A movie projector is an opto-mechanical device for displaying motion picture film by projecting it onto a screen. Most of the optical and mechanical elements, except for the illumination, the first movie projector was the Zoopraxiscope, invented by British photographer Eadweard Muybridge in 1879. The zoopraxiscope projected images from rotating glass disks in rapid succession to give the impression of motion, the stop-motion images were initially painted onto the glass, as silhouettes. A second series of discs, made in 1892–94, used outline drawings printed onto the discs photographically, a more sophisticated movie projector was invented by Frenchman Louis Le Prince while working in Leeds. In 1888 Le Prince took out a patent for a 16-lens device that combined a motion picture camera with a projector, in 1888, he used an updated version of his camera to film the first ever motion picture, the Roundhay Garden Scene. The pictures were exhibited in Hunslet. The Lumière brothers invented the first successful movie projector and they made their first film, Sortie de lusine Lumière de Lyon, in 1894, which was publicly screened at LEden, La Ciotat a year later.
The first commercial, public screening of cinematographic films happened in Paris on 28 December 1895, the cinematograph was exhibited at the Paris Exhibition of 1900. At the Exhibition, films made by the Lumière Brothers were projected onto a screen measuring 16 by 21 meters. In 1999, digital projectors were being tried out in some movie theatres. These early projectors played the movie stored on a server and played back through the projector, due to their relatively low resolution, the images at the time showed pixelization blocks in some scenes, much like images on early widescreen televisions. By 2006, the advent of much higher 4K resolution digital projection had removed any traces of pixelization, the systems became more compact than the larger machines of four years earlier. By 2009, movie theatres started replacing the film projectors with digital projectors, in 2013, it was estimated that 92% of movie theatres in the United States had converted to digital, with 8% still playing film.
In 2015, numerous popular filmmakers—including Quentin Tarantino and Christopher Nolan—lobbied large studios to commit to purchase an amount of 35 mm film from Kodak. The decision ensured that Kodaks 35mm film production would continue for several years, nowadays film projectors are considered obsolete as high-resolution digital projectors offer many advantages over traditional film units. For example, digital projectors contain no moving parts except fans, can be operated remotely and they allow for much easier, less expensive, and more reliable storage and distribution of content, including the ability to display live broadcasts. According to the theory of the phi phenomenon, the brain constitutes an experience of apparent movement when presented with a sequence of near-identical still images. Persistence of vision should be compared with the phenomena of beta movement
Udo Kier is a German actor who has appeared in over 200 films. Kier was born in Cologne, near the end of World War II, the hospital where he was born was bombed moments after his birth. In his youth he worked as a boy and cantor. He moved to the United Kingdom to learn the English language, in 1966, Kier was cast in the lead role for the film Road to St. Tropez. He has become notorious for his work with directors, including Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Walerian Borowczyk, Gus Van Zant, Christoph Schlingensief. He has appeared in all of Lars von Triers movies since 1987s Epidemic and his most famous Hollywood roles include appearances in Ace Ventura, Pet Detective, Barb Wire, as a NASA flight psychologist in Armageddon, and as Ralphie in the film Johnny Mnemonic. Music video work Madonnas Deeper and Deeper from the album Erotica, Korns Make Me Bad, Eve Let Me Blow Ya Mind and he voiced Professor Pericles in Scooby-Doo. A documentary on his life and career entitled ICH-UDO. der Schauspieler Udo Kier was filmed for ARTE, the French-German culture channel in Europe,2013 the Documentary won the New York Festival Finalist Certificate.
