Saint Ann's School (New York City)
Saint Ann's School is an arts-oriented private school located in the Brooklyn Heights neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York City. The school is a non-sectarian, co-educational pre-K–12 day school with rigorous programs in the arts and sciences; the students number 1,080 from preschool through 12th grade, as well as 324 faculty and staff members. The campus includes a central 15-story building with a 19th-century facade housing the 4th through 12th grades. Annual tuition as of 2015 is between $41,000 depending on grade level. Saint Ann's School was founded in 1965 with 63 students and seven teachers in the basement of the St. Ann's Episcopal Church under the aegis of the vestry of the church and several interested parents. In 1966, the Church purchased the former Crescent Athletic Club House, a building designed by noted Brooklyn architect Frank Freeman, for the sum of $365,000, which has since served as the school's main building. Stanley Bosworth became its first headmaster. In 1982, Saint Ann's School formally disaffiliated from the church, having been granted a charter from the Board of Regents of the State of New York.
When Bosworth retired in 2004, Larry Weiss the head of the upper school at The Horace Mann School, American University scholar, president at Friends World College, began his tenure as head of school at Saint Ann's. In September 2009, it was announced that Weiss would not return to Saint Ann's for the 2010–2011 academic year. In May 2010, Vincent J. Tompkins, Jr. the Deputy Provost at Brown University, associate dean of academic affairs at Harvard University, was named Weiss's successor. A graduate of Brown, he received his PhD from Harvard, taught American history there before entering academic administration, he assumed leadership of Saint Ann's beginning with the 2010-2011 academic year. The school has no grading system. Instead, teachers write full-page anecdotal reports for each student. Saint Ann’s curriculum emphasizes education in the arts including dance, music and the visual and recreational arts, as central elements of its academic curriculum, while high school students attend a seminar program taught after hours at the end of the school day.
Seminar topics include community service, social justice, extracurricular literary studies, debate & rhetoric, among others. Instruction at Saint Ann's is departmentalized from fourth through twelfth grade; the teaching faculty is made up of scholars, mathematicians, musicians and writers. The school allows its high school juniors and seniors to design their own curriculum. In a 2004 survey conducted by The Wall Street Journal, Saint Ann's was rated the number one high school in the country for having the highest percentage of graduating seniors enroll in Ivy League and several other selective colleges. In late 2007, The Wall Street Journal again listed Saint Ann's as one of the country's top 50 high schools for its success in preparing students to enter top American universities. Advanced Placement courses are not offered at Saint Ann's. In 2012, the New York Observer ranked; the school's visual and performing arts program includes: Film, video, & photography Playwriting, theater production, & costume design & construction Architecture Mathematical Art Drawing, painting, conceptual art & printmaking Puppet construction Modern dance, jazz dance, & African dance Mathematics of Music, Electronic music, Brass Choir, Chamber Orchestra, Chorus, chamber music, jazz band, Bach Ensemble, music theory, modern music, Jazz Techniques, Jazz Guitar, Percussion Ensemble, Wind Ensemble, Music Theory and Composition and Computers, The Broadway Musical, Jazz History, an African balafon ensemble in the Lower School Performance Art Saint Ann's offers courses in: Ancient Greek Latin Mandarin Chinese Japanese Spanish French The high school seminar program at Saint Ann’s is a unique series of offerings presented by teachers outside the domain of their departments and in addition to their regular teaching load.
