A manual transmission, known as a manual gearbox, stick shift, n-speed manual, standard, MT, or in colloquial U. S. English, a stick, is a type of transmission used in motor vehicle applications. The number of gear ratios is often expressed for automatic transmissions as well. Manual transmissions often feature a clutch and a movable gear stick. This type of transmission is called a sequential manual transmission. In a manual transmission, the flywheel is attached to the engines crankshaft, the clutch disk is in between the pressure plate and the flywheel, and is held against the flywheel under pressure from the pressure plate. When the engine is running and the clutch is engaged, the flywheel spins the clutch plate, as the clutch pedal is depressed, the throw out bearing is activated, which causes the pressure plate to stop applying pressure to the clutch disk. This makes the clutch plate stop receiving power from the engine, when the clutch pedal is released, the throw out bearing is deactivated, and the clutch disk is again held against the flywheel, allowing it to start receiving power from the engine.
Manual transmissions are characterized by gear ratios that are selectable by locking selected gear pairs to the shaft inside the transmission. Conversely, most automatic transmissions feature epicyclic gearing controlled by brake bands and/or clutch packs to select gear ratio, automatic transmissions that allow the driver to manually select the current gear are called manumatics. A manual-style transmission operated by computer is called an automated transmission rather than an automatic. Operating aforementioned transmissions often use the pattern of shifter movement with a single or multiple switches to engage the next sequence of gear selection. The earliest form of a transmission is thought to have been invented by Louis-René Panhard. This type of transmission offered multiple gear ratios and, in most cases and these transmissions are called sliding mesh transmissions or sometimes crash boxes, because of the difficulty in changing gears and the loud grinding sound that often accompanied.
Newer manual transmissions on cars have all gears mesh at all times and are referred to as constant-mesh transmissions, in both types, a particular gear combination can only be engaged when the two parts to engage are at the same speed. To shift to a gear, the transmission is put in neutral. The vehicle slows while in neutral and that slows other transmission parts, so the time in neutral depends on the grade, for both upshifts and downshifts, the clutch is released while in neutral. Some drivers use the only for starting from a stop. Even though automobile and light truck transmissions are now almost universally synchronized, transmissions for trucks and machinery, motorcycles
The Nissan Quest is a minivan manufactured since 1992 by Nissan, and is now in its fourth generation. The first two generations of the Quest were a joint venture with Ford, which marketed a variant as the Mercury Villager. The vans debuted at the 1992 North American International Auto Show in Detroit, the Quest was completely redesigned for 2004, while the Villager was discontinued and replaced with the Freestar-based Mercury Monterey. The third generation model was built on the FF-L platform, which it shares with the Altima, Teana and it shares the 3.5 L VQ engine with those cars. The fourth generation model is built on the platform as the 2011 Nissan Elgrand. In 1987, Ford and Nissan entered a joint agreement to develop a vehicle to compete in the minivan segment scheduled for 1991. Development officially began that year under the codename VX54, with the designs being chosen in 1989. Prototypes went into testing in 1990 at Ford and Nissan test tracks, real-world testing throughout 1991. On January 6,1992, the 1993 Nissan Quest was unveiled at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit.
Unusually, its design patents were filed by design chief Thomas H. Semple for Nissan Motor on March 5,1992. The first Nissan Quest rolled off the line on April 14,1992 at the Avon. While assembly took place at Ohio Assembly, initial production began in Japan, NMMC production began in June 1992 on the main body components, with engine assembly beginning in August. The Quest was launched in September 1992 and sold 1,358 units during its first month, the Quest was a successor to the Nissan Van, which was sold in the United States only in 1990 and in Canada from 1990-1995. It replaced the rear-wheel drive Vanette, discontinued in 1990, the Quest was initially powered by Nissans 3.0 L VG30E SOHC engine that made 151 hp and 182 lb·ft. Ford required that Nissan make some changes to the VG30E before they would agree to use it in the Villager. Changes included the addition of an oil level sensor and relocating the oil filter assembly for better access, the Quest was available as XE or GXE models. Many of the parts, including the radio, heater controls and power windows controls were adapted from Ford.