Kier moved to Palm Springs, California in 1991, Command & Conquer, Red Alert 2 Command & Conquer, Yuris Revenge Tons May. The Other Face of Love, Udo Kiers Career in the Erotic Genre in Jack Stevenson, Cinemas Sexual Myth Makers, Critical Vision/Headpress,2002, pp. 141–58 and Udo Speaks, An Interview with Udo Kier in same volume, pp. 159–62. Udo Kier at the Internet Movie Database Official website
Szczecin is the capital city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. Located near the Baltic Sea, it is a major seaport, as of June 2011, the population was 407,811. Szczecin is located on the Oder, south of the Szczecin Lagoon, the city is situated along the southwestern shore of Dąbie Lake, on both sides of the Oder and on several large islands between the western and eastern branches of the river. The citys recorded history began in the 8th century as a Slavic Pomeranian stronghold, in the 12th century, when Szczecin had become one of Pomeranias main urban centres, it lost its independence to Piast Poland, the Duchy of Saxony, the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark. At the same time, the House of Griffins established themselves as rulers, the population was Christianized. The native Slavic population was subjected to discrimination and Germanization in the following centuries, between 1237 and 1243, the town was rebuilt, granted extensive autonomy rights and eventually joined the Hanseatic League.
After the Treaty of Stettin in 1630, the town came under the control of the Swedish Empire, in the late-19th century Stettin became an industrial town, vastly increasing in size and population, and served as a major port for Berlin. During the Nazi era, opposition groups and minorities were persecuted and treated as enemies, by the end of World War II Stettins status was in doubt, and the Soviet occupation authorities at first appointed officials from the citys almost entirely German pre-war population. In July 1945, Polish authorities were permitted to take power, Stettin was renamed Szczecin and became part of the newly established the Polish Peoples Republic, and from 1989 the Republic of Poland. From 1999 onwards, Szczecin has served as the site of the headquarters of NATOs Multinational Corps Northeast, the names Szczecin and Stettin are of Slavic origin, though the exact etymology is the subject of ongoing research. Other medieval names for the town are Burstaborg and Burstenburgh and these names, which literally mean brush burgh, are likely derived from the translation of the citys Slavic name.
The recorded history of Szczecin began in the century, when West Slavs settled Pomerania. Since the 9th century, the stronghold was fortified and expanded toward the Oder bank, Mieszko I of Poland took control of Pomerania between 960 and 967, and the region with the city of Szczecin became part of Poland in 967. Subsequent Polish rulers, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Liutician federation all aimed to control the territory, after the decline of the neighbouring regional centre Wolin in the 12th century, the city became one of the more important and powerful seaports of the Baltic Sea. In a campaign in the winter of 1121–1122, Bolesław III Wrymouth, the inhabitants were Christianized by two missions of Bishop Otto of Bamberg in 1124 and 1128. At this time, the first Christian church of Saints Peter, Polish minted coins were commonly used in trade in this period. The population of the city at that time is estimated to be at around 5, Polish rule ended with Boleslaws death in 1138. There, a Polish contingent supplied by Mieszko III the Old joined the crusaders, the citizens had placed crosses around the fortifications, indicating they already had been Christianised
Berlin Wintergarten theatre
The Berlin Wintergarten theatre was a large variety theatre in Berlin-Mitte. It opened in 1887 and was destroyed by bombs in June 1944, the name was taken on by a theatre in Potsdamer Strasse in 1992. The Skladanowsky brothers showcased the first short movie presentation ever at the theatre in 1895, but it was a multi-use variety theatre, not a true kino. Media related to Wintergarten at Wikimedia Commons
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry and history. German is the mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans. The English term Germans has historically referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages, before the collapse of communism and the reunification of Germany in 1990, Germans constituted the largest divided nation in Europe by far. Ever since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, of approximately 100 million native speakers of German in the world, roughly 80 million consider themselves Germans. Thus, the number of Germans lies somewhere between 100 and more than 150 million, depending on the criteria applied. Today, people from countries with German-speaking majorities most often subscribe to their own national identities, the German term Deutsche originates from the Old High German word diutisc, referring to the Germanic language of the people.
