United States Naval Forces Central Command is the United States Navy element of United States Central Command. Its area of responsibility includes the Red Sea, Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf, Arabian Sea, it consists of the United States Fifth Fleet and several other subordinate task forces, including Combined Task Force 150, Combined Task Force 158 and others. The Navy's post-World War II operations in the Persian Gulf began in 1948 when a series of U. S. task groups, led by the aircraft carrier USS Valley Forge, the escort carrier USS Rendova, Task Force 128 led by USS Pocono, visited the Persian Gulf. On 20 January 1948, Commander-in-Chief, Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean, Admiral Conolly, created Task Force 126 to supervise the large number of Navy fleet oilers and chartered tankers picking up oil in the Persian Gulf. By June 1949, the Task Force had become Persian Gulf Forces and on 16 August 1949 Persian Gulf Forces became Middle East Force. In October 1948, Hydrographic Survey Group 1 arrived to help map the Persian Gulf's waters.
Consisting of USS Maury, USS Dutton, USS John Blish, USS Littlehales, the group remained in the Persian Gulf until April 1949, but their efforts were limited by weather, logistics support and upkeep. In 1971, when Bahrain achieved full independence, the U. S. Navy leased part of the former British base HMS Jufair established in 1935, it was renamed it Bahrain. The name was changed to Naval Support Activity Bahrain in 1999; the command was established on 1 January 1983 along with the rest of U. S. Central Command, command of NAVCENT was given to a flag officer selectee based at Pearl Harbor and tasked with coordinating administrative and logistical support for U. S. naval forces in the Persian Gulf. Rear Admiral Stan Arthur, the first ComUSNAVCENT, served as the Commander-in-Chief, Pacific Fleet, Plans Officer during his first year in the position. An actual flag officer deployed to the region known as Commander, Middle East Force, retained operational control of U. S. naval forces in the Persian Gulf and served as USCENTCOM's de facto naval component commander.
Following the initial establishment of U. S. Central Command, the boundary between USCENTCOM and U. S. Pacific Command was the Strait of Hormuz. To direct forces of multiple services operating over the boundary, Joint Task Force Middle East was established on 20 September 1987, it was soon obvious that JTF-ME and the Middle East Force were directing much the same operations, a single dual-hatted naval commander, Middle Eastern Force, was appointed by February 1988. U. S. Naval Forces Central Command took part in Operation Earnest Will in 1986–1987 and supported Army special operations helicopters conducting Operation Prime Chance. Operation Praying Mantis followed later. In August 1990, Captain Robert Sutton USN, selected for promotion to Rear Admiral, was serving as ComUSNAVCENT; the first Central Command operations order for Desert Shield, issued on 10 August 1990, reflected the Pearl Harbor/MIDEASTFOR split and split the tasks between the two organisations, but,'most likely,' Pokrant writes,'Schwarzkopf had decided to do things differently.'
As Pokrant recounts, in a meeting on 6 August 1990, the Central Command plans chief, Rear Admiral Grant Sharp, had advised Schwarzkopf to have a fleet commander assigned to CENTCOM to control the extensive naval forces that would deploy. Schwarzkopf discussed the issue with Commander-in-Chief, Pacific Command, Admiral Huntington Hardisty, it was agreed that the Commander, U. S. Seventh Fleet staff, under Vice Admiral Hank Mauz, would be despatched to command in the Middle East and, the Commander, U. S. Third Fleet staff would be earmarked to replace them in six months. Mauz, his staff, his flagship, USS Blue Ridge, were all located at Yokosuka, their normal homeport. To speed the process of taking over command, Mauz obtained permission from Hardisty to fly to Diego Garcia aboard a VIP-configured P-3 Orion,'Peter Rabbit,' with key members of his staff; the rest of the command group would steam to the Persian Gulf aboard Blue Ridge. When Mauz was cleared to proceed from Diego Garcia to Bahrain, he expected to land and have some days to familiarise himself with the situation before taking over command of NAVCENT from Rear Admiral Fogerty.
