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Medical research

Medical research known as experimental medicine, encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research", – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a preclinical understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials. Within this spectrum is applied research, or translational research, conducted to expand knowledge in the field of medicine. Both clinical and preclinical research phases exist in the pharmaceutical industry's drug development pipelines, where the clinical phase is denoted by the term clinical trial. However, only part of the clinical or preclinical research is oriented towards a specific pharmaceutical purpose; the need for fundamental and mechanism-based understanding, medical devices, non-pharmaceutical therapies means that pharmaceutical research is only a small part of medical research. The increased longevity of humans over the past century can be attributed to advances resulting from medical research.

Among the major benefits of medical research have been vaccines for measles and polio, insulin treatment for diabetes, classes of antibiotics for treating a host of maladies, medication for high blood pressure, improved treatments for AIDS, statins and other treatments for atherosclerosis, new surgical techniques such as microsurgery, successful treatments for cancer. New, beneficial tests and treatments are expected as a result of the Human Genome Project. Many challenges remain, including the appearance of antibiotic resistance and the obesity epidemic. Most of the research in the field is pursued by biomedical scientists, but significant contributions are made by other type of biologists. Medical research on humans, has to follow the medical ethics sanctioned in the Declaration of Helsinki and hospital review board where the research is conducted. In all cases, research ethics are expected. Example areas in basic medical research include cellular and molecular biology, medical genetics, immunology and psychology.

Researchers in universities or government-funded research institutes, aim to establish an understanding of the cellular and physiological mechanisms of human health and disease. Preclinical research covers understanding of mechanisms that may lead to clinical research with people; the work requires no ethical approval, is supervised by scientists rather than physicians, is carried out in a university or company, rather than a hospital. Clinical research is carried out with people as the experimental subjects, it is supervised by physicians and conducted by nurses in a medical setting, such as a hospital or research clinic, requires ethical approval. Research funding in many countries derives from research bodies and private organizations which distribute money for equipment and research expenses. United States, Asia and Australia combined spent $265.0 billion in 2011, which reflected growth of 3.5% annually from $208.8 billion in 2004. The United States contributed 49% of global governmental funding from these regions in 2011 compared to 57% in 2004.

In the United Kingdom, funding bodies such as the Medical Research Council derive their assets from UK tax payers, distribute revenues to institutions by competitive research grants. The Wellcome Trust is the UK's largest non-governmental source of funds for biomedical research and provides over £600 million per year in grants to scientists and funds for research centres. In the United States, data from ongoing surveys by the National Science Foundation show that federal agencies provided only 44% of the $86 billion spent on basic research in 2015; the National Institutes of Health and pharmaceutical companies collectively contribute $26.4 billion and $27 billion, which constitute 28% and 29% of the total, respectively. Other significant contributors include biotechnology companies, medical device companies, other federal sources, state and local governments. Foundations and charities, led by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, contributed about 3% of the funding; these funders are attempting to maximize their return on investment in public health.

One method proposed to maximize the return on investment in medicine is to fund the development of open source hardware for medical research and treatment. The enactment of orphan drug legislation in some countries has increased funding available to develop drugs meant to treat rare conditions, resulting in breakthroughs that were uneconomical to pursue. Since the establishment of the National Institutes of Health in the mid-1940s, the main source of U. S. federal support of biomedical research, investment priorities and levels of funding have fluctuated. From 1995 to 2010, NIH support of biomedical research increased from 11 billion to 27 billion Despite the jump in federal spending, advancements measured by citations to publications and the number of drugs passed by the FDA remained stagnant over the same time span. Financial projections indicate; the National Institutes of Health is the agency, responsible for management of the lion's share of federal funding of biomedical research. It funds over 280 areas directly related to health.

Over the past century there were two notable periods of NIH support. From 1995 to 1996 funding increased from $8.877 billion to $9.366 billion, years which represented the start of what is considered the "doubling period" of rapid NIH support. The second notable period started in 1997 and ended in 2010, a period where the NIH moved to organize research spendin

Carlisle, Mississippi

Carlisle is an unincorporated community in Claiborne County, United States. The Bayou Pierre, a tributary to the Mississippi River, flows north of the community. Carlisle is located on the former Natchez and Columbus Railroad, completed in 1882. Known locally as "The Little J", the line ran between Jackson and Natchez, had various owners, including the Illinois Central Railroad, which abandoned it between 1979 and 1981. Carlisle is served by the Claiborne County School District. Ephren Taylor, self-made teen millionaire. S. Securities and Exchange Commission in 2012 of running an $11 million Ponzi scheme aimed at African-American churchgoers

Pundit

A pundit is a person who offers to mass media their opinion or commentary on a particular subject area on which they are knowledgeable, or considered a scholar in said area. The term has been applied to popular media personalities. In certain cases, it may be used in a derogatory manner as well, as the political equivalent of ideologue; the term originates from the Sanskrit term pandit, meaning "knowledge owner" or "learned man". It refers to someone, erudite in various subjects and who conducts religious ceremonies and offers counsel to the king and referred to a person from the Hindu Brahmin caste but may refer to the Siddhas, Naths, Sadhus, or Yogis. From at least the early 19th century, a Pundit of the Supreme Court in Colonial India was an officer of the judiciary who advised British judges on questions of Hindu law. In Anglo-Indian use, pundit referred to a native of India, trained and employed by the British to survey inaccessible regions beyond the British frontier. Josef Joffe's book chapter The Decline of the Public Intellectual and the Rise of the Pundit describes a change in the role of public experts and relates to developments in the audience and the media itself.

One of the problems related to expertise is the rapid amount of specialisation and knowledge strong in the American universities. While in the 1960s, political science had just 5 subdisciplines, the number had increased to 104 by 2000. In the second half of the 20th century, foreigners like Hannah Arendt or Jürgen Habermas and others gained a certain position in the US as public intellectuals due to the specialization of US academics. A pundit now combines the roles of a public intellectual and has a certain expertise as a media practitioner. Pundits may be regarded as more superficial from a university perspective; the intellectual dimension should be challenged. But they play an increasing role in disseminating ideas and views in an accessible way to the public. From Joffe's view, Karl Marx in Europe and e.g. in the US, Mark Twain were early and relentless pundits ante festum. In addition, the growing role of think tanks and research institutions like the Brookings Institution, the American Enterprise Institute and the Manhattan Institute provided a place for those dealing with'big issues' in public language.

The term talking head has derogatory overtones. For example, the judge in the David Westerfield trial in San Diego in 2002 said "The talking heads are doing nothing but speculating about what the jury may or may not be thinking". Punditry has become a more popular vehicle in nightly newscasts on American cable news networks. A rise of partisanship among popular pundits began with Bill O'Reilly of Fox News Channel, his opinion-oriented format led him to ratings success and has led others, including Bill Maher, Keith Olbermann, Nancy Grace to express their opinions on matters on their own programs. At the same time, many people who appear as pundits are recognized for having serious academic and scholarly experience in the subject at hand. Examples are pundits Paul Krugman, who received a Nobel Prize in Economics, Stephen Biddle, who received U. S. Army Superior Civilian Service Medals in 2003 and 2006. In sports commentating, a "pundit" or color commentator may be partnered with a play-by-play announcer who will describe the action while asking the pundit for analysis.

Alternatively, pundits may be asked for their opinions during breaks in the play. Color commentator Columnist Maven Opinion leader Pundette Carl Diggler – fictional character parodying contemporary American political pundits Stephen Colbert