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Medieval medicine of Western Europe

Medieval medicine in Western Europe was composed of a mixture of existing ideas from antiquity. In the Early Middle Ages, following the fall of the Western Roman Empire, standard medical knowledge was based chiefly upon surviving Greek and Roman texts, preserved in monasteries and elsewhere. Many placed their hopes in the church and God to heal all their sicknesses. Ideas about the origin and cure of disease were not purely secular, but were based on a world view in which factors such as destiny and astral influences played as great a part as any physical cause; the efficacy of cures was bound in the beliefs of patient and doctor rather than empirical evidence, so that remedia physicalia were subordinate to spiritual intervention. The Western medical tradition traces its roots directly to the early Greek civilization, much like the foundation of all of Western society; the Greeks laid the foundation for Western medical practice but much more of Western medicine can be traced to the Middle East and Celtic cultures.

The Greek medical foundation comes from a collection of writings known today as the Hippocratic Corpus. Remnants of the Hippocratic Corpus survive in modern medicine in forms like the “Hippocratic Oath” as in to “Do No Harm.” The Hippocratic Corpus, popularly attributed to an ancient Greek medical practitioner known as Hippocrates, lays out the basic approach to health care. Greek philosophers viewed the human body as a system that reflects the workings of nature and Hippocrates applied this belief to medicine; the body, as a reflection of natural forces, contained four elemental properties expressed to the Greeks as the four humors. The humors represented fire, air and water through the properties of hot, cold and moist, respectively. Health in the human body relied on keeping these humors in balance within each person. Maintaining the balance of humors within a patient occurred in several ways. An initial examination took place as standard for a physician to properly evaluate the patient; the patient's home climate, their normal diet, astrological charts were regarded during consultation.

The heavens influenced each person in different ways by influencing elements connected to certain humors, important information in reaching a diagnosis. After the examination the physician could determine which humor was unbalanced in the patient and prescribe a new diet to restore that balance. Diet included not only food to eat or avoid but an exercise regimen and medication. Hippocratic medicine was written down within the Hippocratic Corpus, therefore medical practitioners were required to be literate; the written treatises within the Corpus are varied, incorporating medical doctrine from any source the Greeks came into contact with. At Alexandria in Egypt, the Greeks learned the art of surgery and dissection,; the early Hippocratic practitioner Herophilus engaged in dissection and added new knowledge to human anatomy in the realms of the human nervous system, the inner workings of the eye, differentiating arteries from veins, using pulses as a diagnostic tool in treatment. Surgery and dissection yielded much knowledge of the human body that Hippocratic physicians employed alongside their methods of balancing humors in patients.

The combination of knowledge in diet and medication formed the foundation of medical learning upon which Galen would build upon with his own works. The Greeks had been influenced by their Egyptian neighbors, in terms of medical practice in surgery and medication. However, the Greeks absorbed many folk healing practices, including incantations and dream healing. In Homer's Iliad and Odyssey the gods are implicated as the cause of plagues or widespread disease and that those maladies could be cured by praying to them; the religious side of Greek medical practice is manifested in the cult of Asclepius, whom Homer regarded as a great physician, was deified in the third and fourth century BC. Hundreds of temples devoted to Asclepius were founded throughout the Greek and Roman empire to which untold numbers of people flocked for cures. Healing visions and dreams formed the foundation for the curing process as the person seeking treatment from Asclepius slept in a special dormitory; the healing occurred either in the person's dream or advice from the dream could be used to seek out the proper treatment for their illness elsewhere.

