Lipstick is a cosmetic product containing pigments, oils and emollients that apply color and protection to the lips. Many colors and types of lipstick exist; some lipsticks are lip balms, to add color and hydration. Although the name applied to the baton of material, within a tubular container around 10mm in diameter and 50mm in length the term now relates to the material itself, regardless of method of application. Ancient Sumerian men and women were the first to invent and wear lipstick, about 5,000 years ago, they crushed gemstones and used them to decorate their faces on the lips and around the eyes. Egyptians like Cleopatra crushed bugs to create a color of red on their lips. Women in the ancient Indus Valley Civilization may have used rectangular pieces of ochre with beveled ends as lipstick. Ancient Egyptians wore lipstick to show social status rather than gender, they extracted the red dye from fucus-algin, 0.01% iodine, some bromine mannite, but this dye resulted in serious illness. Lipsticks with shimmering effects were made using a pearlescent substance found in fish scales.
Women in the Minoan civilization colored their lips with bright red cosmetics. Lip paint in ancient Greece was restricted to prostitutes and courtesans, but expanded to the upper class between 700 and 300 BCE. Greek women colored their lips with cosmetics made from dyes containing Tyrian purple, crushed mulberries, the toxic pigment vermilion; the Chinese made some of the first lipsticks that were made from beeswax over 1,000 years ago to protect the delicate skin of the lips. During the Tang Dynasty, scented oils were added to them. In Australia, Aboriginal girls would paint their mouths red with ochre for puberty rituals. Lip coloring started to gain some popularity in 16th-century England. During the time of Queen Elizabeth I bright red lips and a stark white face became fashionable. At that time, lipstick was made from a blend of red stains from plants. Only upper class women and male actors wore makeup. Throughout most of the 19th century, the obvious use of cosmetics was not considered acceptable in Britain for respectable women, it was associated with marginalized groups such as actors and prostitutes.
It was considered uncouth to wear makeup. In the 1850s, reports were being published warning women of the dangers of using lead and vermilion in cosmetics applied to the face. By the end of the 19th century, Guerlain, a French cosmetic company, began to manufacture lipstick; the first commercial lipstick had been invented by perfumers in Paris, France. It was covered in silk paper and made from deer tallow, castor oil, beeswax. Prior to this, lipstick had been created at home. Complete acceptance of the undisguised use of cosmetics in England appears to have arrived for the fashionable Londoner at least by 1921. In the 19th century, lipstick was colored with carmine dye. Carmine dye was extracted from cochineal, scale insects native to Mexico and Central America which live on cactus plants. Cochineal insects produce carminic acid to deter predation by other insects. Carminic acid, which forms 17% to 24% of the weight of the dried insects, can be extracted from the insect's body and eggs. Mixed with aluminum or calcium salts it makes carmine dye.
This lipstick did not come in a tube. Carmine dye was expensive and the look of carmine colored lipstick was considered unnatural and theatrical, so lipstick was frowned upon for everyday wear. Only actors and actresses could get away with wearing lipstick. In 1880, few stage actresses wore lipstick in public; the famous actress, Sarah Bernhardt, began wearing rouge in public. Before the late 19th century, women only applied makeup at home. Bernhardt applied carmine dye to her lips in public. In the early 1890s, carmine was mixed with an wax base; the mixture gave a natural look and it was more acceptable among women. At that time, lipstick was not sold in screw up metal tube; the Sears Roebuck catalog first offered rouge for cheeks by the late 1890s. By 1912 fashionable American women had come to consider lipstick acceptable, though an article in the New York Times advised on the need to apply it cautiously. By 1915, lipstick was sold in cylinder metal containers, invented by Maurice Levy. Women had to slide a tiny lever at the side of the tube with the edge of their fingernail to move the lipstick up to the top of the case, although lipsticks in push-up metal containers had been available in Europe since 1911.
