The McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle is an American twin-engine, all-weather tactical fighter aircraft designed by McDonnell Douglas. Following reviews of proposals, the United States Air Force selected McDonnell Douglas's design in 1967 to meet the service's need for a dedicated air superiority fighter; the Eagle first flew in July 1972, entered service in 1976. It is among the most successful modern fighters, with over 100 victories and no losses in aerial combat, with the majority of the kills by the Israeli Air Force; the Eagle has been exported to Israel and Saudi Arabia. The F-15 was envisioned as a pure air-superiority aircraft, its design included a secondary ground-attack capability, unused. The aircraft design proved flexible enough that an all-weather strike derivative, the F-15E Strike Eagle, an improved and enhanced version, developed, entered service in 1989 and has been exported to several nations; as of 2017, the aircraft is being produced in different variants. The F-15 can trace its origins to the early Vietnam War, when the U.
S. Air Force and the U. S. Navy fought each other over future tactical aircraft. Defense Secretary Robert McNamara was pressing for both services to use as many common aircraft as possible if performance compromises were involved; as part of this policy, the USAF and Navy had embarked on the TFX program, aiming to deliver a medium-range interdiction aircraft for the Air Force that would serve as a long-range interceptor aircraft for the Navy. In January 1965, Secretary McNamara asked the Air Force to consider a new low-cost tactical fighter design for short-range roles and close air support to replace several types like the F-100 Super Sabre and various light bombers in service. Several existing designs could fill this role; the A-4 and A-7 were more capable in the attack role, while the F-5 less so, but could defend itself. If the Air Force chose a pure attack design, maintaining air superiority would be a priority for a new airframe; the next month, a report on light tactical aircraft suggested the Air Force purchase the F-5 or A-7, consider a new higher-performance aircraft to ensure its air superiority.
This point was reinforced after the loss of two Republic F-105 Thunderchief aircraft to obsolete MiG-17s on 4 April 1965. In April 1965, Harold Brown, at that time director of the Department of Defense Research and Engineering, stated the favored position was to consider the F-5 and begin studies of an "F-X"; these early studies envisioned a production run of 800 to 1,000 aircraft and stressed maneuverability over speed. On 1 August, Gabriel Disosway took command of Tactical Air Command and reiterated calls for the F-X, but lowered the required performance from Mach 3.0 to 2.5 to lower costs. An official requirements document for an air superiority fighter was finalized in October 1965, sent out as a request for proposals to 13 companies on 8 December. Meanwhile, the Air Force chose the A-7 over the F-5 for the support role on 5 November 1965, giving further impetus for an air superiority design as the A-7 lacked any credible air-to-air capability. Eight companies responded with proposals. Following a downselect, four companies were asked to provide further developments.
In total, they developed some 500 design concepts. Typical designs featured variable-sweep wings, weight over 60,000 pounds, included a top speed of Mach 2.7 and a thrust-to-weight ratio of 0.75. When the proposals were studied in July 1966, the aircraft were the size and weight of the TFX F-111, like that aircraft, were designs that could not be considered an air-superiority fighter. Through this period, studies of combat over Vietnam were producing worrying results. Theory optimized aircraft for this role; the result was loaded aircraft with large radar and excellent speed, but limited maneuverability and lacking a gun. The canonical example was the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II, used by the USAF, USN, U. S. Marine Corps to provide air superiority over Vietnam, the only fighter with enough power and maneuverability to be given the primary task of dealing with the threat of Soviet fighters while flying with visual engagement rules. In practice, due to policy and practical reasons, aircraft were closing to visual range and maneuvering, placing the larger US aircraft at a disadvantage to the much less expensive day fighters such as the MiG-21.
Missiles proved to be much less reliable than predicted at close range. Although improved training and the introduction of the M61 Vulcan cannon on the F-4 did much to address the disparity, these early outcomes led to considerable re-evaluation of the 1963 Project Forecast doctrine; this led to John Boyd's energy–maneuverability theory, which stressed that extra power and maneuverability were key aspects of a successful fighter design and these were more important than outright speed. Through tireless championing of the concepts and good timing with the "failure" of the initial F-X project, the "fighter mafia" pressed for a lightweight day fighter that could be built and operated in large numbers to ensure air superiority. In early 1967, they proposed that the ideal design had a thrust-to-weight ratio near 1:1, a maximum speed further reduced to Mach 2.3, a weight of 40,000 pounds, a wing loading of 80 lb/ft2. By this time, the Navy had decided the F-111 would not meet their requirements and began the development of
RSF Social Finance, located in San Francisco, California, is one of few orgs seeking to and investing towards, a transformation of how we view and use money. RSF is one of the last and most esteemed of the responsible investment orgs of the 1990s. RSF is a non-profit financial services organization offering investing and philanthropic services to individuals and enterprises. RSF has more than $120 million in consolidated assets. RSF Social Finance is the trade name of Inc. and its affiliates. It has lent over $100,000,000 and made more than $50,000,000 in grants to non-profit organizations and social enterprises; as of 2006, RSF was growing at a 60% annual rate. RSF provides access to capital for organizations committed to fair practices and improving economic conditions, it began by supporting independent Waldorf schools in North America and became active in this in the 1980s. A team from RSF came physically to school communities requesting a loan to build or expand their school. RSF team would meet all stakeholders in open public meetings, encouraging transparency at all levels.