This generation of the Quest and Villager was built at Fords Ohio Assembly plant in Avon Lake, the van shared the modified version of the VG30E from the U11, and early J30 Maximas, as well as the 4-speed automatic transmission from the Maxima
Front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, an FWD, or front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout places both the internal combustion engine and driven roadwheels at the front of the vehicle. Historically, this designation was used regardless of whether the engine was behind the front axle line. Most pre-World War II front engine cars would qualify as front-mid engine, using the front-mid designation and this layout is the most traditional form, and remains a popular, practical design. The engine which takes up a deal of space is packaged in a location passengers. The main deficit is weight distribution — the heaviest component is at one end of the vehicle, car handling is not ideal, but usually predictable. Like the rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout and rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout layouts, it places the engine over the drive wheels, improving traction in many applications. As the steered wheels are the wheels, FWD cars are generally considered superior to RWD cars in conditions where there is low traction such as snow, mud.
When hill climbing in low traction conditions RR is considered the best two-wheel-drive layout, the cornering ability of a FWD vehicle is generally better, because the engine is placed over the steered wheels. However, as the wheels have the additional demands of steering, if a vehicle accelerates quickly, less grip is available for cornering. Electronic traction control can avoid wheel-spin but largely negates the benefit of extra power and this was a reason for the adoption of the four-wheel-drive quattro system in the high performance Jensen FF and Audi Quattro road cars. Early cars using the FWD layout include the 1929 Cord L-29,1931 DKW F1, the 1948 Citroën 2CV,1949 Saab 92, in the 1980s, the traction and packaging advantages of this layout caused many compact and mid-sized vehicle makers to adopt it in the US. Most European and Japanese manufacturers switched to front wheel drive for the majority of their cars in the 1960s and 1970s, the last to change being VW, Ford of Europe, Toyota was the last Japanese company to switch in the early 1980s. BMW, focussed on luxury vehicles, however retained the layout in even their smaller cars.
There are four different arrangements for this layout, depending on the location of the engine. The earliest such arrangement was not technically FWD, but rather mid-engine, the engine was mounted longitudinally behind the wheels, with the transmission ahead of the engine and differential at the very front of the car. With the engine so far back, the distribution of such cars as the Cord L-29 was not ideal. The 1934 Citroën Traction Avant solved the weight issue by placing the transmission at the front of the car with the differential between it and the engine. Combined with the low slung unibody design, this resulted in handling which was remarkable for the era
A van is a type of road vehicle used for transporting goods or people. Depending on the type of van it can be bigger or smaller than a truck and SUV, there is some varying in the scope of the word across the different English-speaking countries. The smallest vans, are used for transporting goods or people in tiny quantities. Mini MPVs, Compact MPVs, and MPVs are all small vans usually used for transporting people in small quantities, larger vans with passenger seats are used for institutional purposes, such as transporting students. Larger vans with only front seats are used for business purposes, to carry goods. Specially-equipped vans are used by television stations as mobile studios, Postal services and courier companies use large step vans to deliver packages. Van meaning a type of vehicle arose as a contraction of the word caravan, the early records of van as a vehicle in English are in the mid 19th century meaning a covered wagon for transporting goods. Caravan with the meaning has records since the 1670s.
A caravan, meaning one wagon, had arisen as an extension or corruption of caravan meaning a convoy of multiple wagons, the word van has slightly different, but overlapping, meanings in different forms of English. While the word now applies to boxy cargo vans, other applications are found to a greater or lesser extent in the different English-speaking countries. In Australian English, the van is commonly used to describe a minivan. A full-size van used for commercial purposes is known as a van, however. Finally, the van can sometimes be used interchangeably with caravan. The British term people mover is used in Australian English to describe a passenger van. The American usage of van to mean a cargo box trailer or semi-trailer is used rarely, if ever, early Japanese vans include the Kurogane Baby, Mazda Bongo and the Toyota LiteAce van. Microvans, vans that fulfill kei car regulations, are popular for small business. The term is used to describe full-fledged station wagons and even hatchbacks with a basic trim package intended for commercial use.
These are sometimes referred to as Light Vans, in British English, the word van refers to vehicles that carry goods only, on both roads and rails
Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary. Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres, or 2% of the Earths surface, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a population of about 740 million as of 2015. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast, Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the period, marked the end of ancient history. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era, from the Age of Discovery onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania.
The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to economic and social change in Western Europe. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the west and the Warsaw Pact in the east, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1955, the Council of Europe was formed following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill and it includes all states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, the EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The European Anthem is Ode to Joy and states celebrate peace, in classical Greek mythology, Europa is the name of either a Phoenician princess or of a queen of Crete. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, broad and ὤψ eye, broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it.