In 1923, the first swivel-up tube was patented by James Bruce Mason Jr. in Tennessee. As women started to wear lipstick for photographs, photography made lipstick acceptable among women. Elizabeth Arden and Estee Lauder began selling lipstick in their salons. During the Second World War, metal lipstick tubes were replaced by paper tubes. Lipstick was scarce during that time because some of the essential ingredients of lipstick and castor oil, were unavailable. World War II allowed women to work in engineering and scientific research, in the late 1940s, Hazel Bishop, an organic chemist in New York and New Jersey, created the first long lasting lipstick, called No-Smear lipstick. With the help of Raymond Specter, an advertiser, Bishop's lipstick business thrived. Another form of lip color, a wax-free, semi-permanent liquid formula, was invented in the 1990s by the Lip-Ink International company. Other companies have imitated the idea, putting out their own versions of long-lasting "lip stain" or "liquid lip color."
Throughout the early 20th century, lipstick came i
Joan Crawford was an American actress. She began her career as a dancer in traveling theatrical companies before debuting as a chorus girl on Broadway. Crawford signed a motion picture contract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1925. In the 1930s, Crawford's fame rivaled, outlasted, that of MGM colleagues Norma Shearer and Greta Garbo. Crawford played hard-working young women who found romance and success; these characters and stories were well received by Depression-era audiences, were popular with women. Crawford became one of Hollywood's most prominent movie stars, one of the highest-paid women in the United States. In 1945 she won the Academy Award for Best Actress, she would go on to receive Best Actress nominations for Sudden Fear. Crawford continued to act in television throughout the 1950s and 1960s. In 1955, Crawford became involved with the Pepsi-Cola Company through her marriage to company Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Alfred Steele. In 1970 Crawford retired from the screen and following a public appearance in 1974 Crawford withdrew from public life, becoming reclusive until her death in 1977.
Crawford married four times. Her first three marriages ended in divorce, she adopted five children. Crawford's relationships with her two elder children and Christopher, were acrimonious. After Crawford's death, Christina wrote Mommie Dearest. Born Lucille Fay LeSueur, of English, French Huguenot and Irish ancestry, in San Antonio, she was the third and youngest child of Tennessee-born Thomas E. LeSueur, a laundry laborer, Texas-born Anna Bell Johnson, whose date of birth is given as November 29, 1884, based on census records, she may have been older, she was still under 20 when her first two children were born. She died on August 15, 1958. Crawford's elder siblings were sister Daisy LeSueur, who died before Lucille's birth, brother Hal LeSueur. Thomas LeSueur abandoned the family a few months before her birth resettling in Abilene, Texas working as a construction laborer. Following LeSueur's departure from the family home, Crawford's mother remarried Henry J. Cassin. However, the marriage is listed in the census as Crawford's mother's first marriage.
Crawford lived with her mother and siblings in Lawton, Oklahoma. There, Cassin ran the Ramsey Opera House. Crawford preferred the nickname "Billie" as a child, enjoyed watching vaudeville acts perform on the stage of her stepfather's theatre. At that time, Crawford was unaware that Cassin, whom she called "daddy", was not her biological father until her brother Hal told her the truth. Cassin began sexually abusing her when she was eleven years old, the abuse continued until she was sent to St. Agnes Academy, a Catholic girls' school, her family's instability negatively affected Crawford and her schooling never formally progressed beyond primary education. Beginning in childhood, Crawford's ambition was to be a dancer. One day in an attempt to escape piano lessons so she could play with friends, she leapt from the front porch of her home and cut her foot on a broken milk bottle; as a result, she underwent three surgeries to repair the damage. She was unable to continue with dancing lessons, for 18 months.
While still residing in Lawton, Crawford's stepfather was accused of embezzlement. Although he was acquitted in court, he was blacklisted in Lawton, the family moved to Kansas City, around 1916. Following their relocation, Cassin, a Catholic, placed Crawford at St. Agnes Academy in Kansas City; when her mother and stepfather separated, she remained at St. Agnes as a work student, where she spent far more time working cooking and cleaning, than studying, she attended Rockingham Academy as a working student. While attending there, she began dating, had her first serious relationship with a trumpet player named Ray Sterling. Sterling inspired her to begin challenging herself academically. In 1922, she registered at Stephens College in Columbia, giving her year of birth as 1906, she attended Stephens for only a few months before withdrawing after she realized she was not prepared for college. Under the name Lucille LeSueur, Crawford began dancing in the choruses of traveling revues, was spotted dancing in Detroit by producer Jacob J. Shubert.