However, on landing he found a message from Schwarzkopf ordering him to assume command immediately. From 1 January 1991, the six carriers deployed were divided into Battle Force Yankee and Task Force 154, Battle Force Zulu. TF 150 was Vice Admiral Henry H. Mauz, Jr. himself, TF 151 the Middle East Force, now including USS Bunker Hill, TG 150.3 Naval Logistics Support Force, TF 156 the amphibious force. Since ComUSNAVCENT operated from onboard ship, he established NAVCENT-Riyadh as a staff organization to provide continuous Navy representation at CENTCOM headquarters; this mission was assigned to Commander, Carrier Group Three. During succeeding months, the NAVCENT-Riyadh staff was augmented but remained small, relative to the ARCENT and CENTAF staffs. In November, the NAVCENT-Riyadh command was transferred from COMCARGRU 3 to Commander, Cruiser Destroyer Group 5; this change resulted in the Navy flag officer at NAVCENT Riyadh's remaining junior to other Service representatives CENTAF. Thi
Paul Meurice was a French novelist and playwright best known for his friendship with Victor Hugo. Meurice was died in Paris. In 1836, aged eighteen, he was introduced to Hugo by his friend Auguste Vacquerie, soon became a devoted follower, he embarked on a career as playwright. In 1848, Hugo made him the editor-in-chief of a journal he had just called L'Événement, their friendship was deep: the poet was a witness at Meurice's marriage to Palmyre Granger, daughter of the painter Jean-Pierre Granger. During the twenty years of Hugo's exile, Meurice looked after the financial and literary interests of the proscribed writer, he meanwhile continued his own literary career, publishing novels, some in collaboration with Alexandre Dumas, for whom he would ghost-write. He adapted Les Misérables and Quatre-Vingt-Treize for the stage. With Vacquerie, Victor Hugo's son Charles, Meurice founded the journal Le Rappel in 1869. On Hugo's death in 1885, Meurice and Vacquerie were made executors of his estate. In this capacity, Meurice compiled some posthumous collections of Hugo's poems.
He established the Maison de Victor Hugo in Paris in 1902. Benvenuto Cellini, play in 5 acts and 8 scenes, music by Adolphe de Groot, Paris, Théâtre de la Porte Saint-Martin, 1 April 1852 Schamyl, play in 5 acts and 9 scenes, music by Gondois, Paris, Théâtre de la Porte Saint-Martin, 26 June 1854 Paris, play in 5 acts, 26 scenes and epilogue, Paris, Théâtre de la Porte Saint-Martin, 21 July 1855 L'Avocat des pauvres, play in 5 acts, Paris, Théâtre de la Gaîté, 15 October 1856 Fanfan la Tulipe, play in 7 acts, Paris, Théâtre de l'Ambigu-Comique, 6 November 1858 Le Maître d'école, play in 5 acts, Paris, Théâtre de l'Ambigu-Comique, 10 March 1859 Le Roi de Bohème et ses sept châteaux, play in 6 acts, Paris, Théâtre de l'Ambigu-comique, 22 October 1859 François les Bas-Bleus, play in 5 acts and 7 scenes, Paris, Théâtre de l'Ambigu-Comique, 31 January 1863 Les Deux Diane, play in 5 acts and 8 scenes, Paris, Théâtre de l'Ambigu-comique, 8 March 1865 La Vie nouvelle, comedy in 4 acts, with prologue, Paris, Théâtre de l'Odéon, 8 April 1867 La Brésilienne, play in 6 acts with prologue, Paris, Théâtre de l'Ambigu-Comique, 9 April 1878 Quatre-vingt-treize, play based on the novel by Victor Hugo, by Paul Meurice, Paris, Théâtre de la Gaîté, 24 December 1881 Le Songe d'une nuit d'été, fairy-tale after Shakespeare Struensée, Paris, Comédie-Française, 5 November 1898Plays written in collaborationWith Auguste Vacquerie: Paroles, comedy based on Shakespeare, Second Théâtre-Français, 28 February 1843 With Auguste Vacquerie: Antigone, tragedy after Sophocles, Second Théâtre-Français, 21 May 1844 With Alexandre Dumas: Hamlet, prince de Danemark, play in verse in 5 acts and 8 scenes, after Shakespeare, Paris, Théâtre historique, 15 December 1847 With George Sand: Les Beaux Messieurs de Bois-Doré, play in 5 acts, 1862 With George Sand: Le Drac, drame fantastique in 3 acts, 1865 With George Sand: Cadio, play in 5 acts and 8 scenes, 1868 Revision of work by Paul Foucher: Notre-Dame de Paris, play in 5 acts and 12 scenes, based on the novel by Victor Hugo, 1886 With Charles Hugo: Les Misérables, based on the novel by Victor Hugo, Paris, Théâtre de la Porte Saint-Martin, 27 December 1899NovelsLa Famille Aubry Louspillac et Beautrubin Scènes du foyer.
La Famille Aubry Les Tyrans de village Les Chevaliers de l'esprit. Césara Le Songe de l'amour CorrespondenceCorrespondance entre Victor Hugo et Paul Meurice, preface by Jules Claretie Gustave Simon, « Paul Meurice. Souvenirs intimes », La Revue de Paris, mai-juin 1906, p. 61-96. Texte en ligne
"Rich Girls" is the breakthrough single by Canadian pop rock group Down with Webster from the band's 2009 EP, Time to Win, Vol. 1. The song was successful in Canada, peaking at #21 on the Canadian Hot 100 and raising Down with Webster's popularity in their native country. In April 2010, the song was certified Platinum by the CRIA in digital downloads. "Rich Girl$" was featured on the compilation album of the Juno Awards of 2010. "Rich Girl$" was #86 on the Top 103 Songs of 2009 named by Z103.5. The song borrows many elements from the original version by Hall & Oates, a #1 hit on the Billboard Hot 100. Although the song is not a full cover, the song samples the chorus and lifts the melody and some lyrics. In an interview Andrew "Marty" Martino, the drummer for Down with Webster, said that Hall and Oates gave the song a "thumbs up"; the music video was directed by Josh Forbes. It debuted on MuchMusic Countdown at #30 in the week of December 10, 2009; the video reached #1 on the Countdown for the week of April 1, 2010.