Afterwards the visitor to the temple bathed, offered prayers and sacrifice, received other forms of treatment like medication, dietary restrictions, an exercise regiment, keeping with the Hippocratic tradition. Medicine in the Middle Ages had its roots in folk practices; this influence was highlighted by the interplay between Christian theologians who adopted aspects of pagan and folk practices and chronicled them in their own works. The practices adopted by Christian medical practitioners around the 2nd century, their attitudes toward pagan and folk traditions, reflected an understanding of these practices humoralism and herbalism; the practice of medicine in the early Middle Ages was pragmatic. It focused on curing disease rather than discovering the cause of diseases, it was believed the cause of disease was supernatural. Secular approaches to curing diseases existed. People in the Middle Ages understood medicine by adopting the ancient Greek medical theory of humors. Since it was clear that the fertility of the earth depended on the proper balance of the elements, it followed that the same was true for the body, within which the various humors had to be in balance.

This approach influenced medi

Hagen Schulte

Hagen Schulte is a German international rugby union player who plays for the Utah Warriors in Major League Rugby. Schulte plays as a fly-half but can cover Full Back, he played for Glasgow Warriors. Born in New Zealand, Schulte was Scottish Qualified to represent Scotland rugby because his grandmother is Scottish, he was German Qualified to play with the German national team, which prompted a move to Germany. He played for Marist Albion in Christchurch, New Zealand, he was top scorer in the Canterbury league before signing for the Warriors. He played for Canterbury at age grades, he played for Buller province in 2015. When not playing for Glasgow Warriors, his contact allows him to play for amateur club Glasgow Hawks. Schulte left Scotland for the 2017-18 season to play in Germany for Heidelberger RK in the Rugby-Bundesliga, he trained with Glasgow Warriors in March 2016 before signing for the 2016–17 season. Schulte said on signing: "Following my trial last season, all has worked out and I’m delighted to sign for Glasgow Warriors.

I pride myself on a running and kicking game. Coming over here and training couldn’t be more exciting."Schulte made his debut for the Warriors in the pre-season match against Harlequins on the 20 August 2016. He made his competitive debut for Glasgow in the Pro12 match against Scarlets on 10 February 2017. On 4 May 2017 it was announced. In November 2017 Schulte was called up to the German national team squad for their Autumn internationals, he made his debut against the USA national side on 18 November 2017 at Full Back. Hagen Schulte at ESPNscrum Hagen Schulte at Hagen Schulte at European Professional Club Rugby Hagen Schulte at Romanian Rugby SuperLiga Hagen Schulte at

BC Express (sternwheeler)

The BC Express was a stern wheel paddle steamer that operated on the Fraser River in British Columbia, from 1912 to 1919. The BC Express was built for the BC Express Company by Alexander Watson, Jr to work on the upper Fraser River between Tête Jaune Cache and Fort George during the busy years of Grand Trunk Pacific Railway construction; the BC Express Company hired Captain Joseph Bucey, an experienced Skeena River pilot, to be her master. The upper Fraser River was navigable by sternwheeler between Tête Jaune Cache. From Soda Creek to Fort George there were two formidable obstacles, the Cottonwood Canyon and the Fort George Canyon. Between Fort George and Tête Jaune Cache, there were the Giscome Rapids, the Goat River Rapids and the fearsome Grand Canyon of the Fraser, which contained a powerful whirlpool; the Grand Trunk Pacific was being built from Prince Rupert east. The two lines would meet on April 1914 at Fort Fraser; each end of construction was a portable town, which consisted of worker's accommodations and restaurants.

These towns were referred to as the "end of steel". In 1912, the eastern end of construction would cross the Alberta BC border and by the spring of 1913 it would arrive at Tête Jaune Cache; the BC Express was the second sternwheeler built by the BC Express Company, the first one being the BX. Like the BX, the BC Express was built at Soda Creek, and like the BX, the BC Express's captain was involved in every stage of her planning and construction. Construction began on the BC Express in March 1912 at Soda Creek, on the site where the BX had been built. Although the BC Express, when completed, would look much like her sister ship, in actuality the two sternwheelers were different, they were designed for different purposes on different section of the upper Fraser. Whereas the BX was designed to carry loads upstream from Soda Creek, the BC Express was designed to carry loads downstream from Tête Jaune Cache, which meant she would have to navigate through the perilous Grand Canyon. With these facts in mind Alexander Watson and Joseph Bucey decided to build the BC Express six feet shorter and a foot narrower than the BX.