It is not clear how commonly, if at all, the word was used as an ethnonym in Old High German, used as a noun, ein diutscher in the sense of a German emerges in Middle High German, attested from the second half of the 12th century. The Old French term alemans is taken from the name of the Alamanni and it was loaned into Middle English as almains in the early 14th century. The word Dutch is attested in English from the 14th century, denoting continental West Germanic dialects, while in most Romance languages the Germans have been named from the Alamanni, the Old Norse and Estonian names for the Germans were taken from that of the Saxons. In Slavic languages, the Germans were given the name of němьci, originally with a meaning foreigner, the English term Germans is only attested from the mid-16th century, based on the classical Latin term Germani used by Julius Caesar and Tacitus. It gradually replaced Dutch and Almains, the latter becoming mostly obsolete by the early 18th century, the Germans are a Germanic people, who as an ethnicity emerged during the Middle Ages.
Originally part of the Holy Roman Empire, around 300 independent German states emerged during its decline after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 ending the Thirty Years War and these states eventually formed into modern Germany in the 19th century. The concept of a German ethnicity is linked to Germanic tribes of antiquity in central Europe, the early Germans originated on the North German Plain as well as southern Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the number of Germans was significantly increasing and they began expanding into eastern Europe, during antiquity these Germanic tribes remained separate from each other and did not have writing systems at that time. In the European Iron Age the area that is now Germany was divided into the La Tène horizon in Southern Germany and the Jastorf culture in Northern Germany. By 55 BC, the Germans had reached the Danube river and had either assimilated or otherwise driven out the Celts who had lived there, and had spread west into what is now Belgium and France.
Conflict between the Germanic tribes and the forces of Rome under Julius Caesar forced major Germanic tribes to retreat to the east bank of the Rhine, in Roman-held territories with Germanic populations, the Germanic and Roman peoples intermarried, and Roman and Christian traditions intermingled. The adoption of Christianity would become an influence in the development of a common German identity
German gold mark
The Goldmark was the currency used in the German Empire from 1873 to 1914. The Papiermark refers to the German currency from 4 August 1914 when the link between the Mark and gold was abandoned. Before unification, the different German states issued a variety of different currencies, though most were linked to the Vereinsthaler, a silver coin containing 16⅔ grams of pure silver. Although the Mark was based on rather than silver, a fixed exchange rate between the Vereinsthaler and the Mark of 3 Mark =1 Vereinsthaler was used for the conversion. Southern Germany had used the Gulden as the unit of account. Bremen had used a gold based Thaler which was converted directly to the Mark at a rate of 1 gold Thaler =3.32 Mark, Hamburg had used its own Mark prior to 1873. This was replaced by the Goldmark at a rate of 1 Hamburg Mark =1.2 Goldmark, from 1 January 1876 onwards, the Mark became the only legal tender. The name Goldmark was created to distinguish it from the Papiermark which suffered a loss of value through hyperinflation following World War I.
The goldmark was on a standard with 2790 Mark equal to 1 kilogram of pure gold. From 1900 to 1933, the United States adhered to a standard as well. The goldmark therefore had a value of approximately U. S. $0.25, the monetary hegemon of the time when the goldmark was in use, was the Pound Sterling, with £1 being valued at 20.43 goldmarks. The actual total payout from 1920 to 1931 was 20 billion German goldmarks, most of that money came from loans from New York bankers. Following the Nazi seizure of power in 1933, payments of reparations were officially abandoned, the interest on those debts was paid off on 3 October 2010, the 20th anniversary of German reunification. Occasionally Commemorative coins were minted, in cases the obverse. Many of the states issued coins in very small numbers. Also, in all states coinage became very limited after the First World War began. Well preserved examples of such low mintage coins can be rare, the Principality of Lippe was the only state not to issue any gold coins in this period.