Shubert put her in the chorus line for his 1924 show, Innocent Eyes, at the Winter Garden Theatre on Broadway in New York City. While appearing in Innocent Eyes, Crawford met; the two were married in 1924, lived together for several months, although this supposed marriage was never mentioned in life by Crawford. Crawford wanted additional work, approached Loews Theaters publicist Nils Granlund. Granlund secured a position for her with singer Harry Richman's act and arranged for her to do a screen test which he sent to producer Harry Rapf in Hollywood. Rapf notified Granlund on December 24, 1924, that Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer had offered Crawford a contract at $75 a week. Granlund wired LeSueur, who had retu
Edith Norma Shearer was a Canadian-American actress and Hollywood star from 1925 through 1942. Shearer played spunky, sexually liberated ingenues, she appeared in adaptations of Noël Coward, Eugene O'Neill, William Shakespeare, was the first person to be nominated five times for an Academy Award for acting, winning Best Actress for her performance in the 1930 film The Divorcee. Reviewing Shearer's work, Mick LaSalle called her "the exemplar of sophisticated 1930s womanhood... exploring love and sex with an honesty that would be considered frank by modern standards". As a result, Shearer is celebrated as a feminist pioneer, "the first American film actress to make it chic and acceptable to be single and not a virgin on screen". Shearer was of Irish descent, her childhood was spent in Montreal, where she was educated at Montreal High School for Girls and Westmount High School. Her life was one of privilege, due to the success of her father's construction business. However, the marriage between her parents was unhappy.
Andrew Shearer was prone to manic depression and "moved like a shadow or a ghost around the house", while her mother Edith Fisher Shearer was attractive and stylish. Young Norma was interested in music, as well, but after seeing a vaudeville show for her ninth birthday, announced her intention to become an actress. Edith offered support, but as Shearer entered adolescence, became secretly fearful that her daughter's physical flaws would jeopardize her chances. Shearer herself "had no illusions about the image I saw in the mirror", she acknowledged her "dumpy figure, with shoulders too broad, legs too sturdy, hands too blunt", was acutely aware of her small eyes that appeared crossed due to a cast in her right eye. By her own admission, she was "ferociously ambitious as a young girl" and planned to overcome her deficiencies through careful camouflage, sheer determination, charm; the childhood and adolescence that Shearer once described as "a pleasant dream" ended in 1918, when her father's company collapsed and older sister, suffered her first serious mental breakdown.
Forced to move into a small, dreary house in a "modest" Montreal suburb, the sudden plunge into poverty only strengthened Shearer's determined attitude: "At an early age, I formed a philosophy about failure. An endeavor, like my father's business, could fail, but that didn't mean Father had failed."Edith Shearer thought otherwise. Within weeks, she had moved into a cheap boarding house with her two daughters. A few months encouraged by her brother, who believed his niece should try her luck in "the picture business" operating on the East Coast, Edith sold her daughter's piano and bought three train tickets for New York City. In her pocket was a letter of introduction for Norma, acquired from a local theatre owner, to Florenz Ziegfeld, preparing a new season of his famous Ziegfeld Follies. In January 1920, the three Shearer women arrived in New York, each of them dressed up for the occasion. "I had my hair in little curls", Shearer remembered, "and I felt ambitious and proud." Her heart sank, when she saw their rented apartment: "There was one double bed, a cot with no mattress and a stove with one gas jet.
