Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
Hungary is a country in Central Europe. Spanning 93,030 square kilometres in the Carpathian Basin, it borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, Slovenia to the west. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union; the official language is Hungarian, the most spoken Uralic language in the world, among the few non-Indo-European languages to be spoken in Europe. Hungary's capital and largest city is Budapest; the territory of modern Hungary was for centuries inhabited by a succession of peoples, including Celts, Germanic tribes, West Slavs and the Avars. The foundations of the Hungarian state were established in the late ninth century CE by the Hungarian grand prince Árpád following the conquest of the Carpathian Basin, his great-grandson Stephen I ascended the throne in 1000, converting his realm to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Hungary became a regional power, reaching its cultural and political height in the 15th century.
Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Hungary was occupied by the Ottoman Empire. It came under Habsburg rule at the turn of the 18th century, joined Austria to form the Austro–Hungarian Empire, a major European power; the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed after World War I, the subsequent Treaty of Trianon established Hungary's current borders, resulting in the loss of 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, 32% of ethnic Hungarians. Following the tumultuous interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a satellite state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a socialist republic spanning four decades; the country gained widespread international attention as a result of its 1956 revolution and the seminal opening of its previously-restricted border with Austria in 1989, which accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. On 23 October 1989, Hungary became a democratic parliamentary republic.
Hungary is an OECD high-income economy and has the world's 58th largest economy by PPP. It ranks 45th on the Human Development Index, owing in large part to its social security system, universal health care, tuition-free secondary education. Hungary's rich cultural history includes significant contributions to the arts, literature, sports and technology, it is the 13th most popular tourist destination in Europe, attracting 15.8 million international tourists in 2017, owing to attractions such as the largest thermal water cave system in the world, second largest thermal lake, the largest lake in Central Europe and the largest natural grasslands in Europe. Hungary's cultural and academic prominence classify it as a middle power in global affairs. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and has been part of the Schengen Area since 2007, it is a member of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe, the Visegrád Group.
The "H" in the name of Hungary is most due to early founded historical associations with the Huns, who had settled Hungary prior to the Avars. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Byzantine Greek Oungroi. According to an explanation,the Greek name was borrowed from Old Bulgarian ągrinŭ, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the collective name for the tribes who joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars; the Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of ország. The word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri; the first element magy is from Proto-Ugric *mäńć-'man, person' found in the name of the Mansi people. The second element eri,'man, lineage', survives in Hungarian férj'husband', is cognate with Mari erge'son', Finnish archaic yrkä'young man'; the Roman Empire conquered the territory west of the Danube between 35 and 9 BC. From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century, Pannonia was part of the Roman Empire, located within part of Hungary's territory.
Around AD 41–54, a 500-strong cavalry unit created the settlement of Aquincum and a Roman legion of 6,000 men was stationed here by AD 89. A civil city grew in the neighbourhood of the military settlement and in AD 106 Aquincum became the focal point of the commercial life of this area and the capital city of the province of Pannonia Inferior; this area now corresponds to the Óbuda district of Budapest, with the Roman ruins now forming part of the modern Aquincum museum. Came the Huns, a Central Asian tribe who built a powerful empire. After Hunnish rule, the Germanic Ostrogoths and Gepids, the Avar Khaganate, had a presence in the Carpathian Basin. In the 9th century, East Francia, the First Bulgarian Empire and Great Moravia ruled the territory of the Carpathian Basin; the freshly unified Hungarians led by Árpád, settled in the Carpathian Basin starting in 895. According to linguistic evidence, they originated from an ancient Uralic-speaking population that inhabited the forested area between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains.
As a federation of united tribes, Hungary was established in 895, some 50 years after the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843, before the unification of the Anglo-Saxon king
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
Lajjun was a Palestinian Arab village in Mandatory Palestine, located 16 kilometers northwest of Jenin and 1 kilometer south of the remains of the biblical city of Megiddo. Named after an early Roman legion camp in Syria Palaestina province called "Legio", predating the village at that location, Lajjun's history of habitation spanned some 2,000 years. Under Abbasid rule it was the capital of a subdistrict, during Mamluk rule it served as an important station in the postal route, during Ottoman rule it was the capital of a district that bore its name. After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire towards the end of World War I, Lajjun and all of Palestine was placed under the administration of the British Mandate; the village was depopulated during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. Most of its residents subsequently settled in the nearby town of Umm al-Fahm; the name Lajjun derives from the Roman name Legio. In the 3rd century, the town was renamed Maximianopolis by Diocletian in honor of Maximian, his co-emperor, but the inhabitants continued to use the old name.