They are given at odd hours at the end of the regular school day, because in the busy schedules of the instructors and the students, no other time is available. The seminars are intense two-hour periods in which students undertake enormous amounts of self-study and/or creative work. Recent offerings have included: Ancient Greek Literature in Translation. Art and the Philosophy of Richard Wagner's Der Ring Des Nibelung; the school is organized into four divisions: preschool, middle an
Chloë Grace Moretz
Chloë Grace Moretz is an American actress and model. She began acting at age six, with early roles in the supernatural horror film The Amityville Horror, the drama series Desperate Housewives, the supernatural horror film The Eye, the drama film The Poker House, the drama series Dirty Sexy Money, the romantic comedy film 500 Days of Summer and the children's comedy film Diary of a Wimpy Kid. Moretz' breakthrough came in 2010 with her critically acclaimed performances as Hit-Girl in the superhero film Kick-Ass and as a child vampire in the horror film Let Me In, she starred in Martin Scorsese's historical adventure film Hugo, Tim Burton's horror comedy film Dark Shadows, the satirical sitcom 30 Rock, reprised her role as Hit-Girl in Kick-Ass 2 and played Carrie White in the supernatural horror film Carrie. In 2014, Moretz starred in the award-winning drama film Clouds of Sils Maria, the teen romantic drama If I Stay and the vigilante action film The Equalizer. After starring in the mystery thriller film Dark Places, the science fiction action film The 5th Wave and the comedy film Neighbors 2: Sorority Rising, Moretz announced that she was "re-assessing" her roles and choices and was dropping out of several projects, including Universal Studios' live-action adaptation of The Little Mermaid.
Moretz' subsequent roles have included the drama film The Miseducation of Cameron Post, the horror film Suspiria, Neil Jordan's drama thriller film Greta, all in 2018. She will voice Wednesday Addams in upcoming animated films. Moretz' stage work includes her starring role in the original off-Broadway production of The Library at The Public Theater in New York City. Moretz was born in Atlanta and raised in Cartersville, Georgia, her mother, Teri Duke, is a nurse practitioner, her father, McCoy Moretz, is a plastic surgeon, heir to the Moretz hosiery business, bought out in 2011 for $350 million. She has four older brothers: Brandon, Trevor and Ethan, she has described her family as "very Christian". She moved to New York City in 2002 with her mother and brother Trevor, because he had been accepted into the Professional Performing Arts School, what first drew her interest in acting. Moretz would help Trevor read lines. Moretz's first acting role in Hollywood was as Violet in two episodes of the CBS series The Guardian, her first film role was as Molly in Heart of the Beholder.
It was not until her second big-screen acting role, in the 2005 remake of The Amityville Horror, that she earned greater recognition, receiving a Young Artist Award nomination. After Amityville, Moretz received several guest-starring roles on TV, as well as a small role in Big Momma's House 2, her recurring TV characters include Kiki George in Dirty Sexy Money and Sherri Maltby in Desperate Housewives. Moretz voiced the U. S. version of the animated character Darby in My Friends Pooh. Moretz co-starred as Cammie, an abused child, in The Poker House. In 2010, Moretz appeared as Hit-Girl in director Matthew Vaughn's action film Kick-Ass, based on the comic book series of the same name by Mark Millar and John Romita, Jr. Moretz trained with Jackie Chan's stunt crew for three months prior to filming and did most of her own stunts while filming on location; because of her youth, there was controversy about her role in the violent film. She received widespread critical acclaim for her performance. Roger Ebert gave the film only one star, but wrote about Moretz: "Say what you will about her character, but Chloë Grace Moretz has presence and appeal."
That same year, she played Abby, a 12-year-old vampire, in Let Me In, the UK/US remake of the Swedish film Let the Right One In. In November 2010, at age 13, Moretz was called "the busiest actress in Hollywood". Moretz played Ann Sliger in the 2011 crime thriller Texas Killing Fields; that same year, she played Isabelle in Martin Scorsese's Hugo, a 3D film adaptation of The Invention of Hugo Cabret, nominated for 11 Oscars. Moretz starred in an adaptation of the novel by Andrea Portes, she appeared in the 2012 Tim Burton film Dark Shadows, a remake of the soap opera, playing the role of Carolyn Stoddard, a rebellious teenage daughter. In 2013, she reprised her role as Hit-Girl in the sequel Kick-Ass 2; the same year, she appeared in a short segment in the film Movie 43 and played the title character in Carrie, a remake of the 1976 film, directed by Kimberly Peirce. Moretz has done voice work for video games, she reprised her role as Hit-Girl for Kick-Ass: The Game, played young Lady Emily in Dishonored.