The communal bathroom was at the end of a long, dimly lit hallway. Athole and I took turns sleeping with mother in the bed, but sleep was impossible anyway—the elevated trains rattled right past our window every few minutes." The introduction to Ziegfeld proved disastrous. He turned Shearer down flat calling her a "dog", criticized her crossed eyes and stubby legs, she continued doing the rounds with her determination undimmed: "I learned that Universal Pictures was looking for eight pretty girls to serve as extras. Athole and I found 50 girls ahead of us. An assistant casting director walked down looking us over, he picked the fourth. The fifth and sixth were unattractive, but the seventh would do, so on, down the line until seven had been selected—and he was still some ten feet ahead of us. I did some quick thinking. I coughed loudly, when the man looked in the direction of the cough, I stood on my tiptoes and smiled right at him. Recognizing the awkward ruse to which I'd resorted, he laughed and walked over to me and said,'You win, Sis.
You're Number Eight.'"Other extra parts followed, including one in Way Down East, directed by D. W. Griffith. Taking advantage of a break in filming and standing shrewdly near a powerful arc light, Shearer introduced herself to Griffith and began to confide her hopes for stardom. "The Master looked down at me, studied my upturned face in the glare of the arc, shook his eagle head. Eyes no good, he said. A cast in one and far too blue. You'll never make it, he declared, turned solemnly away." Still undeterred, Shearer risked some of her savings on a consultation with Dr. William Bates, a pioneer in the treatment of incorrectly aligned eyes and defective vision, he wrote out a series of muscle-strengthening exercises that, after many years of daily practice, would conceal Shearer's cast for long periods of time on the screen. She spent hours in front of the mirror, exercising her eyes and striking poses that concealed or improved the physical flaws noted by Ziegfeld or Griffith. At night, she sat in the galleries of Broadway theatres, studying the entrances of Ina Claire, Lynn Fontanne, Katharine Cornell.
In desperate need of money, Shearer resorted to some modeling work. On her modeling career, she commented: "I could smile at a cake of laundry soap as if it were dinner at the Ritz. I posed with a strand
New York Stock Exchange
The New York Stock Exchange is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York. It is by far the world's largest stock exchange by market capitalization of its listed companies at US$30.1 trillion as of February 2018. The average daily trading value was US$169 billion in 2013; the NYSE trading floor is located at 11 Wall Street and is composed of 21 rooms used for the facilitation of trading. A fifth trading room, located at 30 Broad Street, was closed in February 2007; the main building and the 11 Wall Street building were designated National Historic Landmarks in 1978. The NYSE is owned by Intercontinental Exchange, an American holding company that it lists, it was part of NYSE Euronext, formed by the NYSE's 2007 merger with Euronext. The NYSE has been the subject of several lawsuits regarding fraud or breach of duty and in 2004 was sued by its former CEO for breach of contract and defamation; the earliest recorded organization of securities trading in New York among brokers directly dealing with each other can be traced to the Buttonwood Agreement.
Securities exchange had been intermediated by the auctioneers who conducted more mundane auctions of commodities such as wheat and tobacco. On May 17, 1792 twenty four brokers signed the Buttonwood Agreement which set a floor commission rate charged to clients and bound the signers to give preference to the other signers in securities sales; the earliest securities traded were governmental securities such as War Bonds from the Revolutionary War and First Bank of the United States stock, although Bank of New York stock was a non-governmental security traded in the early days. The Bank of North America along with the First Bank of the United States and the Bank of New York were the first shares traded on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1817 the stockbrokers of New York operating under the Buttonwood Agreement instituted new reforms and reorganized. After sending a delegation to Philadelphia to observe the organization of their board of brokers, restrictions on manipulative trading were adopted as well as formal organs of governance.
After re-forming as the New York Stock and Exchange Board the broker organization began renting out space for securities trading, taking place at the Tontine Coffee House. Several locations were used between 1865, when the present location was adopted; the invention of the electrical telegraph consolidated markets, New York's market rose to dominance over Philadelphia after weathering some market panics better than other alternatives. The Open Board of Stock Brokers was established in 1864 as a competitor to the NYSE. With 354 members, the Open Board of Stock Brokers rivaled the NYSE in membership "because it used a more modern, continuous trading system superior to the NYSE’s twice-daily call sessions." The Open Board of Stock Brokers merged with the NYSE in 1869. Robert Wright of Bloomberg writes that the merger increased the NYSE's members as well as trading volume, as "several dozen regional exchanges were competing with the NYSE for customers. Buyers and dealers all wanted to complete transactions as and cheaply as technologically possible and that meant finding the markets with the most trading, or the greatest liquidity in today’s parlance.