For the second part the divine attributes of grey-eyed Athena or ox-eyed Hera. The same naming motive according to cartographic convention appears in Greek Ανατολή, Martin Litchfield West stated that phonologically, the match between Europas name and any form of the Semitic word is very poor. Next to these there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning darkness. Most major world languages use words derived from Eurṓpē or Europa to refer to the continent, in some Turkic languages the originally Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa
In both road and rail vehicles, the wheelbase is the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels. For road vehicles with more than two axles, the wheelbase is defined as the distance between the axle and the centerpoint of the driving axle group. In the case of a truck, the wheelbase would be the distance between the steering axle and a point midway between the two rear axles. The wheelbase of a vehicle equals the distance between its front and rear wheels, at equilibrium, the total torque of the forces acting on a vehicle is zero. So, for example, when a truck is loaded, its center of gravity shifts rearward, the amount the vehicle sinks will depend on counter acting forces like the size of the tires, tire pressure, and the stiffness of the suspension. If the vehicle is accelerating or decelerating, extra torque is placed on the rear or front tire respectively, so, as is common experience, when the vehicle accelerates, the rear usually sinks and the front rises depending on the suspension.
Likewise, when braking the front noses down and the rear rises, because of the effect the wheelbase has on the weight distribution of the vehicle, wheelbase dimensions are crucial to the balance and steering. For example, a car with a greater weight load on the rear tends to understeer due to the lack of the load on the front tires. This is why it is crucial, when towing a single-axle caravan, likewise, a car may oversteer or even spin out if there is too much force on the front tires and not enough on the rear tires. Also, when turning there is lateral torque placed upon the tires which imparts a turning force that depends upon the length of the distances from the CM. Wheelbases provide the basis for one of the most common vehicle size class systems, some luxury vehicles are offered with long-wheelbase variants to increase the spaciousness and therefore the luxury of the vehicle. Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Tony Blair was given a version of the Rover 75 for official use. In contrast, coupé varieties of vehicles such as the Honda Accord are usually built on shorter wheelbases than the sedans they are derived from.
The wheelbase on many commercially available bicycles and motorcycles is so short, relative to the height of their centers of mass, in skateboarding the word wheelbase is used for the distance between the two inner pairs of mounting holes on the deck. This is different from the distance between the centers of the two wheel pairs. A reason for this use is that decks are sold with prefabricated holes. It is therefore easier to use the holes for measuring and describing this characteristic of the deck. A common misconception is that the choice of wheelbase is influenced by the height of the skateboarder, the length of the deck would be a better candidate, because the wheelbase affects characteristics useful in different speeds or terrains regardless of the height of the skateboarder
The Mazda Premacy is a compact MPV that was built by the Japanese manufacturer Mazda from 1999 to 2017. The first generation Premacy was built in Japan and exported to Europe, a re-badged version was sold by Ford in a few Asian markets as the Ford Ixion or Ford MAV. The second generation onward is sold outside Japan as the Mazda5, Ford Lio Ho in Taiwan, which assembles Mazda5 for the local market, adapted a re-badged version as the Ford i-MAX in 2007. Both generations feature near-flat floors, folding or removable second row, the first generation Mazda Premacy was unveiled on 9 March 1999 at the 1999 Geneva Motor Show. When released in April 1999, the Mazda Premacy was one of the least expensive seven-seaters available on the market, the 1999 Premacy used Mazdas CP platform. It was available with either front or all wheel drive and was equipped with four-speed automatic transmission. As the Premacy was based on a platform, it was less modular than some of its adversaries such as the Opel Zafira.
The second and third row seats could be folded and removed as on many other minivans and this generation Premacy was sold in some Asian markets as the Ford Ixion. The first generation Premacy is still manufactured by Chinas FAW Haima Automobile where it is called the Haima Freema and it is now sold as the Mazda5 in all markets except Japan. While classified by Mazda as a wagon, it competes with other vehicles classed as Compact MPVs in Europe. It is based on Fords global C1 platform, meaning it shares many parts with the Mazda3, the Mazda5 replaced the Mazda MPV as Mazdas minivan offering in most export markets. The Mazda5s closest relative is the European compact MPV, Ford Focus C-MAX and this version of the vehicle was introduced for sale in the United States, making it the first compact minivan in that market since the 1994 Mitsubishi Expo and 1995 Nissan Axxess. The Mazda5 is marginally larger than the 1984–1989 Toyota Van, competition joined the North American MPV market in 2006 with Mercedes-Benzs B200 and in 2007 Kia Motors followed suit with the 2007 Kia Rondo.