When asked in October 2012 why she tends to gravitate towards playing darker, troubled characters, Moretz responded that she has such a happy family life, finds it challenging to play characters who are different. From March 25 through April 27, 2014, Moretz made her Off-Broadway debut in The Library, directed by Steven Soderbergh. Moretz played the protagonist, Mia, in the adaptation of Gayle Forman's If I Stay; the story follows a 17-year-old classical musician as she deals with the aftermath of a catastrophic car accident involving her family and has an out-of-body experience. Critical response to the film was mixed. Moretz subsequently starred as Cassie Sullivan in The 5th Wave, an adaptation of the best-selling novel by Rick Yancey; the film was released in January 2016. Hannah Minghella of Sony Pictures said Moretz "embodies the heart and determination that make Cassie such a compelling character." In April 2016, M
Sofia Carmina Coppola is an American screenwriter, director and former actress. The daughter of filmmakers Eleanor and Francis Ford Coppola, she made her film debut as an infant in her father's acclaimed crime drama film, The Godfather, she appeared in a supporting role in Peggy Sue Got Married and portrayed Mary Corleone, the daughter of Michael Corleone, in The Godfather: Part III. Her performance in the latter was criticised, she turned her attention to filmmaking, she made her feature-length debut with the coming-of-age drama The Virgin Suicides, based on the novel of the same name by Jeffery Eugenides. It was the first of her collaborations with actress Kirsten Dunst. In 2004, she received the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay for the comedy-drama Lost in Translation and became the third woman to be nominated for an Academy Award for Best Director. In 2006, Coppola directed the historical drama Marie Antoinette, starring Dunst as the ill-fated French queen. In 2010, with the drama Somewhere, Coppola became the first American woman to win the Golden Lion, the top prize at the Venice Film Festival.
In 2013, she directed the satirical crime film The Bling Ring, based on the crime ring of the same name. At the 2017 Cannes Film Festival, Coppola became the second woman in the festival's history to win the Best Director award, for the drama film The Beguiled. Sofia Carmina Coppola was born in New York City on May 14, 1971, the youngest child and only daughter of documentarian Eleanor Coppola and filmmaker Francis Ford Coppola, she was raised on her parents' farm in Rutherford, California. She graduated from St. Helena High School in 1989, she attended Mills College and the California Institute of the Arts. At 15, she interned with Chanel. After dropping out of college, Coppola started a clothing line called Milkfed, now sold in Japan. Among her extensive Hollywood family are her aunt Talia Shire, her first cousins Nicolas Cage and Jason Schwartzman. Coppola's acting career, marked by frequent criticisms of nepotism and negative reviews, began while she was an infant, as she made background appearances in seven of her father's films.
The best known of these is her appearance in The Godfather as the infant Michael Francis Rizzi, in the baptism scene. Coppola returned to her father's trilogy in both the second and third Godfather films, playing an immigrant child in The Godfather Part II and Michael Corleone's daughter in The Godfather Part III, after the cast actress, Winona Ryder, discontinued her involvement with the film. Coppola responded to a question about her role in The Godfather Part III in a 2013 interview:Let's see. Did I not wanna do it? Um. I was game. I was trying different things, it sounded better than college. I didn't think about the public aspect of it; that took me by surprise. The whole reaction. People felt attached to the Godfather films. I grew up with them and it's no big deal. I mean, I understand they're great films but... I dunno. I'm not surprised, it makes sense that people would have an opinion about it but I got a lot of attention I wasn't expecting. I was going to art school, it was before the Internet so magazines would come out but the next month they were gone.
There wasn't as much paparazzi around back then. It has been suggested that the situation further damaged Francis Ford Coppola's career and ruined Sofia's before it had begun. Coppola has said that she never wanted to act and only did it to help out when her father asked her to. After shooting, she confirmed, it has been suggested that Sofia's role in the film may have contributed to its box office performance, which started strong and began to decline. Coppola has said that her father based a lot of her character on her while writing the script, before she was cast into the role. Sofia had herself worried that she had only been given the role because she was the director's daughter, the role placed a strain on her during the time of shooting that her mother observed in a series of diaries she wrote for Vogue during the filming. Coppola acted in her father's films The Outsiders, in a scene where Matt Dillon, Tommy Howell, Ralph Macchio are eating at a Dairy Queen. Frankenweenie was the first film she performed in, not associated with her father.