Minimizing competition was essential to keep a large number of orders flowing, the merger helped the NYSE to maintain its reputation for providing superior liquidity." The Civil War stimulated speculative securities trading in New York. By 1869 membership had to be capped, has been sporadically increased since; the latter half of the nineteenth century saw rapid growth in securities trading. Securities trade in the latter nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was prone to panics and crashes. Government regulation of securities trading was seen as necessary, with arguably the most dramatic changes occurring in the 1930s after a major stock market crash precipitated the Great Depression; the Stock Exchange Luncheon Club was situated on the seventh floor from 1898 until its closure in 2006. The main building, located at 18 Broad Street, between the corners of Wall Street and Exchange Place, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1978, as was the 11 Wall Street building; the NYSE announced its plans to merge with Archipelago on April 21, 2005, in a deal intended to reorganize the NYSE as a publicly traded company.
NYSE's governing board voted to merge with rival Archipelago on December 6, 2005, became a for-profit, public company. It began trading under the name NYSE Group on March 8, 2006. A little over one year on April 4, 2007, the NYSE Group completed its merger with Euronext, the European combined stock market, thus forming NYSE Euronext, the first transatlantic stock exchange. Wall Street is the leading US money center for international financial activities and the foremost US location for the conduct of wholesale financial services. "It comprises a matrix of wholesale financial sectors, financial markets, financial institutions, financial industry firms". The principal sectors are securities industry, commercial banking, asset management, insurance. Prior to the acquisition of NYSE Euronext by the ICE in 2013, Marsh Carter was the Chairman of the NYSE and the CEO was Duncan Niederauer. Presently, the chairman is Jeffrey Sprecher. In 2016, NYSE owner Intercontinental Exchange Inc. earned $419 million in listings-related revenues.
The exchange was closed shortly after the beginning of World War I, but it re-opened on November 28 of that year in order to help the war effort by trading bonds, reopened for stock tradin
Gladys Louise Smith, known professionally as Mary Pickford, was a Canadian-born American film actress and producer. With a career spanning 50 years, she was a co-founder of both the Pickford–Fairbanks Studio and the United Artists film studio, one of the original 36 founders of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences who present the yearly "Oscar" award ceremony. Pickford was known in her prime as "America's Sweetheart" and the "girl with the curls", she was one of the Canadian pioneers in early Hollywood and a significant figure in the development of film acting. Pickford was one of the earliest stars to be billed under her own name, was one of the most popular actresses of the 1910s and 1920s, earning the nickname "Queen of the Movies", she is credited as having defined the ingénue archetype in cinema. She was awarded the second Academy Award for Best Actress for her first sound-film role in Coquette and received an honorary Academy Award in 1976. In consideration of her contributions to American cinema, the American Film Institute ranked Pickford as 24th in its 1999 list of greatest female stars of classic Hollywood Cinema.
Mary Pickford was born Gladys Louise Smith in 1892 at 211 University Avenue, Ontario. Her father, John Charles Smith, was the son of English Methodist immigrants, worked a variety of odd jobs, her mother, Charlotte Hennessey, was of Irish Catholic descent and worked for a time as a seamstress. She had two younger siblings, called "Lottie", John Charles, called "Jack", who became actors. To please her husband's relatives, Pickford's mother baptized her children as Methodists, the religion of their father. John Charles Smith was an alcoholic; when Gladys was age four, her household was under a public health measure. Their devoutly Catholic maternal grandmother asked a visiting Roman Catholic priest to baptize the children. Pickford was at this time baptized as Gladys Marie Smith. After being widowed in 1899, Charlotte Smith began taking in boarders, one of whom was a Mr. Murphy, the theatrical stage manager for Cummings Stock Company, who soon suggested that Gladys age seven, Lotti age six, be given two small theatrical roles — Gladys portrayed a girl and a boy, while Lottie was cast in a silent part in the company's production of The Silver King at Toronto's Princess Theatre, while their mother played the organ.