In North America, due to safety regulations, the Mazda5 fits six passengers using three rows of seats, with two seats per row, the Mazda5 has three-point seat belts on all seven seats. The middle row of seats recline and slide front-to-rear, and fold flat, the rear row folds flat. The wheelbase is 2,750 mm with a length of 4,610 mm. For the Japanese domestic market it is C model/F model –4,505 mm / S model –4,565 mm. Engine options,1.8 L MZR I4,85 kW2.0 L MZR I4,110 kW2.3 L MZR I4,117 or 119 kW2
The Mazda CX-9 is a mid-size crossover SUV manufactured by Mazda. Up until 2016 model, the CX-9 was built on the Ford CD3 platform shared with the Ford Edge and Ford Fusion, the 2016 model was a major redesign of CX-9 which was no longer based on the Ford lineup. Both front-wheel drive and all-wheel drive models of the CX-9 are available, the CX-9 is manufactured at the Ujina 1 plant in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. Despite being built in Japan, the CX-9 is not sold in Japans domestic market, Mazda plans to sell the second-generation model in Japan, starting October 2016. The 2007 CX-9 was fitted with a 3.5 L Cyclone V6 engine, standard safety equipment included electronic stability control, traction control, roll stability control, front-side impact airbags, and three-row side-curtain airbags. Options included DVD navigation system, hands-free Bluetooth phone link, backup camera, for the 2008 model year, the engine was changed to a 3.7 L unit producing 204 kW and 366 N·m of torque. The engine went into production in June 2007 at Mazda’s engine plant in Japan, the 2008 CX-9 uses an Aisin F21++ six-speed automatic transmission with a console-mounted shifter in a complex gate.
Mazda introduced blind-spot monitoring, rearview mirror-mounted backup camera, the 2008 CX-9 won the Motor Trend SUV of the Year award. It was selected for the North American Truck of the Year award at the Detroit Auto Show in January 2008, the 2010 model Mazda CX-9 received a new grille, and debuted at the 2009 New York Auto Show. Marketing began in Australia during late September and early October in three variants, Classic and Grand Touring, Auto Week noted that compared with other midsize utes, the CX-9 is responsive and has great steering. It almost feels sporty, but not quite though, the CX-9 has three-zone climate control and a Bluetooth hands-free interface as standard features. The more expensive Touring and Grand Touring trims include leather inserts in the upholstery, as well as higher-end audio, for the 2013 model year, the CX-9 received a refresh that included a new grill, new headlights, and restyled front vents. Power is still delivered by the Ford-sourced,3.7 L V6, the CX-9 was completely redesigned for the 2016 model year.
The second generation CX-9 has better performance than before, increased efficiency, the chassis is significantly lighter while the wheelbase is a 2. 2-inch-longer, which should add legroom and ease rear passenger entry and exit. The 2016 Mazda CX-9 uses a turbocharged 2. 5-liter four-cylinder engine rated at 227 horsepower and 310 pound-feet of torque, Mazda says the new engine should return about 20 percent better fuel economy than the old V6 engine. The exterior design is in line with the rest of the Mazda family, especially in the front, the new CX-9 is now 1. 2in shorter than before, at 199. 4in, but rides on a 2. 2in longer wheelbase. This means shorter front and rear overhangs, contributing to its more dynamic stance, along with the new wheels, 18- to 20-inch in size. The cabin has room for seven in three rows of seats, and access to the third row is said to be “so easy that even a child could do it”
The Ford Explorer is a full-size sport utility vehicle produced by the American manufacturer Ford since 1990, based since 2010 on a crossover platform. The Ford Explorer became one of the most popular sport utility vehicles on the road, the model years 1991 through 2010 were traditional body-on-frame, mid-size SUVs. It is slotted between the traditional body-on-frame, full-size Ford Expedition and the mid-size CUV Ford Edge, although outwardly similar, the fifth generation Explorer, Ford Edge and Ford Escape do not share platforms. The fifth generation Explorer does, share platforms with the Ford Flex, the original Explorer has been involved in controversy, after a spate of fatal rollover accidents in the 1990s involving Explorers fitted with Firestone tires. Both two-door Explorer Sport and four-door models of Explorer have been sold, part-time four-wheel drive is an available option, and since 1995 this has been a shift on the fly system with full protection against being engaged at high speed.