The short film, titled Life Without Zoe and released as part of a tripartite anthology film New York Stories, was co-written by a teenage Coppola with her father, who directed the film. After she was critically panned for her performance in The Godfather Part III, for which she was named "Worst Supporting Actress" and "Worst New Star" at the 1990 Golden Raspberry Awards, Coppola ended her acting career, although she appeared in the independent film Inside Monkey Zetterland, as well as in the backgrounds of films by her friends and family: for example, she appeared as Saché, one of Queen Padmé Amidala's five handmaidens in George Lucas' Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace, she has since been quoted as saying that she was not hurt by the criticism from her role in The Godfather Part III, because she never wanted an acting career. Coppola appears in several music videos from the 1990s: The Black Crowes' "Sometim
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company. The newspaper has a centrist audience. Founded by Al Neuharth on September 15, 1982, it operates from Gannett's corporate headquarters on Jones Branch Drive, in McLean, Virginia, it is printed at five additional sites internationally. Its dynamic design influenced the style of local and national newspapers worldwide, through its use of concise reports, colorized images, informational graphics, inclusion of popular culture stories, among other distinct features. With a weekly circulation of 1,021,638 and an approximate daily reach of seven million readers as of 2016, USA Today shares the position of having the widest circulation of any newspaper in the United States with The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times. USA Today is distributed in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, an international edition is distributed in Asia, Canada and the Pacific Islands.
The genesis of USA Today was on February 29, 1980, when a company task force known as "Project NN" met with Gannett Company chairman Al Neuharth in Cocoa Beach, Florida to develop a national newspaper. Early regional prototypes included East Bay Today, an Oakland, California-based publication published in the late 1970s to serve as the morning edition of the Oakland Tribune, an afternoon newspaper which Gannett owned at the time. On June 11, 1981, Gannett printed the first prototypes of the proposed publication; the two proposed design layouts were mailed to newsmakers and prominent leaders in journalism, for review and feedback. The Gannett Company's board of directors approved the launch of the national newspaper, titled USA Today, on December 5, 1981. At launch, Neuharth was appointed president and publisher of the newspaper, adding those responsibilities to his existing position as Gannett's chief executive officer. Gannett announced the launch of the paper on April 20, 1982. USA Today began publishing on September 15, 1982 in the Baltimore and Washington, D.
C. metropolitan areas for an newsstand price of 25¢. After selling out the first issue, Gannett expanded the national distribution of the paper, reaching an estimated circulation of 362,879 copies by the end of 1982, double the amount of sales that Gannett projected; the design uniquely incorporated color graphics and photographs. Only its front news section pages were rendered in four-color, while the remaining pages were printed in a spot color format; the paper's overall style and elevated use of graphics – developed by Neuharth, in collaboration with staff graphics designers George Rorick, Sam Ward, Suzy Parker, John Sherlock and Web Bryant – was derided by critics, who referred to it as "McPaper" or "television you can wrap fish in," because it opted to incorporate concise nuggets of information more akin to the style of television news, rather than in-depth stories like traditional newspapers, which many in the newspaper industry considered to be a dumbing down of the news. Although USA Today had been profitable for just ten years as of 1997, it changed the appearance and feel of newspapers around the world.
On July 2, 1984, the newspaper switched from predominantly black-and-white to full color photography and graphics in all four sections. The next week on July 10, USA Today launched an international edition intended for U. S. readers abroad, followed four months on October 8 with the rollout of the first transmission via satellite of its international version to Singapore. On April 8, 1985, the paper published its first special bonus section, a 12-page section called "Baseball'85," which previewed the 1985 Major League Baseball season. By the fourth quarter of 1985, USA Today had become the second largest newspaper in the United States, reaching a daily circulation of 1.4 million copies. Total daily readership of the paper by 1987 had reached 5.5 million, the largest of any daily newspaper in the U. S. On May 6, 1986, USA Today began production of its international edition in Switzerland. USA Today operated at a loss for most of its first four years of operation, accumulating a total deficit of $233 million after taxes, according to figures released by Gannett in July 1987.