Pickford subsequently acted in many melodramas with Toronto's Valentine Stock Company playing the major child role in its version of The Silver King. She capped her short career in Toronto with the starring role of Little Eva the Valentine production of Uncle Tom's Cabin, adapted from the 1852 novel. By the early 1900s, theatre had become a family enterprise. Gladys, her mother and two younger siblings toured the United States by rail, performing in third-rate companies and plays. After six impoverished years, Pickford allowed one more summer to land a leading role on Broadway, planning to quit acting if she failed. In 1906 Gladys and Jack Smith supported singer Chauncey Olcott on Broadway in Edmund Burke. Gladys landed a supporting role in a 1907 Broadway play, The Warrens of Virginia; the play was written by William C. deMille, whose brother, appeared in the cast. David Belasco, the producer of the play, insisted that Gladys Smith assume the stage name Mary Pickford. After completing the Broadway run and touring the play, Pickford was again out of work.
On April 19, 1909, the Biograph Company director D. W. Griffith screen-tested her at the company's New York studio for a role in the nickelodeon film Pippa Passes; the role went to someone else but Griffith was taken with Pickford. She grasped that movie acting was simpler than the stylized stage acting of the day. Most Biograph actors earned $5 a day but, after Pickford's single day in the studio, Griffith agreed to pay her $10 a day against a guarantee of $40 a week. Pickford, like all actors at Biograph, played both bit parts and leading roles, including mothers, charwomen, slaves, Native Americans, spurned women, a prostitute; as Pickford said of her success at Biograph:I played scrubwomen and secretaries and women of all nationalities... I decided that if I could get into as many pictures as possible, I'd become known, there would be a demand for my work, she appeared in 51 films in 1909 – one a week. While at Biograph, she suggested to Florence La Badie to "try pictures", invited her to the studio and introduced her to D. W. Griffith, who launched La Badie's career.
In January 1910, Pickford traveled with a Biograph crew to Los Angeles. Many other film companies wintered on the West Coast, escaping the weak light and short days that hampered winter shooting in the East. Pickford added to her 1909 Biographs with films made in California. Actors were not listed in the credits in Griffith's company. Audiences identified Pickford within weeks of her first film appearance. Exhibitors, in turn, capitalized on her popularity by advertising on sandwich boards that a film featuring "The Girl with the Golden Curls", "Blondilocks", or "The Biograph Girl" was inside. Pickford left Biograph in December 1910; the following year, she starred in films at Carl Laemmle's Independent Moving
Mascara is a cosmetic used to enhance the eyelashes. It may darken, lengthen, and/or define the eyelashes. In one of three forms—liquid, cake, or cream—the modern mascara product has various formulas; the Collins English Dictionary defines mascara as, "a cosmetic substance for darkening, curling and thickening the eyelashes, applied with a brush or rod." The Oxford English Dictionary adds that mascara is used on the eyebrows as well. The OED references mascaro from works published in the late 15th century. In 1886, the Peck & Snyder Catalogue advertises, “Mascaro or Water Cosmetique… For darkening the eyebrow and moustaches without greasing them and making them prominent.” In 1890, the Century Dictionary defined mascara as “a kind of paint used for the eyebrows and eyelashes by actors.” And in 1894, N. Lynn advises in Lynn’s Practical Hints for Making-up, “to darken eyelashes, paint with mascara, or black paint, with a small brush; the source of the word “mascara” is unclear. The Spanish word máscara meaning ‘mask’ or ‘stain’, the Italian word maschera meaning ‘mask’ are possible origins.