Under the Caliphate, the name was Arabicized into al-Lajjûn or el-Lejjûn, used until the Crusaders conquered Palestine in 1099. The Crusaders restored the Roman name "Legio", introduced new names such as Ligum and le Lyon, but after the town was reconquered by the Muslims in 1187, "al-Lajjun" once again became its name. Modern Lajjun was built on the slopes of three hills 135-175 meters above sea level, located on the southwestern edge of the Jezreel Valley. Jenin, the entire valley, Nazareth range are visible from it; the village was located on both the banks of a tributary of Kishon River. The stream flows to the north and east over 6 kilometres before arriving at Lajjun; that section is called Wadi es-Sitt in Arabic, The northern quarter was built in close proximity to a number of springs, including'Ayn al Khalil,'Ayn Nasir,'Ayn Sitt Leila, and'Ayn Jumma, collectively known as'Uyun Seil Lajjun. The eastern quarter was next to'Ayn al Hajja. From Lajjun onward the stream is called Wadi al-Lajjun in Arabic.
In Hebrew, the Israeli Government Naming Committee decided in 1958 to use the name Nahal Qeni for the entire length of the stream, based on its ancient identification. Lajjun is bordered by Tall al-Mutsallem to the northeast, by Tall al-Asmar to the northwest. Lajjun, linked by secondary roads to the Jenin-Haifa road, the road that led southwest to the town of Umm al-Fahm, laid close to the junctions of the two highways. Nearby localities included, the destroyed village of Ayn al-Mansi to the northwest, the surviving villages of Zalafa to the south and Musheirifa to the southwest, Zububa to the southeast; the largest town near al-Lajjun was Umm al-Fahm, to the south. Lajjun is about 1 kilometer south of Tel Megiddo called Tell al-Mutasallim, identified with ancient Megiddo. During the rule of the Canaanites and the Israelites, located on the military road leading from Asia to Egypt and in a commanding situation, was fortified by both peoples. Lajjun stream has been identified with the brook Kina, or Qina, mentioned in the Egyptian descriptions of Thutmose III's Battle of Megiddo.
According to the reconstruction of Harold Hayden Nelson, the entire battle was fought in the valley, between the three quarters of modern Lajjun. However, both Na'aman and Zertal suggested alternative locations for Qina; some biblical scholars proposed that this stream is the battle site referred to as "Waters of Megiddo" in the Song of Deborah, while others maintain that any part of the Kishon river system is likely. In the same context, Judges 4 attests to the presence of a branch of the Kenite clan somewhere in the area. Donald B. Redford noted that the Egyptian transliteration might be of "qayin". Modern-day historical geographers have placed the Second Temple village of Kefar ʿUthnai in the confines of the Arab village, which place-name underwent a change after a Roman Legion had camped there, it appears in Latin characters under its old name Caporcotani in the Tabula Peutingeriana Map, lay along the Roman road from Caesarea to Scythopolis. Ptolemy mentions the site in the second century CE, referring to the place under its Latin appellation and where he mentions it as one of the four cities of the Galilee, with Sepphoris and Tiberias.
Among the village's famous personalities was Rabban Gamliel. After the Bar Kochba Revolt—a Jewish uprising against the Roman Empire—had been suppressed in 135 CE, the Roman emperor Hadrian ordered a second Roman legion, Legio VI Ferrata, to be stationed in the north of the country to guard the Wadi Ara region, a crucial line of communication between the coastal plain of Palestine and the Jezreel Valley; the place where it established its camp was known as Legio. In the 3rd century CE, when the army was removed, Legio became a city and its name was augmented with the adjectival Maximianopolis. Eusebius mentions the village in his Onomasticon, under the name Legio; some Muslim historians believe the site of the Battle of Ajnadayn between the Muslim Arabs and the Byzantines in 634 CE was at Lajjun. Following the Muslim victory, along with most of Palestine, southern Syria were incorporated into the Caliphate. According to medieval geographers Esta
HaZore'a is a kibbutz in northern Israel established in 1936 by German Jews. It is the only kibbutz, established by members of the Werkleute movement. Located in the western rim of the Jezreel Valley, it falls under the jurisdiction of Megiddo Regional Council. In 2017 it had a population of 857. HaZore'a is located on the western rim of the Jezreel Valley, surrounded by HaZore'a Forest to the south and west of the kibbutz, Yokneam Moshava to the north and the fields of the Jezreel Valley to the east. HaZore'a Forest is a section of the Ramot Manasseh Park planted on the Menashe Heights by members of the kibbutz, working for the Jewish National Fund; the forest has around 20 million trees. In the forest there are several recreation facilities such as paths to the Shofet River which leads to the Ein Ami spring and several lookouts. Ein Harshat is a cave located next to the Ein Ami spring, used as a burial site, with tunnels and rooms containing inscriptions from the Roman and Byzantine periods and burial tombs dating as early as the late Bronze Age.
