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Mausoleum at Halicarnassus

The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus or Tomb of Mausolus was a tomb built between 350 and 353 BC in Halicarnassus for Mausolus, a satrap in the Achaemenid Empire, his sister-wife Artemisia II of Caria. The structure was designed by the Greek architects Pythius of Priene, its elevated tomb structure is derived from the tombs of neighbouring Lycia, a territory Mausolus had invaded and annexed circa 360 BC, such as the Nereid Monument. The Mausoleum was 45 m in height, the four sides were adorned with sculptural reliefs, each created by one of four Greek sculptors: Leochares, Scopas of Paros, Timotheus; the finished structure of the mausoleum was considered to be such an aesthetic triumph that Antipater of Sidon identified it as one of his Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It was destroyed by successive earthquakes from the 12th to the 15th century, the last surviving of the six destroyed wonders; the word mausoleum has now come to be used generically for an above-ground tomb. In the 4th century BC, Halicarnassus was the capital of a small regional kingdom of Caria within the Achaemenid Empire on the western coast of Asia Minor.

In 377 BC, the nominal ruler of the region, Hecatomnus of Milas and left the control of the kingdom to his son, Mausolus. Hecatomnus, a local dynast under the Persians, took control of several of the neighboring cities and districts. After Artemisia and Mausolus, he had several other daughters and sons: Ada and Pixodarus. Mausolus extended his territory as far as the southwest coast of Anatolia, invading in particular the territory of Lycia, remarkable for its numerous monumental tombs such as the Tombs of Xanthos, from which he took his inspiration for his mausoleum. Artemisia and Mausolus ruled from Halicarnassus over the surrounding territory for 24 years. Mausolus, although descended from local people, spoke Greek and admired the Greek way of life and government, he encouraged Greek democratic traditions. Mausolus decided one as safe from capture as it was magnificent to be seen, he chose the city of Halicarnassus. Artemisia and Mausolus spent huge amounts of tax money to embellish the city.

They commissioned statues and buildings of gleaming marble. In 353 BC, Mausolus died; as the Persian satrap, as the Hecatomnid dynast, Mausolus had planned for himself an elaborate tomb. When he died the project was continued by his siblings; the tomb became so famous that Mausolus's name is now the eponym for all stately tombs, in the word mausoleum. Artemisia lived for only two years after the death of her husband; the urns with their ashes were placed in the yet unfinished tomb. As a form of sacrifice ritual the bodies of a large number of dead animals were placed on the stairs leading to the tomb, the stairs were filled with stones and rubble, sealing the access. According to the historian Pliny the Elder, the craftsmen decided to stay and finish the work after the death of their patron "considering that it was at once a memorial of his own fame and of the sculptor's art", it is that Mausolus started to plan the tomb before his death, as part of the building works in Halicarnassus, so that when he died, Artemisia continued the building project.

However, Artemisia spared no expense in building the tomb. She sent messengers to Greece to find the most talented artists of the time; these included Scopas, the man who had supervised the rebuilding of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. The famous sculptors were: Leochares, Bryaxis and Timotheus, as well as hundreds of other craftsmen; the tomb was erected on a hill overlooking the city. The whole structure sat in an enclosed courtyard. At the center of the courtyard was a stone platform on which the tomb sat. A stairway flanked by stone lions led to the top of the platform, which bore along its outer walls many statues of gods and goddesses. At each corner, stone warriors mounted on horseback guarded the tomb. At the center of the platform, the marble tomb rose as a square tapering block to one-third of the Mausoleum's 45 m height; this section was covered with bas-reliefs showing action scenes, including the battle of the centaurs with the lapiths and Greeks in combat with the Amazons, a race of warrior women.

On the top of this section of the tomb thirty-six slim columns, ten per side, with each corner sharing one column between two sides. Standing between each pair of columns was a statue. Behind the columns was a solid cella-like block that carried the weight of the tomb's massive roof; the roof, which comprised most of the final third of the height, was pyramidal. Perched on the top was a quadriga: four massive horses pulling a chariot in which rode images of Mausolus and Artemisia. Modern historians have pointed out that two years would not be enough time to decorate and build such an extravagant building. Therefore, it is believed that construction was begun by Mausolus before his death or continued by the next leaders; the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus resembled a temple and the only way to tell the difference was its higher outer walls. The Mausoleum was in the Greek-dominated area of Halicarnassus, which in 353 was controlled by the Achaemenid Empire. According to the Roman architect Vitruvius, it was built by Satyros and Pytheus who wrote a treatise about it.