A related Catalan word describes soot or a black smear, the Portuguese word máscara means ‘mask’ and mascarra means dark stain or smut). There is strong support for a possible source from the Arabic word maskharah or ‘buffoon’; the Hebrew word משקרות as relating to women's eyes is found in Isaiah 3:16. Latin treatises sometimes used the word mascara. Aesthetic adornment is a cultural universal and mascara can be documented in ancient Egypt. Records from around 4000 BC refer to a substance called kohl, used to darken eyelashes and eyebrows. Kohl was used to mask the eyes, believed to ward off evil spirits and protect the soul, by both men and women. Composed of galena. Through Egypt’s influence, kohl usage persisted in the subsequent Babylonian and Roman empires. Following the fall of the Roman Empire, kohl fell into disuse on the European continent, where it had been considered a cosmetic. During the Victorian era, social opinion shifted radically towards the promotion of cosmetics, women were known to spend a majority of their day occupied with beauty regimens.
Great efforts were made to create the illusion of dark eyelashes. Attempting this, Victorian women made a type of mascara in their own homes, they would heat a mixture of ash or lampblack and elderberry juice on a plate and apply the heated mixture to their eyelashes. The product that people would recognize as mascara today did not develop until the 19th century. A chemist named; the name Rimmel became synonymous with the substance and still translates to “mascara” in the Portuguese, Greek, Turkish and Persian languages today. Across the Atlantic Ocean and at the same time, in 1915, Thomas Lyle Williams created a remarkably similar substance for his sister Maybel. In 1917 he started a mail-order business from the product that grew to become the company Maybelline; the mascara developed by these two men consisted of petroleum coal in a set ratio. It was undeniably messy, a better alternative was soon developed. A dampened brush was rubbed against a cake containing soap and black dye in equal proportions and applied to the lashes.
Still it was messy. No significant improvement occurred until 1957 with an innovation by Helena Rubinstein; the events leading to Rubinstein’s improvement began in Paris in the early 20th century. There, at the fashion capital of the world, mascara was gaining popularity and common usage. Elizabeth Arden and Helena Rubinstein, two giants in the American beauty industry and kept abreast of its development. After the First World War, American consumers became eager for new products. Sensing an opportunity, both Rubinstein and Arden launched their own brands of cosmetics that included mascara. Through the efforts of these two rivals and public temperament, mascara gained respectability and favor in American society; the invention of the photograph and motion picture launched mascara’s popularity and usage further forward in America. Motion pictures advertised a new standard of beauty and sex appeal. Famous actresses of the classic cinema era, such as Theda Bara, Pola Negri, Clara Bow, Greta Garbo, Marlene Dietrich, Bette Davis, Jean Harlow, depended upon mascara for their glamorized appearances, which the average woman sought to mimic.
In 1933, a woman known on court records as Mrs. Brown consented to have her eyelashes permanently dyed; the product, Lash Lure, used para-phenylenediamine, a chemical toxic to the body, as the dyeing agent. At the time, cosmetics were unregulated by the Federal Drug Administration, the dangers of paraphenylenediamine were unknown. Within hours of the treatment, Mrs. Brown began experiencing severe symptoms of stinging and burning eyes. By the next morning, Mrs. Brown's eyes had developed ulcers which had swollen shut. Use of Lash Lure resulted in blindness in Mrs. Brown and fifteen other women and caused the death of another, it was only after the Lash Lure incident and several others like it, documented in Ruth deForest Lamb’s book entitled American Chamber of Horrors, that Congress granted the FDA the right to regulate cosmetics in 1938. Years in 1957, Rubinstein created a formula that evolved mascara from a hard cake into
Jean Harlow was an American film actress and sex symbol of the 1930s. Harlow was signed by director Howard Hughes, her first major appearance was in Hell's Angels, followed by a series of critically unsuccessful films before she signed with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1932. Harlow became a leading lady for MGM, starring in a string of hit films, including Red Dust, Dinner at Eight and Suzy. Harlow's popularity rivaled and soon surpassed that of her MGM colleagues Joan Crawford and Norma Shearer, she had become one of the biggest movie stars in the world by the late 1930s nicknamed the "Blonde Bombshell" and the "Platinum Blonde". Harlow died at age 26 during the 1937 filming of Saratoga; the film was completed using body released a little over a month after Harlow's death. The American Film Institute ranked her as the 22nd greatest female star of classic Hollywood cinema. Harlow was born Harlean Harlow Carpenter in Missouri; the name is sometimes incorrectly spelled Carpentier, following studio press releases.