Bucey had Watson install a special "monkey rudder" on the BC Express's fantail, which would help him in maneuvering through the Grand Canyon. The BC Express was launched on the 24th of June and Captain Bucey took her up to Fort George on the 29th, he was so impressed by how well she handled in the Cottonwood and Fort George canyons that he took her up to the Grand Canyon the following week, where she had no trouble at all steaming over its infamous and deadly whirlpool. She continued to make trips between the Grand Canyon and Fort George until that September when the water levels dropped so low that Bucey decided that the Giscome Rapids were too unsafe to navigate. In October the water levels rose again and she made several trips between Fort George and Soda Creek before the season ended. 1913 was the busiest year of navigation on the upper Fraser River because the end of steel for the eastern end of construction of the Grand Trunk Pacific had reached the head of navigation at Tête Jaune Cache.

It was estimated that 3,500 workers were working on the grade between Tête Jaune Cache and Fort George and more settlers and businessmen were moving into Fort George and the surrounding area. This had created a great surge of traffic over the Cariboo Road and the BC Express Company's stages and automobiles ran day and night to keep up with demand. Captain Bucey was not unaware of how profitable the season would be. In anticipation of extending the BC Express's route all the way to Tête Jaune Cache, he rode the CPR to Edmonton and took the GTP to Tête Jaune Cache. From there he canoed downstream with a companion to Fort George, learning all he could about the upper reaches of the new route. Captain Bucey took the BC Express to Tête Jaune Cache that May and returned with just twenty passengers and a small load of cargo, he wanted to see how the sternwheeler would run the Grand Canyon before he took her through with a capacity load. The trip was successful and the BC Express gained the title of the first loaded sternwheeler to run the Grand Canyon.

Seeing this success, the railway's sternwheelers, the Operator and the Conveyor followed the next day. The BC Express began a weekly round trip service from Fort Gorge to Tête Jaune Cache, carrying capacity loads of freight and passengers; the passenger fare was $35, meals and berths extra, the freight rate was $80 a ton. This latter seemed quite costly, until the shipper investigated the alternative shipping method, shipping his cargo by scow for $70 a ton, with no guarantee that the shipment would arrive intact, or at all; the risk to scows was at the Grand Canyon, the deadly whirlpool within it, responsible for the loss of at least eighty lives that summer alone, as well as the loss of one in ten scows, thousands of dollars of merchandise. Needless to say, the BC Express did a brisk business that season grossing $12,000 on a single trip, she was the only sternwheeler to offer freight and passenger service to the general public, as the Operator and Conveyor were used for hauling their own workers and supplies needed for rail construction.

The BC Express had a interesting season in 1913 and many stories of what occurred that summer were told and retold for years afterwards. One afternoon in June, Bucey was returning from Tête Jaune Cache and had just passed the Grand Canyon when he spotted a white flag on the river bank; this was a sign that someone needed the sternwheeler to stop, either to take on cargo

Sustainable MBA

The traditional MBA degree requires coursework and other study of business from a financial standpoint, with some attention to management of people, to conventional economic theory, to business ethics. A sustainable MBA program includes these subjects, study of managing for environmental and social sustainability; these programs are sometimes called "green MBAs". Sustainability in these programs is defined to include economic and social sustainability, collectively known as the Triple Bottom Line. For each of these domains, sustainability means that it will be possible to continue through the foreseeable future, at least, without major breakdowns, such as Economic: running out of oil or other natural resources and having nothing to replace them on the scale required Environmental: loss of habitat and whole ecologies. Externalities: economically significant effects of manufacturing and trade on those who are not part of the industry or market in question; the classic example of a negative externality is pollution, while the largest current issue is global warming.

