Pilgrims (Plymouth Colony)

The Pilgrims or Pilgrim Fathers were the English settlers who established the Plymouth Colony in Plymouth, Massachusetts. Their leadership came from the religious congregations of Brownists, or Separatist Puritans, who had fled religious persecution in England for the tolerance of 17th-century Holland in the Netherlands, they held Puritan Calvinist religious beliefs but, unlike most other Puritans, they maintained that their congregations should separate from the English state church. They determined to establish a new settlement in the New World and arranged with investors to fund them, they established Plymouth Colony in 1620, which became the second successful English settlement in America, following the founding of Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607. The Pilgrims' story became a central theme in the culture of the United States; the core of the group called "the Pilgrims" were brought together around 1605 when they quit the church of England to form Separatist congregations in the north of England, led by John Robinson, Richard Clyfton, John Smyth.

Their congregations held Brownist beliefs—that true churches were voluntary, democratic communities, not whole Christian nations—as taught by Robert Browne, John Greenwood, Henry Barrow. As separatists, they held that their differences with the Church of England were irreconcilable and that their worship should be independent of the trappings and organization of a central church; the Separatist movement was controversial. Under the Act of Uniformity 1559, it was illegal not to attend official Church of England services, with a fine of one shilling for each missed Sunday and holy day; the penalties included imprisonment and larger fines for conducting unofficial services. The Seditious Sectaries Act of 1593 was aimed at outlawing the Brownists. Under this policy, the London Underground Church from 1566, Robert Browne and his followers in Norfolk during the 1580s, were imprisoned. Henry Barrow, John Greenwood, John Penry were executed for sedition in 1593. Browne had taken his followers into exile in Middelburg, Penry urged the London Separatists to emigrate in order to escape persecution, so after his death they went to Amsterdam.

During much of Brewster's tenure, the Archbishop was Matthew Hutton. He displayed some sympathy to the Puritan cause, writing to Robert Cecil, Secretary of State to James I in 1604: The Puritans though they differ in Ceremonies and accidentes, yet they agree with us in substance of religion, I thinke all or the moste parte of them love his Majestie, the presente state, I hope will yield to conformitie, but the Papistes are opposite and contrarie in many substantiall pointes of religion, cannot but wishe the Popes authoritie and popish religion to be established. Many Puritans had hoped that a reconciliation would be possible when James came to power which would allow them independence, but the Hampton Court Conference of 1604 denied nearly all of the concessions which they had requested—except for an updated English translation of the Bible; the same year, Richard Bancroft became Archbishop of Canterbury and launched a campaign against Puritanism. He fired 80, which led some of them to found Separatist churches.

Robinson and their followers founded a Brownist church, making a covenant with God "to walk in all his ways made known, or to be made known, unto them, according to their best endeavours, whatsoever it should cost them, the Lord assisting them". Archbishop Hutton died in 1606 and Tobias Matthew was appointed as his replacement, he was one of James's chief supporters at the 1604 conference, he promptly began a campaign to purge the archdiocese of non-conforming influences, both Puritans and those wishing to return to the Catholic faith. Disobedient clergy were replaced, prominent Separatists were confronted and imprisoned, he is credited with driving people out of the country. William Brewster was a former diplomatic assistant to the Netherlands, he was living in the Scrooby manor house while serving as postmaster for the village and bailiff to the Archbishop of York. He had been impressed by Clyfton's services and had begun participating in services led by John Smyth in Gainsborough, Lincolnshire.

After a time, he arranged for a congregation to meet at the Scrooby manor house. Services were held beginning in 1606 with Clyfton as pastor, John Robinson as teacher, Brewster as the presiding elder. Shortly after and members of the Gainsborough group moved on to Amsterdam. Brewster was fined £20 in absentia for his non-compliance with the church; this followed his September 1607 resignation from the postmaster position, about the time that the congregation had decided to follow the Smyth party to Amsterdam. Scrooby member William Bradford of Austerfield kept a journal of the congregation's events, published as Of Plymouth Plantation, he wrote concerning this time period: But after these things they could not long continue in any peaceable condition, but were hunted & persecuted on every side, so as their former afflictions were but as flea-bitings in comparison of these which now came upon them. For some were taken & clapt up in prison, others had their houses besett & watcht night and day, & hardly escaped their hands.

