Artaxerxes II of Persia
Artaxerxes II Mnemon /ˌɑːrtəˈzɜːrksiːz/ was king of Persia from 404 BC until his death in 358 BC. He was a son of Darius II and Parysatis, Darius II died in 404 BC, just before the final victory of the Egyptian general, over the Persians in Egypt. His successor was his eldest son Arsames who was crowned as Artaxerxes II in Pasargadae and he received the title of Mnemon from the Greeks who found his memory to be exceptional. Even before his coronation, Artaxerxes was facing threats to his rule from his younger brother, four years earlier, Cyrus was appointed by his father as the supreme governor of the provinces of Asia Minor. There, he managed to pacify local rebellions and become a ruler among both the Iranians and Greeks. Towards the end of 405 BC, Cyrus became aware of his father’s illness, Artaxerxes defended his position against his brother Cyrus the Younger who, with the aid of a large army of Greek mercenaries, attempted to usurp the throne. Though Cyrus mixed army fought to a victory at the Battle of Cunaxa in Babylon, Cyrus himself was killed in the exchange by Mithridates.
Artaxerxes became involved in a war with Persias erstwhile allies, the Spartans, in order to redirect the Spartans attention to Greek affairs, Artaxerxes subsidized their enemies, in particular the Athenians and Corinthians. These subsidies helped to engage the Spartans in what would become known as the Corinthian War, in 386 BC, Artaxerxes II betrayed his allies and came to an arrangement with Sparta, and in the Treaty of Antalcidas he forced his erstwhile allies to come to terms. This treaty restored control of the Greek cities of Ionia and Aeolis on the Anatolian coast to the Persians, in 385 BC he campaigned against the Cadusians. Although successful against the Greeks, Artaxerxes had more trouble with the Egyptians, an attempt to reconquer Egypt in 373 BC was completely unsuccessful, but in his waning years the Persians did manage to defeat a joint Egyptian–Spartan effort to conquer Phoenicia. He quashed the Revolt of the Satraps in 372–362 BC and he is reported to have had a number of wives.
His main wife was Stateira, until she was poisoned by Artaxerxes mother Parysatis in about 400 BC, another chief wife was a Greek woman of Phocaea named Aspasia. Artaxerxes II is said to have more than 115 sons from 350 wives, much of Artaxerxes wealth was spent on building projects. He restored the Palace of Darius I at Susa, and the fortifications, including a strong redoubt at the south-east corner of the enclosure and gave Ecbatana a new apadana and sculptures. Plutarch in his Lives records alternative names Oarses and Arsicas for Artaxerxes II Mnemon given by Deinon and these derive from the Persian name Khshayarsha as do Ahasuerus and the hypocoristicon Arshu for Artaxerxes II found on a contemporary inscription. The 13th century Syriac historian Bar-Hebraeus in his Chronography, identifies Ahasuerus as Artaxerxes II citing the sixth century AD historian John of Ephesus, while authenticity of this pedigree is uncertain, it testifies to this kings long renown. Artaxerxes I History of Persia The Anabasis Ten Thousand Artaxerxes by Plutarch H.
Hunger & R. J. van der Spek, military operations in Babylonia in, Arta 2006.002 Inscriptions of Artaxerxes II in transcribed Persian and in English translation
This article is about the ancient sculptor. For the ancient writer whose name appears in manuscripts as Scopas. Scopas or Skopas was an Ancient Greek sculptor and architect most famous for his statue of Meleager, the statue of Aphrodite. Scopas was born on the island of Paros and his father was the sculptor Aristandros. Skopas left Paros at an age and travelled throughout the Hellenic world. Scopas worked with Praxiteles, and he sculpted parts of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus and he led the building of the new temple of Athena Alea at Tegea. Similar to Lysippus, Scopas is artistically a successor of the Classical Greek sculptor Polykleitos, the faces of the heads are almost in quadrat. The deeply sunken eyes and a slightly opened mouth are recognizable characteristics in the figures of Scopas, pothos, or Desire, was a celebrated and much imitated statue by Scopas. Polyklets Schule und ihr Verhältnis zu Skopas v. Paros, Andrew F. Stewart, Skopas of Paros. ISBN 0-8155-5051-0 Andrew Stewart, Skopas in Malibu, the head of Achilles from Tegea and other sculptures by Skopas in the J.