Her father, Mont Clair Carpenter, son of Abraham L. Carpenter and Dianna, was a dentist from a working-class background who attended dental school in Kansas City, her mother, Jean Poe Carpenter, was the daughter of a wealthy real estate broker, Skip Harlow, his wife, Ella Harlow. The marriage was arranged by Jean's father for their under-age daughter in 1908. Jean was resentful, became unhappy in the marriage; the couple lived in Kansas City in a house owned by Jean's father. Harlean was nicknamed "The Baby", a name, she did not learn that her name was "Harlean" until the age of five, when she began to attend Miss Barstow's Finishing School for Girls in Kansas City. Harlean and "Mother Jean", as she became known when Harlean became a film star, remained close. Harlean's mother was protective and coddling instilling a sense that her daughter owed everything she had to her. "She was always all mine", she said of her daughter. When Harlean was at school, her mother filed for a divorce, finalized uncontested on September 29, 1922.
She was granted sole custody of Harlean, who loved the father who would survive her by thirty-seven years. However, Harlean would see him again. Mother Jean moved with Harlean to Hollywood in 1923 with hopes of becoming an actress, but was too old at 34 to begin a film career. Young Harlean attended the Hollywood School for Girls and met Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. Joel McCrea, Irene Mayer Selznick. Harlean dropped out of school at age 14 in the spring of 1925. Finances dwindling and her mother moved back to Kansas City after Skip Harlow issued an ultimatum that he would disinherit Jean if she did not return. Several weeks Skip sent his granddaughter to a summer camp, Camp Cha-Ton-Ka, in Michigamme, where she became ill with scarlet fever, her mother traveled to Michigan to care for her, rowing herself across the lake to the camp, but was told she could not see her daughter. Harlow next attended the Ferry Hall School in Illinois, her mother had an ulterior motive for Harlean's attendance there, as it was close to the Chicago home of her boyfriend, Marino Bello.
Each freshman was paired with a "big sister" from the senior class, Harlean's big sister introduced her to 19-year-old Charles "Chuck" Fremont McGrew, heir to a large fortune, in the fall of 1926. Soon the two began to date, married. On January 18, 1927, Jean Carpenter married Bello. Shortly after the wedding, the McGrews moved to Beverly Hills. McGrew received part of his large inheritance; the couple moved to Los Angeles in 1928, settling into a home in Beverly Hills, where Harlean thrived as a wealthy socialite. McGrew hoped to distance Harlean from her mother with the move. Neither McGrew nor Harlean worked, both McGrew, were thought to drink heavily. In Los Angeles, Harlean befriended a young aspiring actress. Lacking a car, Roy asked Harlean to drive her to Fox Studios for an appointment. Reputedly, Harlean was noticed and approached by Fox executives while waiting for her friend, but stated that she was not interested, she was given dictated letters of introduction to Central Casting. A few days Rosalie Roy bet Harlean that she did not have the nerve to go and audition.
Unwilling to lose a wager and pressed by her enthusiastic mother, now back in Los Angeles, Harlean drove to Central Casting and signed in under her mother's maiden name, Jean Harlow. After several calls from Central Casting and a number of rejected job offers, Harlean was pressed into accepting work by her mother, she appeared in Honor Bound, as an unbilled "extra" for $7 a day. This led to small parts in feature films such as Moran of the Marines, This Thing Called Love, Close Harmony, The Love Parade, among others. In December 1928, she signed a five-year contract with Hal Roach Studios for $100 per week, she had a co-starring role in Laurel and Hardy's short Double Whoopee in 1929, went on to appear in two more of their films: Liberty and Bacon Grabbers. In March 1929, she parted with Roach, who tore up her contract after Harlow told him, "It's breaking up my marriage, what can I do?" In June 1929, Harlow moved in with her mother and Bello. After her separation from McGrew, Harlow worked as an "extra" in several movies.
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