The Pilgrims moved to the Netherlands around 1607/08. They lived in Leiden, Holland, a city of 30,000 inhabitants, residing in small houses behind the "Kloksteeg" opposite the Pieterskerk; the success of the congregation in Leiden was mixed. Leiden was a thriving industrial center, many members were

Jennifer Gillom

Jennifer "Grandmama" Gillom is an American former Women's National Basketball Association basketball player who played for the Phoenix Mercury from 1997 to 2002, before finishing her playing career with the Los Angeles Sparks in 2003. Gillom is a former Sparks head coach coached the Minnesota Lynx. Born in Abbeville, Gillom played college basketball at the University of Mississippi and helped the United States Basketball Team to a gold medal in women's basketball in the 1988 Summer Olympics. Gillom signed with the Mercury in 1996 where she was All-WNBA in 1998 and won the Kim Perrot Sportsmanship Award in her final season. Gillom was the head coach of the Xavier College Preparatory High School basketball team in Phoenix, Arizona in 2004. Starting in the 2008 season, Gillom served as an assistant coach for the Minnesota Lynx. In June 2009, she was named head coach of the team, she succeeded Don Zierden, who resigned to accept an assistant coaching job under the late Flip Saunders of the Washington Wizards.

In 2009, Gillom was inducted into the Women's Basketball Hall of Fame, located in Knoxville, Tennessee. Source Gillom played for the USA World University Games team in Kobe, Japan in 1985; the team brought home a silver medal, after falling to the USSR. The team trailed by 18 points at one time, mounted a comeback attempt but fell short, losing 87–81. Gillom was the second leading scorer for the USA team, with 12.8 points per game. The following year, Gillom played for the USA team in Moscow; this time, the USA team would meet the USSR in the title game and emerge victorious, winning the gold medal with a score of 108–88. Gillom averaged 2.8 points per game. Gillom was named to the team representing the US at the 1987 Pan American Games, held in Indianapolis, Indiana in August; the USA team won all four of their games winning the gold medal for the event. She averaged 9.5 points per game. Gillom continued with the national team at the 1988 Olympics in Seoul, South Korea, held in September; the team won all five games.

Gillom averaged 2.8 points per game. Gillom was named assistant coach of the USA National team in preparation for competition in the 2010 World Championships and 2012 Olympics; because many team members were still playing in the WNBA until just prior to the event, the team had only one day of practice with the entire team before leaving for Ostrava and Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic. With limited practice, the team managed to win their first game against Greece by 26 points; the team continued to dominate with victory margins exceeding 20 points in the first five games. Several players shared scoring honors, with Swin Cash, Angel McCoughtry, Maya Moore, Diana Taurasi, Lindsay Whalen, Sylvia Fowles all ending as high scorer in the first few games; the sixth game was against undefeated Australia—the USA jumped out to a 24-point lead, but the Australian team cut the lead back to single digits late in the game. The USA prevailed 83–75; the USA won their next two games by over thirty points faced the host team, the Czech Republic, in the championship game.

The USA team had only a five-point lead at halftime, cut to three points, but the Czechs never got closer, went on to win the championship and gold medal. She continued as an assistant at the 2012 Olympics in London. WNBA Career Totals WNBA Career Averages Jennifer Gillom at the International Olympic Committee Jennifer Gillom at Olympics at Jennifer Gillom bio at USA Basketball Gillom hired as Lynx assistant coach at WNBA Gillom hired as head coach of the Minnesota Lynx at WNBA

James Smith (anaesthetist)

James Anstruther Smith FFARCS was a Scottish consultant anaesthetist, one of the pioneers of safe anaesthesia for cardiac catheterization in children. James Anstruther Smith was educated at Strathallan School and St John's College, Cambridge where he was a noted swimmer and water polo player, captaining the team and swimming against the University of Oxford in 1938, he accompanied the Footlights on the piano. In 1938 he went to the Medical College of St Bartholomew's Hospital in London, graduating in 1942. Following his house appointments Smith became resident anaesthetist at St Bartholomew's. With most consultants on military duty he became senior resident anaesthetist, which prevented him from joining the army for two years. In 1944 he joined the Royal Army Medical Corps, he ended his military career with the rank of major and consultant status. In 1948 Smith was appointed as senior registrar in anaesthetics at the Royal Postgraduate Medical School at Hammersmith Hospital in London and that year as lecturer and consultant.

He published several original papers during his five years at the hospital. In March 1950 Smith published a paper entitled'Anaesthesia for Cardiac Catheterization in Children'. Smith was appointed consultant anaesthetist for the Plymouth hospitals group in 1953, he was the first coordinator of the anaesthetic department and established several courses for training operating department assistants in the south west. Smith was elected to the council of the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland in 1962, he was elected president of the Society of Anaesthetists of the South Western Region in 1973. In 1981 he published another notable paper with P B Harvey entitled'Prevention of air emboli in hip surgery. Femoral shaft insufflation with carbon dioxide.'