Paul Getty Museum J. Paul Getty Museum, Calif
Autophradates was a Persian who distinguished himself as a general in the reign of Artaxerxes III and Darius Codomannus. After the death of the Persian admiral, Memnon, in 333 BC, Autophradates and Pharnabazus undertook the command of the fleet, and reduced Mytilene, the siege of which had been begun by Memnon. Pharnabazus now sailed with his prisoners to Lycia, and Autophradates attacked the islands in the Aegean sea which supported Alexander the Great. But Pharnabazus soon after joined Autophradates again, and both sailed against Tenedos, which was induced by fear to surrender to the Persians, during these expeditions Autophradates laid siege to the town of Atarneus in Mysia, but without success. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology
Small in stature and lame from birth, Agesilaus became ruler somewhat unexpectedly in his mid-forties. He was greatly admired by his friend, the historian Xenophon, Agesilaus was the son of Archidamus II and his second wife, brother to Cynisca, and younger half-brother of Agis II. There is little surviving detail on the youth of Agesilaus, born with one leg shorter, he was not expected to succeed to the throne after his brother king Agis II, especially because the latter had a son. Therefore, Agesilaus was trained in the curriculum of Sparta. However, Leotychidas was ultimately set aside as illegitimate and Agesilaus became king around 401 BC, Lysander and the young Agesilaus came to maintain an intimate relation, as was common of the period. Their unique relationship would serve an important role during Agesilaus campaigns in Asia Minor, Agesilaus is first recorded as king during the suppression of the conspiracy of Cinadon, shortly after 398 BC. Then, in 396 BC, Agesilaus crossed into Asia with a force of 2,000 neodamodes and 6,000 allies to liberate Greek cities from Persian dominion.
In these campaigns Agesilaus benefited from the aid of the Ten Thousand, after spending the winter organizing a cavalry force, he made a successful incursion into Lydia in the spring of 395 BC. Tithraustes was sent to replace Tissaphernes, who paid with his life for his continued failure, an armistice was concluded between Tithraustes and Agesilaus, who left the southern satrapy and again invaded Phrygia, which he ravaged until the following spring. He came to an agreement with Pharnabazus and once more turned southward, during these campaigns, Lysander attempted to manipulate Agesilaus into ceding his authority. Agesilaus, the passive lover of Lysander, would have nothing of this. He had Lysander sent away to assist the naval campaigns in the Aegean and this dominating move by Agesilaus earned the respect of his men-at-arms and of Lysander himself, who remained emotionally close with Agesilaus. A rapid march through Thrace and Macedonia brought him to Thessaly, reinforced by Phocian and Orchomenian troops and a Spartan army, he met the confederate forces at Coronea in Boeotia and in a hotly contested battle was technically victorious.
However, the Spartan baggage train was ransacked and Agesilaus himself was injured during the fighting, resulting in a subsequent retreat by way of Delphi to the Peloponnese. Shortly before this battle the Spartan navy, of which he had received the command, was totally defeated off Cnidus by a powerful Persian fleet under Conon. During these conflicts in mainland Greece, Lysander perished while attacking the walls of Thebes, pausanias failed to fight for the bodies of the dead, and because he retrieved the bodies under truce, he was disgraced and banished from Sparta. In 393 BC, Agesilaus engaged in an invasion of Argolis. In 392 BC he took a prominent part in the Corinthian War, making several expeditions into Corinthian territory and capturing Lechaeum
Ionia is an ancient region of central coastal Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically Smyrna. It consisted of the northernmost territories of the Ionian League of Greek settlements, never a unified state, it was named after the Ionian tribe who, in the Archaic Period, settled mainly the shores and islands of the Aegean Sea. Ionian states were identified by tradition and by their use of Eastern Greek and it was bounded by Aeolia to the north, Lydia to the east and Caria to the south. The cities within the region figured large in the strife between the Persian Empire and the Greeks, according to Greek tradition, the cities of Ionia were founded by colonists from the other side of the Aegean. Their settlement was connected with the history of the Ionic people in Attica, which asserts that the colonists were led by Neleus and Androclus, sons of Codrus. So intricate is the coastline that the voyage along its shores was estimated at four times the direct distance. A great part of area was, occupied by mountains.