It was common for RSF to challenge the local community to raise 40% to 50% of the requested loan amount from its own resources. This drastic tactic proved catalyzing to many school communities which overcame their own inertia and despair and rose to this challenge; the process strengthened Waldorf school communities in this way. Outside of Waldorf school and Anthroposophic enterprises, RSF supports a variety of small and medium initiatives food initiatives. Many of these are biodynamic or sympathetic to BD, melding ethical and spiritual ideas with practical farming and sustainability goals. RSF was instrumental in introducing microfinance to Citi Private Bank; the company has supported early-stage fair-trade companies unable to access loans from traditional banking sector. The organization upholds transparency in lending: annually, borrowers are sent a list of those who made their loan possible, lenders are sent the complete list of those to whom loans have been given. According to Co-op America and the Social Investment Forum Foundation, RSF is one of the top 10 organizations which "best exemplify the building of economic opportunity and hope for individuals through community investing."
Siegfried E. Finser, Money Can Heal: Evolving Our Consciousness; the Story of RSF and Its Innovations in Social Finance, ISBN 0880105739 RSF Social Finance site Corporate Social Responsibility profile of RSF Social Finance
Colin Richard Slade is a New Zealand rugby union footballer who plays for Pau, represented the Crusaders in the Super Rugby competition and Canterbury in the ITM Cup, playing at first five-eighth, as well as all other backline positions on occasions. He was first selected for the All Blacks in 2009, he was a key member of the 2011 Rugby World Cup winning team. He was included in the 2015 Rugby World Cup, but played in only one match against Namibia, he thus became one of only twenty dual Rugby Union World Cup winners. While at Christchurch Boys' High School, Slade played two years for the 1st XV, winning two National titles in both years playing alongside fellow All Blacks Matt Todd and Owen Franks as well as former Crusaders players Nasi Manu and Tim Bateman. Slade made his debut for Canterbury playing first five in the 2008 Air New Zealand Cup, scored 86 points for his side as Canterbury won the competition, his performances improved as the season progressed and with Dan Carter unavailable and Stephen Brett injured, Slade became the first choice 10 for the Canterbury side.
In the 2009 Air New Zealand Cup, Slade was shifted to fullback as Stephen Brett was again healthy and reclaimed the number 10 jersey. Despite the shift in position, Slade didn't miss a beat as he started 14 games as one of the leading fullbacks in the competition, scoring 4 tries over the course of the season as Canterbury again emerged champions. For the 2010 ITM Cup, Slade reclaimed the starting first five position for Canterbury – along with first-choice goal-kicking duties – and emerged as one of the most dominant players in the competition. Despite missing games while with the All Blacks, Slade scored 152 points in just 11 starts to finish 2nd in the competition to Lachie Munro, he led Canterbury to their third consecutive title, sealing victory in the final against Waikato with a fine individual try. Slade's performance in the 2008 Air New Zealand Cup caught the eye of Crusaders coach Todd Blackadder who included Slade into the squad for the 2009 season. Playing out of position on the wing, he emerged as a regular member of the squad, making 11 starts as well as a substitute appearance in the semi-final against the Bulls.
For the 2010 Super 14 season, Slade was shifted to fullback, as he had been in the previous Air New Zealand Cup. His season was highlighted by a 21-point performance against the Lions on 20 March and his first Super Rugby try against the Stormers on 20 April. In an effort to get more playing time at his favoured position of first five-eighth, Slade transferred to the Highlanders for the 2011 Super Rugby season. However, his season would be blighted by injury, beginning with a broken jaw suffered in a preseason game that ruled him out of the first 5 matches of the competition. After three solid performances in Highlander victories, he suffered a second broken jaw in his third game back, ruling him out for the rest of the season. Slade's terrible luck with injuries continued into 2012 as his season was again cut short after suffering a broken leg in March against the Brumbies in Canberra. After the unsuccessful Highlanders 2013 season, Slade decided to return to the Crusaders for 2014. With Carter away for much of the season, Slade took claim of the no.10 jersey for the season and showed great form throughout the competition.
His goal kicking was strong kicking at 82% and totalling 198 points for the season. Despite Carters return, Slade's form was such that he managed to retain the number 10 jersey with Carter playing in the no.12 jersey. The Crusaders would however, lose the final to the Waratahs in Sydney; the 2015 super rugby season was another strong season for Slade managing again establish himself as the number 10 for the Crusaders. However, the Crusaders season would not go to plan. A former member of New Zealand U-19 and U-21 sides, Slade was selected for the Junior All Blacks side for the 2009 IRB Pacific Nations Cup scoring 30 points including a try against Japan. On the back of that solid performance, he was selected into the All Blacks training squad for the third leg of the Tri Nations Series although he didn't see any game action. In 2010, Slade was called up again as a replacement for injured fly-half Dan Carter for the All Blacks final match in the 2010 Tri-Nations against the Wallabies on 11 September.
He made his All Black debut off the bench in the 60th minute coming on as a replacement for Aaron Cruden. Slade made a mark in New Zealand's friendly against Fiji in July 2011, he scored two penalties and four conversions for the All Blacks. He played in New Zealand's opening Tri-Nations game against South Africa and scored New Zealand's sixth try of the match, resulting in victory by 40–7, he came on as a substitute in New Zealand's next match against Australia. He got his first Tri-Nations start against South Africa in the All Blacks penultimate game, he was selected for the 2011 Rugby World Cup and came on as a substitute in the opening match where he scored a conversion after Ma'a Nonu's try. After Dan Carter injured his groin and was forced out of the 2011 Rugby World Cup it was announced that Slade would become the All Blacks starting fly-half for the remainder of the World Cup. After having a'horror' Tri-Nations game against the Springboks and an'ordinary' first World Cup game, the public of New Zealand doubted the ability of Slade to perform in Carters absence.
However, coach Graham Henry voiced his trust in Slade, urging the New Zealand supporters to give him their full support. Slade aggravated a groin tear injury during the Argentina game and was ruled out of the rest of the Cup. During the 2014 game against the Springboks at Ellis Park Slade played in