On January 29, 1988, USA Today published the largest edition in its history, a 78-page weekend edition featuring a section previewing Super Bowl XXII. On April 15, USA Today launched a third international printing site, based in Hong Kong; the international edition set circulation and advertising records during August 1988, with coverage of the 1988 Summer Olympics, selling more than 60,000 copies and 100 pages of advertising. By July 1991, Simmons Market Research Bureau estimated that USA Today had a total daily readership of nearly 6.6 million, an all-time high and the largest readership of any daily newspaper in the United States. On September 1 of that year, USA Today launched a fourth printsite for its international edition in London for the United Kingdom and the British Isles; the international edition's schedule was changed as of April 1, 1994 Monday through Friday, rather than from Tuesday through Saturday, in order to accommodate business travelers.
The Sun (United Kingdom)
The Sun is a tabloid newspaper published in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. As a broadsheet, it was founded in 1964 as a successor to the Daily Herald, it is published by the News Group Newspapers division of News UK, itself a wholly owned subsidiary of Rupert Murdoch's News Corp. Since The Sun on Sunday was launched in February 2012, the paper has been a seven-day operation; the Sun had the largest circulation of any daily newspaper in the United Kingdom, but it was overtaken by rival Metro in March 2018. In 2012, The Sun on Sunday was launched to replace the closed News of the World, employing some of its former journalists; the average circulation for The Sun on Sunday in January 2019 was 1,178,687. In January 2019, it had an average daily circulation of 1.4 million. The Sun has been involved in many controversies in its history, including its coverage of the 1989 Hillsborough football stadium disaster. Regional editions of the newspaper for Scotland, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland are published in Glasgow and Dublin respectively.
The Sun was first published as a broadsheet on 15 September 1964, with a logo featuring a glowing orange disc. It was launched by owners IPC to replace the failing Daily Herald; the paper was intended to add a readership of "social radicals" to the Herald's "political radicals". There was "an immense and superior middle class, hitherto undetected and yearning for its own newspaper", wrote Bernard Shrimsley of Abrams' work forty-years later. "As delusions go, this was in the El Dorado class". Launched with an advertising budget of £400,000, the brash new paper "burst forth with tremendous energy", according to The Times, its initial print run of 3.5 million was attributed to "curiosity" and the "advantage of novelty", had declined to the previous circulation of the Daily Herald within a few weeks. By 1969, according to Hugh Cudlipp, The Sun was losing about £2m a year and had a circulation of 800,000. IPC decided to sell to stop the losses, according to Bernard Shrimsley in 2004, out of a fear that the unions would disrupt publication of the Mirror if they did not continue to publish the original Sun.
Bill Grundy wrote in The Spectator in July 1969 that although it published "fine writers" in Geoffrey Goodman, Nancy Banks-Smith and John Akass among others, it had never overcome the negative impact of its launch at which it still resembled the Herald. The pre-Murdoch Sun was "a worthy, leftish, popular broadsheet" in the opinion of Patrick Brogan in 1982. Book publisher and Member of Parliament Robert Maxwell, eager to buy a British newspaper, offered to take it off their hands and retain its commitment to the Labour Party, but admitted there would be redundancies among the printers. Rupert Murdoch, had bought the News of the World, a sensationalist Sunday newspaper, the previous year, but the presses in the basement of his building in London's Bouverie Street were unused six days a week. Seizing the opportunity to increase his presence on Fleet Street, he made an agreement with the print unions, promising fewer redundancies if he acquired the newspaper, he assured IPC that he would publish a "straightforward, honest newspaper" which would continue to support Labour.