None of these mountains attains a height of more than 1,200 metres, the geography of Ionia placed it in a strategic position that was both advantageous and disadvantageous. Ionia was always a maritime power founded by a people who made their living by trade in peaceful times, the coast was rocky and the arable land slight. The native Luwians for the most part kept their fields further inland, the coastal cities were placed in defensible positions on islands or headlands situated so as to control inland routes up the rift valleys. The people of those valleys were of different ethnicity, the populations of the cities came from many civilizations in the eastern Mediterranean. Ancient demographics are available only from literary sources, Herodotus states that in Asia the Ionians kept the division into twelve cities that had prevailed in Ionian lands of the north Peloponnese, their former homeland, which became Achaea after they left. These Asian cities were Miletus, Priene, Colophon, Teos, Erythrae and Phocaea, together with Samos and Chios.
Smyrna, originally an Aeolic colony, was occupied by Ionians from Colophon. These cities do not match those of Achaea, the Achaea of Herodotus time spoke Doric, but in Homer it is portrayed as being in the kingdom of Mycenae, which most likely spoke Mycenaean Greek, which is not Doric. If the Ionians came from Achaea, they departed during or after the change from East Greek to West Greek there, Mycenaean continued to evolve in the mountainous region of Arcadia. Miletus and some other cities founded earlier by non-Greeks received populations of Mycenaean Greeks probably under the name of Achaeans, the tradition of Ionian colonizers from Achaea suggests that they may have been known by both names even then. In the Indian historic literary texts, the Ionians are referred to as yavanar or yona, in modern Turkish, the people of that region were called yunan and the country that is now Greece is known as Yunanistan
The Hecatomnid dynasty or Hecatomnids were the rulers of Caria and surrounding areas from about 395–334 BCE. They were nominally satraps under the Persian Achaeminid Empire, but ruled with considerable autonomy, the dynasty was founded by Hecatomnus and originally had its seat in Mylasa, Mausolus moved it to Halicarnassus. Hecatomnus five children succeeded him in succession, the dynasty engaged in sibling marriage to presumably preserve royal power within the family. The dynasty ended with the conquests of Alexander the Great, ada adopted him as her son, so that he would succeed to the rule of Caria. The best-known monument of the dynasty is the Mausoleum that Artemisia II built in honor of her husband, university of Oklahoma Press,1992, ISBN0806124601. Stephen Ruzicka, The Hecatomnid Dynasty of Caria abstract Hecatomnid dynasty at livius. org
Tissaphernes was a Persian soldier and statesman. He was the grandson of Hydarnes, chithrafarna Shining Fortune, čiθra is from the Proto-Indo-European adjective koitrós bright, farnah is equivalent to Avestan xvarənah fortune, which appears as luminous. čiθra means nature, specifically the animate nature, the phrase čihr-farn means of glorious or splendid nature, or of radiant appearance. Tissaphernes was born in 445 BC and he belonged to an important Persian family, he was the grandson of Hydarnes, an eminent Persian general, who was the commander of the Immortals during the time of king Xerxes invasion of Greece. In 413 BC, Tissaphernes suppressed the rebellion of Pissuthnes and had him arrested, as a reward, Tissaphernes was appointed as satrap of Lydia and Caria, and commander in chief of the Persian army in Asia Minor. But Tissaphernes was unwilling to take action and tried to achieve his aim by astute, on the death of Darius II in 404 BC, Artaxerxes II was crowned king of Persia. Tissaphernes, who found out about Cyrus the Youngers plan to assassinate his brother, informed the king about the conspiracy, but by the intercession of his mother Parysatis, Cyrus was pardoned and sent back to his satrapy.
According to Plutarch, his resentment for him more eagerly desirous of the kingdom than before. With the desire for revenge, Cyrus gathered an army and pretended to prepare an expedition against the Pisidians. In the spring of 401 BC, Cyrus united all his forces into an army, which now included Xenophons Ten Thousand, by dexterous management and promises of large rewards, he overcame the misgivings of the Greek troops over the length and danger of the war. A Spartan fleet of 35 triremes sent to Cilicia opened the passes of the Amanus into Syria, Tissaphernes managed to warn Artaxerxes II and quickly gathered together an army. Cyrus advanced into Babylonia before he met with any opposition, in October 401 BC, the battle of Cunaxa ensued. Cyrus had 10,400 Greek hoplites,2,500 peltasts, Cyrus saw that the outcome depended on the fate of the king. He therefore wanted Clearchus of Sparta, the commander of the Greeks, as a result, the left wing of the Persians under Tissaphernes was free to engage the rest of Cyrus forces.