A specially modified Special Service Vehicle version is available from Ford Fleet for law enforcement agencies, fire departments. Explorer was the name of a package offered on the Ford F-Series trucks from 1968 to 1986. The 2011 Ford Explorer was named North American Truck of the Year, the Ford Explorer was introduced in March 1990 for the 1991 model year. First generation Explorers were equipped with the new 155 hp 4.0 L Cologne V-6, manufactured in Cologne, vehicles came with either Fords own 4-speed A4LD automatic transmission, built in France, or Mazdas 5-speed M5OD manual transmission. Like the Bronco II it replaced, it was an SUV derivative of the Ranger pickup, like its direct competitor, the Chevrolet S-10 Blazer, Explorers were available in both 3-door and 5-door body styles and with either rear-wheel drive or four-wheel drive. The four-wheel drive versions were equipped with a Borg Warner 13–54 part-time four-wheel drive transfer case, the 13–54 was available with either Touch Drive electronic push-button shifting or manual lever-operated shifting.
Both were shift-on-the-fly designs that allowed the SUVs to be shifted from two-wheel drive to four-high at any speed, all Explorers were equipped with the Ford 8.8 axle in either a limited slip or open version with a variety of available gear ratios. Four-wheel-drive front axles were the TTB Dana 35 with some Dana 44-spec components, Explorers initially came in 4 trim levels, the base model XL, XLT, and the upscale Eddie Bauer edition. For the 1993 model year, engine output was increased by 5 hp for a total of 160 hp. The Limited edition, added for the 1993 model year, was only in the 5-door body style and was positioned at the top of the lineup above the Eddie Bauer edition. The grill and headlight trims on the Limited edition were paint-matched to the body color, similar to the 5-door Ford Explorer, the 3-door Explorer Sport model came in both rear-wheel drive and four-wheel drive variants. It replaced the Ford Bronco II as Fords 3-door mid-size SUV, a variant of the Explorer Sport was sold by Mazda as the Navajo, which won Motor Trend Truck of the Year award, until it was discontinued in 1994.
The A4LD was known to suffer premature failure of the gear when used to frequently tow or haul heavy loads
Honda Odyssey (North America)
The Honda Odyssey is a minivan manufactured and marketed by Japanese automaker Honda since 1994, now in its fifth generation. The result was a minivan, in the Compact MPV class. The first generation Odyssey was marketed in Europe as the Shuttle, subsequent generations diverged to reflect market variations, and Honda built a plant in Lincoln, incorporating the ability to manufacture larger models. Since model year 1999, Honda has marketed a larger Odyssey in North America, Honda offered the larger North American Odyssey in Japan as the Honda LaGreat beginning in June 1999 through 2005. Both versions of the Odyssey were sold in Japan at Honda Clio dealership locations, Honda marketed the first generation Odyssey in two trim levels. The LX accommodated seven passengers with two front buckets, a removable three-seat middle bench, and a 2-seat third row bench, Isuzu offered a rebadged version of the Odyssey from 1996–1999 as the Isuzu Oasis. S. as light trucks. Odagaki traveled to the U. S. in September 1990 with a small sub-team to conduct a review of the U. S. minivan market.
At the projects inception, the team was considering variations for the project from 4-cylinder to V6 alternatives, Odagaki continued working with an underground team, using as its design credo the concept of a personal jet — which in turn led to the cars original PJ concept code-name. Odagaki conceived the idea of the third row seat folding into a floor compartment, the team determined a minimum interior height of 1. The team worked to convince management of the viability, using extensive illustrations, a one-quarter scale model. By April 1991, Odagaki won permission to develop a prototype, after bringing the right-hand drive prototype to the U. S. Odagaki won the support of American Honda. At its debut, the Odyssey won the Japan Car of the Year Award, by September 1997, the Odyssey had sold more than 300,000 units, becoming Honda’s fastest-selling new car and breaking the Civic’s record. The second generation North American market Odyssey was first assembled in Canada as a 1999 model mainly for North America —, the Odyssey offered two sliding doors as standard equipment, whereas some minivans of the time only offered one, a second door being optional.
The Odyssey offered power sliding doors which were standard on the EX trims, the Odyssey kept the fold-into-the-floor rear seat, an innovation adopted by many other minivans. The van continued to receive upgrades, such as offering both VHS and DVD-based entertainment systems, there was an available Honda Satellite-Linked Navigation System, introduced in 2000, which became the first navigation system ever offered in a minivan. The 2004 model was the second generation Odyssey model year to receive reliability ratings of five out of five according to Automotive Information Systems. IIHS gave the Odyssey a Good rating in the Frontal Offset Test in years 1999-2004, some found it noisier than competitors. It won consecutive Edmunds. com Editors Most Wanted awards from 1999–2003 in the minivan category and this is the only generation of the Honda Odyssey where the power windows are only on the drivers and front passengers doors