1 Pfennig 2 Pfennig 5 Pfennig 10 Pfennig 20 Pfennig 25 Pfennig Silver coins were minted in.900 fineness to a standard of 5 grams silver per Mark, production of 2 and 5 Mark coins ceased in 1915 while 1 Mark coins continued to be issued until 1916
The Geneva drive or Maltese cross is a gear mechanism that translates a continuous rotation into an intermittent rotary motion. The rotating drive wheel has a pin that reaches into a slot of the driven wheel advancing it by one step, the drive wheel has a raised circular blocking disc that locks the driven wheel in position between steps. The name derives from the devices earliest application in mechanical watches, the Geneva drive is commonly called a Maltese cross mechanism due to the visual resemblance when the driven wheel has four spokes. Since they can be small and are able to withstand substantial mechanical stress. In the most common arrangement, the wheel has four slots. If the driven wheel has n slots, it advances by 360°/n per full rotation of the drive wheel, because the mechanism needs to be well lubricated, it is often enclosed in an oil capsule. One application of the Geneva drive is in movie projectors, the film does not run continuously through the projector, the film is advanced frame by frame, each frame standing still in front of the lens for 1/24 of a second.
This intermittent motion is achieved using a Geneva drive, the first uses of the Geneva drive in film projectors go back to 1896 to the projectors of Oskar Messter and Max Gliewe and the Teatrograph of Robert William Paul. Previous projectors, including Thomas Armats projector, marketed by Edison as the Vitascope, had used a mechanism, invented by Georges Demenÿ in 1893. If one of the slots of the wheel is occluded. In watches, the wheel is the one that winds up the spring. This so-called Geneva stop or Geneva stop work was the invention of 17th or 18th century watchmakers, the Iron Ring Clock uses a Geneva mechanism to provide intermittent motion to one of its rings. A Geneva drive was used to change filters in the Dawn mission framing camera used to image the asteroid 4 Vesta in 2011 and it was selected to ensure that should the mechanism fail at least one filter would be usable. An internal Geneva drive is a variant on the design, the axis of the drive wheel of the internal drive can have a bearing only on one side.
The external form is the common, as it can be built smaller. Another variant is the spherical Geneva drive, the figure shows the motions curves for an external four-slots Geneva drive, in arbitrary units. There is a discontinuity in the acceleration when the drive pin enters and this generates an infinite peak of jerk, and therefore vibrations. Dwell cam Sclater, Cam and Ratchet Drives and Mechanisms and Mechanical Devices Sourcebook, New York, McGraw Hill, pp. 180–210, drawings and designs of various drives
Flip books are often illustrated books for children, but may be geared towards adults and employ a series of photographs rather than drawings. Flip books are not always separate books, but may appear as a feature in ordinary books or magazines. Software packages and websites are available that convert digital video files into custom-made flip books. Flip books are essentially a form of animation. Rather than reading left to right, a viewer simply stares at the location of the pictures in the flip book as the pages turn. The German word for flip book—Daumenkino, literally thumb cinema—reflects this process, the first flip book appeared in September,1868, when it was patented by John Barnes Linnett under the name kineograph. They were the first form of animation to employ a linear sequence of images rather than circular, in 1894, Herman Casler invented a mechanized form of flip book called the Mutoscope, which mounted the pages on a central rotating cylinder rather than binding them in a book.
The mutoscope remained a popular attraction through the century, appearing as coin-operated machines in penny arcades. In 1897, the English filmmaker Henry William Short marketed his Filoscope, Flip books are now largely considered a toy or novelty for children, and were once a common prize in cereal and Cracker Jack boxes. However, in addition to their role in the birth of cinema and they continue to be used in marketing today, as well as in art and published photographic collections. Vintage flip books are popular among collectors, and especially ones from the late 19th to early 20th century have been known to fetch thousands of dollars in sales. Since 2007, Walt Disney Animation Studios has started its films with a logo that initially evokes a flip book. It starts with a view of an empty page of paper, as the start to turn. The first international flip book festival was held in 2004, by the Akademie Schloss Solitude in Stuttgart, another international flip book festival was held in Linz, Austria in 2005.
