Medieval cuisine

Medieval cuisine includes foods, eating habits, cooking methods of various European cultures during the Middle Ages, which lasted from the fifth to the fifteenth century. During this period and cooking changed less than they did in the early modern period that followed, when those changes helped lay the foundations for modern European cuisine. Cereals remained the most important staple during the early Middle Ages as rice was introduced late, the potato was only introduced in 1536, with a much date for widespread consumption. Barley and rye were eaten by the poor. Wheat was for the governing classes; these were consumed as bread, porridge and pasta by all of society's members. Fava beans and vegetables were important supplements to the cereal-based diet of the lower orders. Meat was more expensive and therefore more prestigious. Game, a form of meat acquired from hunting, was common only on the nobility's tables; the most prevalent butcher's meats were pork and other domestic fowl. Cod and herring were mainstays among the northern populations.

Slow transportation and food preservation techniques made long-distance trade of many foods expensive. Because of this, the nobility's food was more prone to foreign influence than the cuisine of the poor; as each level of society imitated the one above it, innovations from international trade and foreign wars from the 12th century onward disseminated through the upper middle class of medieval cities. Aside from economic unavailability of luxuries such as spices, decrees outlawed consumption of certain foods among certain social classes and sumptuary laws limited conspicuous consumption among the nouveaux riches. Social norms dictated that the food of the working class be less refined, since it was believed there was a natural resemblance between one's labour and one's food. A type of refined cooking developed in the late Middle Ages that set the standard among the nobility all over Europe. Common seasonings in the spiced sweet-sour repertory typical of upper-class medieval food included verjuice and vinegar in combination with spices such as black pepper and ginger.

These, along with the widespread use of honey, gave many dishes a sweet-sour flavor. Almonds were popular as a thickener in soups and sauces as almond milk; the cuisines of the cultures of the Mediterranean Basin since antiquity had been based on cereals various types of wheat. Porridge and bread, became the basic food staple that made up the majority of calorie intake for most of the population. From the 8th to the 11th centuries, the proportion of various cereals in the diet rose from about a third to three quarters. Dependence on wheat remained significant throughout the medieval era, spread northward with the rise of Christianity. In colder climates, however, it was unaffordable for the majority population, was associated with the higher classes; the centrality of bread in religious rituals such as the Eucharist meant that it enjoyed an high prestige among foodstuffs. Only oil and wine had a comparable value, but both remained quite exclusive outside the warmer grape- and olive-growing regions.

The symbolic role of bread as both sustenance and substance is illustrated in a sermon given by Saint Augustine: This bread retells your history … You were brought to the threshing floor of the Lord and were threshed … While awaiting catechism, you were like grain kept in the granary … At the baptismal font you were kneaded into a single dough. In the oven of the Holy Ghost you were baked into God's true bread; the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox Churches and their calendars had great influence on eating habits. All animal products, including eggs and dairy products, were prohibited during Lent and fast. Additionally, it was customary for all citizens to fast prior to taking the Eucharist; these fasts were for a full day and required total abstinence. Both the Eastern and the Western churches ordained. In most of Europe, Fridays were fast days, fasting was observed on various other days and periods, including Lent and Advent. Meat, animal products such as milk, cheese and eggs, were not allowed, only fish.

The fast was intended to mortify the body and invigorate the soul, to remind the faster of Christ's sacrifice for humanity. The intention was not to portray certain foods as unclean, but rather to teach a spiritual lesson in self-restraint through abstention. During severe fast days, the number of daily meals was reduced to one. If most people respected these restrictions and made penance when they violated them, there were numerous ways of circumventing them, a conflict of ideals and practice summarized by writer Bridget Ann Henisch: It is the nature of man to build the most complicated cage of rules and regulations in which to trap himself, with equal ingenuity and zest, to bend his brain to the problem of wriggling triumphantly out again. Lent was a challenge. While animal products were to be avoided during times of penance, pragmatic compromises prevail

Cheyenne Tozzi

Cheyenne Tozzi is an Australian model and singer. She has appeared on the covers of Mexican Vogue, German Cosmopolitan, French Madame Figaro magazine. Tozzi is involved in a self-titled R&B music project as a singer. Cheyenne works with the United Nations women raising much needed funds for women in crisis, in late 2016, cheyenne took on the role as manager to a school in la gonave haiti for you haiti,she has built 2 new classrooms,sick bay/medical room on site a toilet block with running water and acquired the land behind the school for expansion, she is the younger sister of model and singer Tahyna Tozzi She is represented by david brown milan,model management germany,bornmodels sweden,gee roberson usa Tozzi grew up in the Sydney beach-side suburb of Cronulla with her Italian father, Dutch mother and older sister, Tahyna Tozzi. Tozzi began her modelling at 8yrs of age. At the age of 13, Tozzi became one of the youngest models to grace the cover of prestigious ‘Harper’s Bazaar’, was dubbed "the next Elle Macpherson".