IPC, under pressure from the unions, rejected Maxwell's offer, Murdoch bought the paper for £800,000, to be paid in instalments. He would remark: "I am amazed at the ease with which I entered British newspapers"; the Daily Herald had been printed in Manchester since 1930, as was the Sun after its original launch in 1964, but Murdoch stopped publication there in 1969 which put the ageing Bouverie Street presses under extreme pressure as circulation grew. Murdoch found he had such a rapport with Larry Lamb over lunch that other potential recruits as editor were not interviewed and Lamb was appointed as the first editor of the new Sun. Lamb wanted Bernard Shrimsley to be his deputy, which Murdoch accepted as Shrimsley had been the second name on his list of preferences. Lamb was scathing in his opinion of the Daily Mirror, where he had been employed as a senior sub-editor, shared Murdoch's view that a paper's quality was best measured by its sales, he regarded the Mirror as overstaffed, too focused on an ageing readership.
Godfrey Hodgson of The Sunday Times interviewed Murdoch at this time and expressed a positive view of the rival's "Mirrorscope" supplement. "If you think we're going to have any of that upmarket shit in our paper," Murdoch replied dropping a sample copy into a bin, "you're much mistaken". Lamb hastily recruited a staff of about 125 reporters, who were selected for availability rather than their ability; this was about a quarter of what the Mirror employed, Murdoch had to draft in staff on loan from his Australian papers. Murdoch relaunched The Sun as a tabloid, ran it as a sister paper to the News of the World; the Sun used the same printing presses, the two papers were managed together at senior executive levels. The tabloid Sun was first published on 17 November 1969, with a front page headlined "HORSE DOPE SENSATION", an ephemeral "exclusive". An editorial on page 2 announced: "Today's Sun is a new newspaper, it has new writers, new ideas. But it inherits all, best from the great traditions of its predecessors.
The Sun cares. About the quality of life. About the kind of world we live in, and about people". The first issue had an "exclusive interview" with the Labour Prime Minister, Harold Wilson, on page 9; the paper copied the rival Daily Mirror in several ways. It was the same size and its masthead had the t
Little Women (2017 TV series)
Little Women is a British 2017 BBC television historical period drama adaptation of the 1868 novel by Louisa May Alcott. Adapted by Heidi Thomas, the miniseries was directed by Vanessa Caswill. Consisting of three episodes, the first broadcast was on BBC One on Boxing Day 2017 and the following two days; the cast includes Michael Gambon and Angela Lansbury. Production was supported by PBS and the miniseries was shown as part of its Masterpiece anthology. Little Women was commissioned by BBC Drama in May 2017, along with 10 other television dramas; the three-part series was adapted by Heidi Thomas, who created Call the Midwife, directed by Vanessa Caswill. It was produced by Playground Television UK with PBS Masterpiece. Little Women is set in Concord, but was filmed in County Wicklow, Ireland. Filming took place in the coastal town of Bray and at the Ardmore Studios from July 2017. Irish costume designer Eimer Ní Mhaoldomhnaigh created the clothing for the miniseries; the UK media reception for the programme was positive.
Euan Ferguson in The Observer said: "The grit and pain of the girls' struggles to define themselves, in that fast-changing age, in that still young country, rang wholly fresh and credible... all in all, a triumph". Ben Lawrence of The Daily Telegraph described it as: "the single best thing on television over Christmas... a delight from start to finish – a poignant, funny version of Louisa May Alcott's 1869 novel which made the four March sisters seem like both exciting new creations and old friends," while Alex O'Connell in The Times said: "writer Heidi Thomas reminds us why we love it and shows us the classic in a bright new light." Ben Allen of the Radio Times felt the online reception amongst the public to be more mixed, with some viewers preferring the interpretation of earlier filmed adaptations, while others were left moved but conflicted by the accurate depiction of the novel's conclusion. Episode 1 was seen by 5.17 million viewers and Episode 3 by 4.38 million according to BARB's consolidated viewing data.
Little Women on IMDb
Thomas Lanier Williams III, known by his pen name Tennessee Williams, was an American playwright. Along with contemporaries Eugene O'Neill and Arthur Miller, he is considered among the three foremost playwrights of 20th-century American drama. After years of obscurity, at age 33 he became famous with the success of The Glass Menagerie in New York City; this play reflected his own unhappy family background. It was the first of a string of successes, including A Streetcar Named Desire, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, Sweet Bird of Youth. With his work, he attempted a new style that did not appeal to audiences. Increasing alcohol and drug dependence inhibited his creative expression, his drama A Streetcar Named Desire is numbered on short lists of the finest American plays of the 20th century alongside Eugene O'Neill's Long Day's Journey into Night and Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman. Much of Williams' most acclaimed work has been adapted for the cinema, he wrote short stories, essays and a volume of memoirs.