Pausanias adds that the Romans considered the Mausoleum one of the great wonders of the world and it was for that reason that they called all their magnificent tombs mausolea, after it. It is unknown exact

Ice Cream (Hyuna song)

"Ice Cream" is a song recorded by South Korean singer Hyuna, it was taken from her second extended play, Melting. The song alternative features Maboos. On the day that the song was released, 22 October 2012, it was viewed two million times. Within four days, the music video for "Ice Cream" had reached eight million views on YouTube. Cube Entertainment released the video on YouTube. On 26 October, the video reached ten million views on YouTube, nine days faster than Gangnam Style, HyunA's first collaboration with PSY. There is an ongoing discussion concerning whether or not the video should have a nineteen-plus rating; the song has a "strong hiphop sound and unique rapping" from Hyuna. On 21 October 2012, the extended play Melting was leaked on a "foreign music site", a day before the EP's intended release; the song managed to reach first place on many music websites. The full music video was released at SBS MTV on October 21, at YouTube on October 22, 2012. At the start of the video, PSY is "gobbling up a few ice cream cones."

The song's music video features a cameo by South Korean rapper Psy. Hyuna had featured in the music video for PSY's "Gangnam Style"; the video featured a tattooed man and ice cream. Four days after its release, the music video tied the record for the K-idol music video to achieve ten million views on YouTube the fastest. Hyuna - vocals, rap Brave Brothers - producing, arranger, music "Ice Cream" Music Video Teaser on YouTube "Ice Cream" Music Video on YouTube

Davenport Downs Station

Davenport Downs Station is a pastoral lease that operates as a cattle station in Queensland. It is situated about 184 kilometres south east of Boulia and 262 kilometres north east of Birdsville in the channel country of Queensland. Davenport Downs is the largest cattle station in Queensland and the fourth largest station in Australia after Anna Creek station, Alexandria Station and Clifton Hills Station. Together with Springvale station, run in aggregate with Davenport they occupy an area of 15,100 square kilometres and are owned by Paraway Pastoral Company. Composed of mitchell grass downsland in the channel country, it has good access to water via many bores that tap into the Great Artesian Basin as well as the Diamantina River and Farrars Creek both of which cross the property. Both the waterways will flood about one quarter of the property during the wet season providing abundant of feed; the lease was first taken up by pastoralist John Costello in the late 1860s. The property was acquired by prominent pastoralist, James Rutherford in the late 1860s along with other runs in Queensland such as Ingledoon, Ambathala near Charleville and Burrenbilla near Cunnamulla.

Following Rutherford's death the property was sold by the executors in 1913. The leasehold was advertised as having an area of 3,089 square miles with the lease expiring in June 1946, it had two artesian bores at this time and 20,200 cattle, 340 horses and 68 camels, all the stock were included with the property. It was acquired by Thomas Purcell who owned Galway Downs and Whitula stations for £67,000. Purcell sold the property in 1925 to the two lessees of a neighbouring property named Cooper and Trenerry; the station had an area of 2,214 square miles. The rivers and creeks were all running in 1928 cutting roads into the station for a few days; the body of an unfortunate German named J. Lelanes was found at a wayside camp on Davenport in 1930, he was thought to have died of dehydration between Windorah and Springvale his body was washed down by floodwaters. The station was gripped by drought in 1932. Airmail delivery to remote properties in outback South Australia, New South Wales and Queensland commenced in 1949.

Davenport Downs along with other remote properties including Mungerannie, Clifton Hills, Mulka, Morney Plains, Mount Leonard, Cordillo Downs, Tanbar Station, Durham Downs, Nappa Merrie, Lake Pure and Naryilco were on the route. The station was infested with feral cats in 1992, prompting the environment minister Pat Comben to send in army sharpshooters to reduce the population; this was done to protect the wild bilby colonies in the area. The sharpshooters culled about 500 cats over three days. Part of Astrebla Downs National Park was resumed by the state government in 1995 from the owner, AMP, in exchange for another holding. Astrebla was known as the store paddock and had a population of 350 bilbies, about one third of the surviving population in Queensland. Paraway purchased Davenport in 2009 and neighbouring Springvale in 2011. List of ranches and stations List of the largest stations in Australia