Tozzi appeared on Australia’s Next Top Model in 2010, as well as a various daytime TV appearances. As of March 2014 she was working with David Jones and Tush Magazine in Germany while writing and recording tracks for her debut solo record. Cheyenne is an Ambassador for the Ovarian Cancer Research Foundation. In 2014, Tozzi was a mentor on The Face AU with models Naomi Nicole Trunfio; the show takes aspiring models through the passes with the help of their supermodel mentors. Cheyenne has been on the cover of numerous publications worldwide including vogue,gq,cosmopolitan,madame figaro,elle magazine Since 2014, Tozzi has been the face of the Australian international skincare brand Jergens. Cheyenne Tozzi on Twitter

Media coverage of the Gulf War

The Persian Gulf War, codenamed Operation Desert Storm and referred to as the Gulf War, was a war waged by a United Nations-authorized coalition force from 34 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait. Media coverage of the Gulf War was significant for many reasons including CNN's live reporting from a Baghdad hotel and international coverage, the use of images; the Persian Gulf War was a televised war. New technologies, such as satellite technology, allowed for a new type of war coverage; the media had access to military innovations, such as the imagery obtained from "camera-equipped high-tech weaponry directed against Iraqi targets", according to the Museum of Broadcast Communications. For the first time, people all over the world were able to watch live pictures of missiles hitting their targets and fighters taking off from aircraft carriers from the actual perspective of the machinery; the images of precise land bombing and use of night vision equipment gave the reporting a futuristic spin, said to resemble video game imagery and encourage the "war drama".

Because of the pool system, most television networks relied on the information and imagery supplied by the military. This limited the media’s ability to cover the war, despite those new technologies that created the potential for live coverage; the war was covered live since its beginnings by the three main American networks, as well as the emerging CNN. On the night of January 16, when the air strikes began, ABC's Peter Jennings, CBS's Dan Rather, NBC's Tom Brokaw were anchoring their evening newscasts. ABC News correspondent Gary Shepard, reporting live from Baghdad, told Jennings of the quietness of the city. But, moments Shepard was back on the air as flashes of light were seen on the horizon and tracer fire was heard on the ground. On CBS, viewers were watching a report from correspondent Allen Pizzey, reporting from Baghdad, when the war began. On the "NBC Nightly News", correspondent Mike Boettcher reported unusual air activity in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Moments Brokaw announced to his viewers that the air attack had begun.

However, it was CNN which gained the most popularity for their coverage, indeed its wartime coverage is cited as one of the landmark events in the development of the network. CNN was the only 24‑hour coverage news network and by the time the war began they had been doing this type of coverage for 10 years; when the war broke out they possessed the necessary equipment and personnel and were ready to follow events in Baghdad on a 24‑hour basis. "They had the reporters, linkups, the engineers, the producers and expert commentators in place or on standby". In addition when the government warned American journalists that their security might be put at risk because of the bombings, CNN’s Baghdad correspondents Bernard Shaw, John Holliman, Peter Arnett, as well as the rest of their team chose to stay behind. Furthermore, when the Iraqi authorities decided to expel the rest of the Western correspondents CNN’s team was able to stay behind because producer Robert Winner had spent the last months trying to build cooperative relations with government officials in Baghdad.

During the first days of the bombing the CNN team was able to report live via radio from their hotel suite in the Rashid Hotel, while no other network was able to do this. The CNN live coverage from the hotel was significant since it was unedited; this event was a critical turn to the 24-hour news coverage. Out of the CNN correspondents the one who received the most attention was Peter Arnett who became known for the controversy of his reportages, his reports on the Coalition’s POWs, on the bombing of what was claimed to be a milk factory by the Iraq authorities, on the bombing of the bunker outside Bagdad where nearly 400 civilians were killed, were controversial and resulted in him being tilted as anti-patriotic by some. Overall media and television reporting during this first Gulf War has received several criticisms. People like Columbia’s professor Douglas Kellner have argued that the media framed the war as an exciting narrative, turning it into a kind of dramatic, patriotic spectacle and that the anchors of the major American TV networks such as CBS presented a view that seemed to identify with the American Military point of view.

In the book The Persian Gulf TV War he has argued that television networks and other media did not provide a balanced account of the events because this did not further the business interests of commercial networks. General Norman Schwarzkopf referred to the driver of a vehicle in a famous news conference during Gulf War on January 30, 1991 as "The luckiest man in Iraq", he showed a video of a laser-guided bomb destroying a bridge just after the vehicle had driven over it. In Britain, the BBC devoted the FM portion of its national speech radio station BBC Radio 4 to an 18-hour rolling news format creating Radio 4 News FM; the station was short lived, ending shortly after President Bush declared the ceasefire and the liberation of Kuwait. However, it paved the way for the introduction of Radio Five Live. Two BBC journalists, John Simpson and Bob Simpson, defied their editors and remained in Baghdad to report on the progress of the war, they were responsible for a report which included an "infamous cruise missile that travelled down a street and turned left at a traffic light."Newspapers all over the world covered the war and Time magazine published a special issue dated 28 January 1991, the headline "WAR IN THE GULF" emblazoned on the cover over a picture of Bagh