Cyrus in the centre threw himself upon Artaxerxes but was slain, Tissaphernes claimed to have killed the rebel himself. They offered to make their Persian ally, Ariaeus and they offered their services to Tissaphernes, but he refused. However, the Greeks refused to surrender to him, Tissaphernes was left with a problem, he faced a large army of heavy troops that he could not defeat by frontal assault. He supplied them with food and, after a wait, led them northwards for home, meanwhile detaching Ariaeus
Lycia was a geopolitical region in Anatolia in what are now the provinces of Antalya and Muğla on the southern coast of Turkey, and Burdur Province inland. Known to history since the records of ancient Egypt and the Hittite Empire in the Late Bronze Age, written records began to be inscribed in stone in the Lycian language after Lycias involuntary incorporation into the Achaemenid Empire in the Iron Age. At that time the Luwian speakers were decimated, and Lycia received an influx of Persian speakers, Lycia fought for the Persians in the Persian Wars, but on the defeat of the Achaemenid Empire by the Greeks, it became intermittently a free agent. Due to the influx of Greek speakers and the sparsity of the remaining Lycian speakers, the Lycian language disappeared from inscriptions and coinage. On defeating Antiochus III in 188 BC the Romans gave Lycia to Rhodes for 20 years, in these latter stages of the Roman republic Lycia came to enjoy freedom as part of the Roman protectorate. The Romans validated home rule officially under the Lycian League in 168 BC and this native government was an early federation with republican principles, these came to the attention of the framers of the United States Constitution, influencing their thoughts.
Despite home rule under republican principles Lycia was not a state and had not been since its defeat by the Carians. In 43 AD the Roman emperor Claudius dissolved the league, Lycia was incorporated into the Roman Empire with a provincial status. It became an eparchy of the Eastern, or Byzantine Empire, after the fall of the Byzantine Empire in the 15th century, Lycia was under the Ottoman Empire, and was inherited by the Turkish Republic on the fall of that empire. The Greeks were withdrawn when the border between Greece and Turkey was negotiated in 1923, Lycia comprised what is now the westernmost portion of Antalya Province, the easternmost portion of Muğla Province, and the southernmost portion of Burdur Province. In ancient times the surrounding districts were, from west to east, Caria and Pamphylia, all equally as ancient, and each speaking its own Anatolian language. The name of the Teke Peninsula comes from the name of Antalya Province. Four ridges extend from northeast to southwest, forming the western extremity of the Taurus Mountains, furthest west of the four are Boncuk Dağlari, or the Boncuk Mountains, extending from about Altinyayla, southwest to about Oren north of Fethiye.
This is a low range peaking at about 2,340 m. To the west of it the steep gorges of Dalaman Çayi, the stream,229 km long, enters the Mediterranean to the west of modern-day Dalaman. Upstream it is dammed in four places, after an origin in the vicinity of Sarikavak in Denizli Province. The next ridge to the east is Akdağlari, the White Mountains, about 150 km long, with a point at Uyluktepe, Uyluk Peak. This massif may have been ancient Mount Cragus, along its western side flows Eşen Çayi, the Esen River, anciently the Xanthus, Lycian Arñna, originating in the Boncuk Mountains, flowing south, and transecting the several-mile-long beach at Patara
Lydia was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir. Its population spoke an Anatolian language known as Lydian, at its greatest extent, the Kingdom of Lydia covered all of western Anatolia. Lydia was a satrapy of the Achaemenid Persian Empire, with Sardis as its capital, appointed by Cyrus the Great, was the first satrap. Lydia was the name of a Roman province, coins are said to have been invented in Lydia around the 7th century BC. The endonym Śfard survives in bilingual and trilingual stone-carved notices of the Achaemenid Empire and these in the Greek tradition are associated with Sardis, the capital city of King Gyges, constructed during the 7th century BC. The region of the Lydian kingdom was during the 15th-14th centuries part of the Arzawa kingdom, the Lydian language is not part of the Luwian subgroup. An Etruscan/Lydian association has long been a subject of conjecture, recent decipherment of Lydian and its classification as an Anatolian language mean that Etruscan and Lydian were not even part of the same language family.