The literature has identified many others, many positive externalities, has proposed many controversial measures to improve the balance. Natural resources: conventional accounting, including national accounts, treats extraction of finite natural resources as income, priced at the cost of extraction, not as depletion of non-renewable natural capital; the resources of nature come to us for free. They are of infinite value from the point of view of preserving and sustaining life, but may not be subject to trading in a market, as in the case of air for breathing, for agriculture, or for burning fuels; the problem of value: conventional economics can describe the process of setting prices in a marketplace through the interaction of supply and demand, but cannot adequately explain value. The most economists agree on is that an individual purchaser in a free market will only buy something worth more to that individual than the price, that the seller values the goods less than the price, so that both sides come out ahead.

Participation: The free market is not free to those who have no access to it. One of the themes of sustainable MBA education is the extent to which environmental and social sustainability can be achieved at a profit, a question by no means answered fully. Sustainability MBA programs can vary from one school to another, some may stress management, some may stress entrepreneurship, others add a few "green" classes to their existing MBA program. Many advise to look at a program's curriculum, vision and most of all, to go and attend a class before enrolling in a program, as transparency is espoused as core to a sustainable MBA; the longest running integrated sustainability graduate school is Presidio Graduate School with MBA programs in San Francisco and Seattle. The following are some of the current business programs explicitly offering MBA degrees in sustainability. Although many traditional MBA programs have incorporated sustainability-related topics into their curriculum, this list only includes schools offering a specific degree or concentration in sustainability areas: AustraliaMonash University offers a Corporate Environmental and Sustainability Management stream within its Master of SustainabilityCanadaGustavson School of Business at University of Victoria offers a MBA in Sustainable Innovation Schulich's School of Business offers a specialization in sustainability as part of their MBA program.

University of Toronto - offers a Master of Science in Sustainability Management degree with a concentration in either science or management within the Institute for Management and Innovation University of Guelph - offers a Masters of Business Administration in Sustainable CommerceCosta RicaINCAE Business School offers a concentration in Sustainable Development to its MBA students. DenmarkAarhus School of Business, Aarhus University offers a Sustainable MBA option. GermanyLeuphana University Lueneburg - Centre for Sustainability Management offers an MBA Sustainability Management since 2003IndiaIndian Institute of Management, Lucknow is the first IIM to offer a two-year full time MBA in Sustainable Management; the program only accepts candidates with a minimum work-experience of two years. Indian Institute of Forest Management, India run by Ministry of Environment and Forest offers PGDFM in Environment Management Bharathidasan University offers MBA in Environmental Management degree options.

TERI University offers MBA in Business Sustainability and Infrastructure Xavier Institute of Management Bhubaneswar, Xavier University, India - offers a two-year full time MBA programme in Sustainability Management Best MBA Colleges,DelhiEducation Express is an information centric organization, which provides all the information regarding educational institutions & universities in all the streams include MBA/PGDM, Engineering, MBBS, BBA & all Professional Courses etc. in India & Abroad. Best PGDM CollegesEducation Express is an information centric organization, which provides all the information regarding educational institutions & universities in all the streams include MBA/PGDM, Engineering, MBBS, BBA & all Professional Courses etc. in India & Abroad. IsraelFaculty of Management, Uni


Canoona is a rural locality in the Livingstone Shire, Australia. In the 2016 census, Canoona had a population of 81 people, it was the site of the first North Australian gold rush. After the goldfields in New South Wales and Victoria had been mined to the extent where there were few opportunities for the independent miner possessed of only basic equipment, many miners were seeking a new opportunity. On hearing that gold had been found at Canoona in about July 1858, it stimulated a gold rush and 15000 miners descended on Canoona within the following months; however little gold was found at Canoona and there was great disappointment and Canoona became known as a "duffer". Having spent everything to come to Canoona, many miners were destitute. Having lost so much of its labour force, the Victorian Government sent a ship to enable destitute miners to return to Victoria and repay their fare by working in Melbourne on their return. While many returned to the southern states, others remained in Queensland providing a labour force that enabled the development of the newly established colony of Queensland.

