be done manually, in a traditional form of lathe, which frequently requires continuous supervision by the operator, or by using an automated lathe which does not. Today the most common type of automation is computer numerical control. When turning, a piece of rigid material is rotated. Turning can be either on the outside of the cylinder or on the inside to produce tubular components to various geometries and those types of turning processes can produce various shapes of materials such as straight, curved, or grooved workpiece.
In general, turning uses simple single-point cutting tools, each group of workpiece materials has an optimum set of tools angles which have been developed through the years. The bits of metal from turning operations are known as chips. In some areas they may be known as turnings, Turning specific operations include, Turning This operation is one of the most basic machining processes. That is, the part is rotated while a single point cutting tool is moved parallel to the axis of rotation, Turning can be done on the external surface of the part as well as internally. The starting material is generally a workpiece generated by processes such as casting, extrusion. Tapered turning a) from the compound slide b) from taper turning attachment c) using a hydraulic copy attachment d) using a C. N. C, Lathe e) using a form tool f) by the offsetting of the tailstock - this method more suited for shallow tapers. Spherical generation The proper expression for making or turning a shape is to generate as in to generate a form around an axis of revolution. A) using hydraulic copy attachment b) C. N.
C, Lathe c) using a form tool d) using bed jig. Hard turning Hard turning is a turning done on materials with a Rockwell C hardness greater than 45 and it is typically performed after the workpiece is heat treated. The process is intended to replace or limit traditional grinding operations, Hard turning, when applied for purely stock removal purposes, competes favorably with rough grinding. However, when it is applied for finishing where form and dimension are critical, grinding produces higher dimensional accuracy of roundness and cylindricity
New Zealand /njuːˈziːlənd/ is an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, or Te Ika-a-Māui, and the South Island, or Te Waipounamu—and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 1,500 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, the countrys varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealands capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland, sometime between 1250 and 1300 CE, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand, in 1840, representatives of Britain and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire, the majority of New Zealands population of 4.7 million is of European descent, the indigenous Māori are the largest minority, followed by Asians and Pacific Islanders. Reflecting this, New Zealands culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers. The official languages are English, Māori and New Zealand Sign Language, New Zealand is a developed country and ranks highly in international comparisons of national performance, such as health, economic freedom and quality of life. Since the 1980s, New Zealand has transformed from an agrarian, Queen Elizabeth II is the countrys head of state and is represented by a governor-general. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes, the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau, the Cook Islands and Niue, and the Ross Dependency, which is New Zealands territorial claim in Antarctica. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Pacific Islands Forum, and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation.
Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and called it Staten Landt, in 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand, Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand. It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the country before the arrival of Europeans. Māori had several names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South, in 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907, this was the accepted norm. The New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised and this set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, and South Island or Te Waipounamu