In 2010 Hungary postal services released a book of stamps depicting a moving gömböc. Israel issued an Israeli Animation Stamp Booklet in the same year, finnish passport design released in 2012 contains a flipbook of a walking moose. Flipbook. info – Includes demonstrative videos of antique flipbooks, history of Flip Books – a brief history of flipbooks
A photographer is a person who makes photographs. As in other arts, the definitions of amateur and professional are not entirely categorical, a professional photographer is likely to take photographs to make money, by salary or through the display, sale or use of those photographs. An amateur photographer may take photographs for pleasure and to record an event, place, as a person without a monetary motivation. A professional photographer may be an employee, for example of a newspaper, or may contract to cover a planned event such as a wedding or graduation. Others, including paparazzi and fine art photographers, are freelancers, first making a picture, some workers, such as crime scene detectives, estate agents and scientists, make photographs as part of other work. Photographers who produce moving rather than still pictures are often called cinematographers, videographers or camera operators, an amateur may make considerable sums entering work in contests for prize money or through occasional inclusion of their work in magazines or the archive of a photo agency.
The term professional may imply preparation, for example, by academic study, Photographers are categorized based on the subjects they photograph. Some photographers explore subjects typical of such as landscape, still life. The exclusive right of photographers to copy and use their products is protected by copyright, countless industries purchase photographs for use in publications and on products. This is usually referred to as usage fee and is used to distinguish from production fees, an additional contract and royalty would apply for each additional use of the photograph. The contract may be for one year, or other duration. The photographer usually charges a royalty as well as a one-time fee, the contract may be for non-exclusive use of the photograph or for exclusive use of the photograph. The contract can stipulate that the photographer is entitled to audit the company for determination of royalty payments. A royalty is based on the size at which the photo will be used in a magazine or book.
Photos taken by a photographer working on assignment are often work for hire belonging to the company or publication unless stipulated otherwise by contract. There are major companies who have maintained catalogues of stock photography and images for decades, such as Getty Images, commercial photographers may promote their work to advertising and editorial art buyers via printed and online marketing vehicles. Many people upload their photographs to social networking websites and other websites and those interested in legal precision may explicitly release them to the public domain or under a free content license. Some sites, including Wikimedia Commons, are punctilious about licenses, the dictionary definition of photographer at Wiktionary Media related to Photographers at Wikimedia Commons
German National Library of Economics
The ZBW is Germany’s central subject library and research infrastructure for economics in Germany. The ZBW is part of the system of national literature provision within the German Research Foundation, the ZBW holds almost 4.4 million items. The ZBW subscribes to more than 27,100 journals and enables access to 2.3 million electronic documents, the search portal EconBiz gives free access to 10 million datasets. More than 134,000 full-texts from German research institutes and universities are available online, the ZBW creates content-descriptive metadata not only for books, but for articles in journals and working papers, i. e. they are indexed with keywords from the Standard Thesaurus for Economics. The ZBW maintains the search portal EconBiz containing more than 10 million datasets of bibliographic references for economics, the ZBW offers an online reference service, Research Guide EconDesk, which provides guidance for literature and data searches in economics and business studies. The ZBW is a player in the Open Access movement which aims for free access to scholarly research output.
It is the negotiator for national licences in economics in Germany. The repository EconStor serves as a platform for the publication of research output in economics. Authors and publishing institutions can publish without charges on EconStor, more than 400 institutions use EconStor for the digital dissemination of their publications in Open Access. It is a service for RePEc and one of its most frequently used archives. All titles in EconStor are indexed by search engines such as Google, Google Scholar and BASE, the ZBW Journal Data Archive is a service for the editors of scholarly journals in economics. Editors can deposit datasets and other relating to empirical articles. The ZBW publishes two journals of economic policy, Wirtschaftsdienst and Intereconomics, the ZBW provides support for researchers dealing with the different aspects of the digitisation of the science system, such as publishing in Open Access or research data management. The ZBW participates in national and international projects to new services for its users.
GeRDI – Generic Research Data Infrastructure, the project aims to develop a distributed and linked-up research data infrastructure. It aims to link existing and future research data centres all over Germany. This allows scientists to search for and re-use research data across disciplines, the ZBW coordinates the project which is funded by the German Research Foundation. It aims to show that extensive automation of metadata creation can produce relevant added value to scholarly information discovery, metrics, MEasuring The Reliability and perception of Indicators for interactions with sCientific productS