Some remained and would try their luck in Queensland's gold rushes. For example, Hugo William Du Rietz was enticed to Australia by the gold rushes in Ballarat and came to the Canoona gold rush and to the Gympie gold rush. Although never successful as a miner, he was successful as an architect and builder and took an active civic role in Brisbane and Gympie; the Fitzroy River forms the southern boundary of the locality, while Marlborough Creek and Mountain Hut Creek form most of its western boundary. The Bruce Highway forms most of the north-eastern boundary with North Coast railway line running beside it. A number of creeks flow through the locality, all are tributaries of the Fitzroy River; the Princhester Conservation Park lies in the west of the locality and the Lake Learmouth State Forest in the east. Apart from these areas, the land is predominantly used for grazing. Although a town centre was surveyed for Canoona at 23.0328°S 150.1393°E / -23.0328. Alwyn Torenbeek, a notable Australian drover, endurance- and bronc rider, was killed in an accident on a rural property at Canoona in 2015.

It is believed that the accident occurred when Torenbeek inadvertently pressed the accelerator while attempting to move over to the passenger side of the vehicle he was in, causing it to collide into a post. McDonald, The Rockhampton Delusion: a brief history of the Canoona rush, Oxley Memorial Library Advisory Committee for the Library Board of Queensland, retrieved 18 September 2015 — full text available online "Canoona". Queensland Places. Centre for the Government of Queensland, University of Queensland

1993 in Scotland

Events from the year 1993 in Scotland. Monarch – Elizabeth II Secretary of State for Scotland and Keeper of the Great SealIan Lang Lord AdvocateLord Rodger of Earlsferry Solicitor General for ScotlandThomas Dawson Lord President of the Court of Session and Lord Justice GeneralLord Hope Lord Justice ClerkLord Ross Chairman of the Scottish Land CourtLord Philip 5 January – oil tanker MV Braer runs aground on South Mainland of Shetland, spilling 84,700 tonnes of crude oil into the sea, she is broken up by the following Braer Storm of January 1993. 1 April The Council Tax replaces the Community Charge as a means of raising revenue for local government. Glasgow Caledonian University is created by merger of Glasgow Polytechnic and The Queen's College, Glasgow. 8 May – a new Methodist church building in Haroldswick, Shetland is dedicated, the most northerly church in the British Isles. 27 May – the Protection of Animals Act 1993, which increases the penalties for cruelty to animals, receives the Royal Assent.

29 May – Rangers F. C. beat Aberdeen 2-1 to win the Scottish Cup. July – Jim McLean steps down as manager of Dundee United after a reign of 21 years and seven months. 15 July – Rangers sign Duncan Ferguson for £4 million from Dundee United, a record fee between two British clubs. 13 September – Andy Roxburgh resigns after seven years as manager of the Scotland national football team, who now have no hope of qualifying for next summer's World Cup. 1 November – Craig Brown appointed manager of the Scotland national football team. 9 May - Laura Muir, middle-distance runner 14 June - Graeme MacGregor, footballer 21 September – Kirsty Gilmour, badminton player 18 January – Arthur Donaldson, former Scottish National Party leader 21 July – John Crichton-Stuart, 6th Marquess of Bute, architectural conservationist 11 October – Andy Stewart, singer 24 October – Jo Grimond, former Liberal Party leader April – St Mungo Museum of Religious Life and Art opens in Glasgow. 30 August – Irvine Welsh's novel Trainspotting is released at the Edinburgh International Book Festival.

December – English writer Jo Rowling moves to Edinburgh where she works on her first Harry Potter novel. Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama in Glasgow becomes the first conservatoire in the United Kingdom to be granted its own degree-awarding powers. Peter Howson is appointed British official war artist in the Bosnian War. 1993 in Northern Ireland