"Rich Girl$" debuted on the Canadian Hot 100 at #47 on the week of October 24, 2009 and peaked at #21 on the week of January 9, 2010. The song spent a total of 20 weeks on the chart; the song debuted at #78 on the U. S. Hot 100 Airplay and peaked at #76; the song spent a total of 5 weeks on the Hot 100 Airplay chart. "Rich Girl$" Official music video on YouTube
Anne Mondrup Gadegaard Jensen, better known as Anne Gadegaard, is a Danish singer and songwriter. She is best known for finishing 5th at the Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2003 while representing Denmark. Anne started singing in 2002, inspired by the success of child singer Razz. In 2003, she entered the Danish MGP Contest 2003, where she was accepted, won the competition to represent Denmark at the Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2003, her song was called "Arabiens Drøm". Although it had good reviews, it did not win the contest; the song finished 5th out of scoring 93 points. During that year, she released her debut studio album Arabiens Drøm. Anne's second studio album, Ini Mini Miny, was released in 2004 and her third Chiki Chiki, in 2005. In early 2005, she released her 1st music video Kan Du Mærke Beatet, she released her first compilation album called De første og Største hits in 2006, which includes a DVD of her performing live at the Langelandsfestivalen 2005. Anne released her 4th studio album, Annes Jul, during Christmas time 2006 with two editions for the album, standard one and deluxe edition.
Soon after, she toured Italy. In 2008, she collaborated with the Danish singers Nicolai Kielstrup, Caroline Lind, B-Boys, Amalie and Mark, in two music projects, presenting two songs called "En Verden Til Forskel" and "Gør Noget". In this year, some plans for a 5th studio album were cancelled. In 2010, she released a new single, entitled "Blah Blah", under the artistic name Anne G. After some months of the official release of the single, Anne released a music video for "Blah Blah". In 2013, she presented a new single, back as her original name Anne Gadegaard; the single was entitled "Bag Skyerne", reached number 1 in iTunes Denmark and Norway. In 2015, Gadegaard was announced as one of the ten competing musicians in Dansk Melodi Grand Prix 2015 with the song "Suitcase", she finished second in the final behind the winning song "The Way You Are" by Anti Social Media, which became Denmark's first Eurovision song to fail to qualify since 2007. Official website Anne Gadegaard on IMDb
Merab Kostava was a Georgian dissident and poet. Along with Zviad Gamsakhurdia, he led the dissident movement in Georgia against the Soviet Union, until his death in a car accident in 1989. Kostava was born in 1939 in Tbilisi, of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, USSR. In 1954, Kostava and Zviad Gamsakhurdia founded the Georgian youth underground organization "Gorgasliani," a tribute to Vakhtang Gorgasali, the medieval Georgian king who founded the capital, Tbilisi. Between 1956 and 1958 Kostava, together with Gamsakhurdia and several other members of this organization were jailed by the KGB for "anti-Soviet activity." The charges against Kostava and Gamsakhurdia included the dissemination of anti-communist literature and proclamations. Kostava graduated from the Tbilisi State Conservatoire in 1962. From 1962–1977 he was a teacher at a local music school in Tbilisi. In 1973, Kostava and Gamsakhurdia established the Initiative Group for defence of Human Rights. In 1976 Kostava co-founded the Georgian Helsinki Group.
From 1976–1977 and 1987–1989 Kostava was a member of the Governing Board of the abovementioned human rights organization. After 1975 Kostava was a member of Amnesty International. In 1977, Kostava and Gamsakhurdia were arrested and jailed, charged with spreading anti-Soviet propaganda, the result of bringing note to the pillaging of church artifacts and the deportation of subsequent treatment of the Meskhetian Turks. Kostava was sent to Siberia to serve his sentence. While Gamsakhurdia publicly renounced his views in hopes of a lesser sentence, Kostava refused to do so, he was released from prison in August, 1987. In 1978, the two men were nominated to the Nobel Peace Prize by the Congress of the USA. In 1988 Kostava co-founded the Society of Saint Ilia the Righteous and was one of the leaders of this political pro-independence organization. From 1988–1989 he was one of the organizers and active participants of most peaceful pro-independence political actions within the Georgian SSR. On April 9, 1989 Kostava was released after 45 days.
Merab Kostava was active in the underground network of Samizdat publishers, co-publisher of the Georgian underground periodical "Okros Satsmisi". He was the author of many important scientific works. On October 13, 1989, Merab Kostava died in a car accident. In 2013, he was posthumously awarded the Order of National Hero of Georgia. There are streets named after Merab Kostava in Tbilisi and Shindisi