In 1979, four years before his death, Williams was inducted into the American Theater Hall of Fame. Thomas Lanier Williams III was born in Columbus, Mississippi of English and Huguenot ancestry, the second child of Edwina Dakin and Cornelius Coffin "C. C." Williams. His father was a traveling shoe salesman who became alcoholic and was away from home, his mother, was the daughter of Rose O. Dakin, a music teacher, the Reverend Walter Dakin, an Episcopal priest from Illinois, assigned to a parish in Clarksdale, shortly after Williams' birth. Williams lived in his parsonage with his family for much of his early childhood and was close to his grandparents, he had two siblings, older sister Rose Isabel Williams and younger brother Walter Dakin Williams.. As a young child Williams nearly died from a case of diphtheria that left him weak and confined to his house during a period of recuperation that lasted a year. At least in part as a result of his illness, he was less robust. Cornelius Williams, a descendant of hearty East Tennessee pioneer stock, had a violent temper and was a man prone to use his fists.
He regarded. Edwina, locked in an unhappy marriage, focused her overbearing attention entirely on her frail young son. Many critics and historians note that Williams drew from his own dysfunctional family in much of his writing; when Williams was eight years old, his father was promoted to a job at the home office of the International Shoe Company in St. Louis, Missouri, his mother's continual search for what she considered to be an appropriate address, as well as his father's heavy drinking and loudly turbulent behavior, caused them to move numerous times around St. Louis. Williams attended a setting he referred to in his play The Glass Menagerie, he studied at University City High School. At age 16, Williams won third prize for an essay published in Smart Set, titled "Can a Good Wife Be a Good Sport?" A year his short story "The Vengeance of Nitocris" was published in the August 1928 issue of the magazine Weird Tales. That same year he first visited Europe with his maternal grandfather Dakin.
From 1929 to 1931, Williams attended the University of Missouri in Columbia where he enrolled in journalism classes. He distracted by unrequited love for a girl. Soon he began entering his poetry, essays and plays in writing contests, hoping to earn extra income, his first submitted play was Beauty followed by Hot Milk at Three in the Morning. As recognition for Beauty, a play about rebellion against religious upbringing, he became the first freshman to receive honorable mention in a writing competition. At University of Missouri, Williams joined the Alpha Tau Omega fraternity, but he did not fit in well with his fraternity brothers. After he failed a military training course in his junior year, his father pulled him out of school and put him to work at the International Shoe Company factory. Although Williams hated the monotony, the job forced him out of the gentility of his upbringing, his dislike of his new 9-to-5 routine drove Williams to write prodigiously. He set a goal of writing one story a week.
Williams worked on weekends and late into the night. His mother recalled his intensity: Tom would go to his room with black coffee and cigarettes and I would hear the typewriter clicking away at night in the silent house; some mornings when I walked in to wake him for work, I would find him sprawled dressed across the bed, too tired to remove his clothes. Overworked and lacking further success with his writing, by his 24th birthday Williams had suffered a nervous breakdown and left his job, he drew from memories of this period, a particular factory co-worker, to create the character Stanley Kowalski in A Streetcar Named Desire. By the mid-1930s his mother separated from his father due to his worsening alcoholism and abusive temper, they never divorced. In 1936 Williams enrolled at Washington University in St. Louis where he wrote the play Vashya. In the autumn of 1937, he transferred to the University of Iowa, where he graduated with a B. A. in English in August 1938. He studied at the Dramatic Workshop of The New School in New York City.
Speaking of his early days as a playwright and an early collaborative play called Cairo, Bombay!, Williams wrote, "The laughter... enchanted me. And there the theatre and I found each other for better and for worse. I know it's the only thing that saved my life