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Mayflower

The Mayflower was an English ship that transported the first English Puritans, known today as the Pilgrims, from Plymouth, England to the New World in 1620. There were 102 passengers, the crew is estimated to have been about 30, but the exact number is unknown; the ship has become a cultural icon in the history of the United States. The Pilgrims signed the Mayflower Compact prior to leaving the ship and establishing Plymouth Colony, a document which established a rudimentary form of democracy with each member contributing to the welfare of the community. There was a second ship named Mayflower which made the London to Plymouth, Massachusetts voyage several times; the Mayflower was square-rigged with a beakhead bow and high, castle-like structures fore and aft which protected the crew and the main deck from the elements—designs that were typical of English merchant ships of the early 17th century. Her stern carried a 30-foot high, square aft-castle which made the ship difficult to sail close to the wind and not well suited against the North Atlantic's prevailing westerlies in the fall and winter of 1620.

The Mayflower's return trip to London in April–May 1621 took less than half that time, with the same strong winds now blowing in the direction of the voyage. The Mayflower's exact dimensions are not known, but she measured about 100 feet from the beak of her prow to the tip of her stern superstructure, about 25 feet at her widest point, the bottom of her keel about 12 feet below the waterline. William Bradford estimated that she had a cargo capacity of 180 tons, surviving records indicate that she could carry 180 casks holding hundreds of gallons each; the general layout of the ship was as follows: Three masts: mizzen and fore, a spritsail in the bow area Three primary levels: main deck, gun deck, cargo holdAft on the main deck in the stern was the cabin for Master Christopher Jones, measuring about ten by seven feet. Forward of, the steerage room, which housed berths for the ship's officers and contained the ship's compass and whipstaff for sailing control. Forward of the steerage room was the capstan, a vertical axle used to pull in ropes or cables.

Far forward on the main deck, just aft of the bow, was the forecastle space where the ship's cook prepared meals for the crew. The poop deck was located on the ship's highest level above the stern on the aft castle and above Master Jones' cabin. On this deck stood the poop house, ordinarily a chart room or a cabin for the master's mates on most merchant ships; the gun deck was where the passengers resided during the voyage, in a space measuring about 50 by 25 feet with a five-foot ceiling. But it was a dangerous place if there was conflict, as it had gun ports from which cannon could be run out to fire on the enemy; the gun room was in the stern area of the deck, to which passengers had no access because it was the storage space for gunpowder and ammunition. The gun room might house a pair of stern chasers, small cannon used to fire from the ship's stern. Forward on the gun deck in the bow area was a windlass, similar in function to the steerage capstan, used to raise and lower the ship's main anchor.

There were no stairs for the passengers on the gun deck to go up through the gratings to the main deck, which they could reach only by climbing a wooden or rope ladder. Below the gun deck was the cargo hold where the passengers kept most of their food stores and other supplies, including most of their clothing and bedding, it stored the passengers' personal weapons and military equipment, such as armor, muskets and shot, bandoliers. It stored all the tools that the Pilgrims would need, as well as all the equipment and utensils needed to prepare meals in the New World; some Pilgrims loaded trade goods on board, including Isaac Allerton, William Mullins, others. There was no privy on the Mayflower. Gun deck passengers most used a bucket as a chamber pot, fixed to the deck or bulkhead to keep it from being jostled at sea; the Mayflower was armed. She had a saker cannon of about 800 pounds, two base cannons that weighed about 200 pounds and shot a 3 to 5 ounce ball, she carried at least ten pieces of ordnance on the port and starboard sides of her gun deck: seven cannons for long-range purposes, three smaller guns fired from the stern at close quarters that were filled with musket balls.

Ship's Master Jones unloaded four of the pieces to help fortify Plymouth Colony. There were 26 vessels bearing the name Mayflower in the Port Books of England during the reign of James I; the identity of Captain Jones's Mayflower is based on records from her home port, her tonnage, the master's name in 1620 in order to avoid confusion with the many other Mayflower ships. It is not known when and where the Mayflower was built, although late records designate her as "of London", she was designated in the Port Books of 1609–11 as "of Harwich" in the county of Essex, coincidentally the birthplace of Mayflower master Christopher Jones about 1570. Records dating from August 1609 note Christopher Jones as master and part o

Thomas Dunlop (Australian politician)

Thomas Alberto Dunlop was a member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly. Dunlop was born in Rockhampton, the son of John Johnson Dunlop and his wife Helen and educated at the Central Boys' School in Rockhampton and J. D. Gillespie's Commercial School. After finishing his education he was a clerk in the office of former member for Rockhampton, George Curtis from 1896 to 1898, he joined the railways where, except for a short time in 1912, he worked for the rest of his career. In 1912 he was employed in the office of Burns Philp. In 1908 Dunlop married Harriet Glazier in Rockhampton and together had a daughter, he was buried in the Rockhampton Cemetery. Dunlop entered politics in 1927 as an alderman on the Rockhampton City Council including as mayor from 1927 until 1929, he remained on the council until 1949. At the 1929 Queensland state election he won the seat of Rockhampton as an independent, defeating the sitting Labor member, George Farrell, he held the seat for three years, being defeated by Labor candidate, James Larcombe

List of cathedrals in Switzerland

This is the list of cathedrals in Switzerland sorted by denomination. Cathedrals of the Roman Catholic Church in Switzerland: Cathedral of Sts. Ursen and Victor in Solothurn Basilica of Mary of the Assumption in Chur Cathedral of St. Nicholas in Fribourg Cathedral of St. Lawrence in Lugano Benedictine Abbey Cathedral of St. Maurice in Einsiedeln Abbey of St. Maurice in Saint-Maurice-d'Agaune Cathedral of Sts. Gall and Otmar in St. Gallen Sion Cathedral in Sion Cathedral of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia: Holy Cross Cathedral in Geneva Lists of cathedrals by country