The boundaries of historical Lydia varied across the centuries and it was bounded first by Mysia, Caria and coastal Ionia. Later, the power of Alyattes II and Croesus expanded Lydia. Lydia never again shrank back into its original dimensions, the Lydian language was an Indo-European language in the Anatolian language family, related to Luwian and Hittite. It used many prefixes and grammatical particles, Lydian finally became extinct during the 1st century BC. Lydia developed after the decline of the Hittite Empire in the 12th century BC, in Hittite times, the name for the region had been Arzawa. According to Greek source, the name of the Lydian kingdom was Maionia, or Maeonia. Homer describes their capital not as Sardis but as Hyde, Hyde may have been the name of the district in which Sardis was located. Later, Herodotus adds that the Meiones were renamed Lydians after their king Lydus, son of Atys and this etiological eponym served to account for the Greek ethnic name Lydoi. During Biblical times, the Lydian warriors were famous archers, some Maeones still existed during historical times in the upland interior along the River Hermus, where a town named Maeonia existed, according to Pliny the Elder and Hierocles.
In Greek myth, Lydia had adopted the symbol, that appears in the Mycenaean civilization. Omphale, daughter of the river Iardanos, was a ruler of Lydia, all three heroic ancestors indicate a Lydian dynasty claiming Heracles as their ancestor
It is often considered a period of transition, sometimes even of decadence or degeneration, compared to the enlightenment of the Greek Classical era. The Hellenistic period saw the rise of New Comedy, Alexandrian poetry, the Septuagint, Greek science was advanced by the works of the mathematician Euclid and the polymath Archimedes. The religious sphere expanded to include new gods such as the Greco-Egyptian Serapis, eastern deities such as Attis and Cybele, the Hellenistic period was characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization which established Greek cities and kingdoms in Asia and Africa. This resulted in the export of Greek culture and language to new realms. Equally, these new kingdoms were influenced by the cultures, adopting local practices where beneficial, necessary. Hellenistic culture thus represents a fusion of the Ancient Greek world with that of the Near East, Middle East and this mixture gave rise to a common Attic-based Greek dialect, known as Koine Greek, which became the lingua franca through the Hellenistic world.
Scholars and historians are divided as to what event signals the end of the Hellenistic era, Hellenistic is distinguished from Hellenic in that the first encompasses the entire sphere of direct ancient Greek influence, while the latter refers to Greece itself. The word originated from the German term hellenistisch, from Ancient Greek Ἑλληνιστής, from Ἑλλάς, Hellenistic is a modern word and a 19th-century concept, the idea of a Hellenistic period did not exist in Ancient Greece. Although words related in form or meaning, e. g, the major issue with the term Hellenistic lies in its convenience, as the spread of Greek culture was not the generalized phenomenon that the term implies. Some areas of the world were more affected by Greek influences than others. The Greek population and the population did not always mix, the Greeks moved and brought their own culture. While a few fragments exist, there is no surviving historical work which dates to the hundred years following Alexanders death. The works of the major Hellenistic historians Hieronymus of Cardia, Duris of Samos, the earliest and most credible surviving source for the Hellenistic period is Polybius of Megalopolis, a statesman of the Achaean League until 168 BC when he was forced to go to Rome as a hostage.
His Histories eventually grew to a length of forty books, covering the years 220 to 167 BC, another important source, Plutarchs Parallel Lives though more preoccupied with issues of personal character and morality, outlines the history of important Hellenistic figures. Appian of Alexandria wrote a history of the Roman empire that includes information of some Hellenistic kingdoms, other sources include Justins epitome of Pompeius Trogus Historiae Philipicae and a summary of Arrians Events after Alexander, by Photios I of Constantinople. Lesser supplementary sources include Curtius Rufus, Pliny, in the field of philosophy, Diogenes Laertius Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers is the main source. Ancient Greece had traditionally been a collection of fiercely independent city-states. After the Peloponnesian War, Greece had fallen under a Spartan hegemony, in which Sparta was pre-eminent but not all-powerful