East to the cave are the remains of an ancient settlement. The site is called Tel Qira and it contains remains from the Neolithic, Chalcolithic and Late Bronze Age and the Iron Age The kibbutz is the only one in Israel established by the Werkleute movement from Germany; the Werkleute movement was a Jewish socialist movement that first sought to find alternatives for Jews in Germany, but in 1933, after Adolf Hitler's rise in Germany the movement adopted a Labour Zionist vision of joining to the Yishuv in Mandatory Palestine and establishing a kibbutz. In early 1934, the first group of pioneers arrived to Palestine; the sixty members split into two groups who received agricultural training in Mishmar HaEmek of the Kibbutz Artzi movement, Givat Haim of the Kibbutz Meuhad movement, to learn the difference between the two movements. In 15 April 1934 the group reunited and concentrated in a Kibbutzim site in Hadera, where they chose the name HaZore'a. In Hadera the members established a tents and shacks camp, they earned a living in Hadera's orchards and laundry.
The Jewish National Fund chose an area of 3,500 dunams next to the moshava of Yokneam on the foot of the Menashe Hills and Mount Carmel, as the location for the kibbutz and a fund was raised in Germany to purchase the land from the Palestine Land Development Company, which purchased the land earlier from Arab landlords from Haifa and Lebanon. On 3 December 1935 the community, which had 30 members, settled in a khan, abandoned by the residents of Qira, located between Yokneam and the land purchased for the kibbutz; because of the slow evacuation of the Arab tenants, the community first received a narrow plot of 70 dunams. On 15 April 1936 the construction of tents and a carpentry shop was completed and all of the members moved to the land and began fencing their territory. In July 1936 the rest of the Gar'in members joined the kibbutz. In 1938 the kibbutz members decided to join the Kibbutz Artzi movement. In the wake of the slow evacuation process of the tenants, at one night in September 1936 the members expanded the kibbutz's boundaries, without obtaining permission from the authorities.
The agriculture in the kibbutz began to develop in the sectors of cattle, crops and vegetables. The members brought water to the kibbutz via horse-drawn carriage from Mishmar HaEmek; the financial hardships caused by the lack of land led the members to go work in Haifa as carriers and housekeepers. In 1937 a cowshed was established and first cows were purchased. In 1938 a vineyard was planted; some members of the kibbutz earned their living in Mishmar HaEmek's bakery, forestry work for the Jewish National Fund and the construction of the Tegart's Wall. The British authorities agreed to expand the kibbutz's boundaries in hundreds of dunams; this allowed the kibbutz to develop the fruit and vine sectors. The first water well was drilled. Days after the establishment of the kibbutz the 1936–1939 Arab Revolt broke out, forcing the members to temporarily sleep at the carpentry shop, whose walls were covered in gravel; the members set up a watch tower made out of wood and following shootings by Arab gangs more guard posts were set around the place which were manned all day.
In 1937 a spotlight was installed in the watchtower and a weapon storage was built in the tower's first floor with permission from the authorities. During World War II members of the kibbutz served in the Palmach; the kibbutz was used during the war as a paratrooper training camp. In 1937, the members built the first fortified concrete building: the kitchen. A shack was used as a dining room; the members began paving roads around the kibbutz. In 1938, the members built a structure used for public showers. In the next years the construction and development continue as children's houses and residential buildings were built; the kibbutz was connected to Mekorot's water supply. On 6 September 1938, the British government issued an order, supposed to allow the kibbutz and Yokneam to acquire the lands designated for the settlements on the plain region, blocked by Arab militants during the Arab Revolt; the British sent a large police and military force and the boundaries of both settlements was increased.
HaZore'a received an additional 500 dunams. The order solved the land problem for all; the kibbutz began absorbing Jewish groups which enriched its social fabric with a wide range of cultural views and languages: a youth group from Germany arrived to the kibbutz and moved to Yakum.
Hadera is a city located in the Haifa District of Israel, in the northern Sharon region 45 kilometers from the major cities of Tel Aviv and Haifa. The city is located along 7 km of the Israeli Mediterranean Coastal Plain; the city's population includes a high proportion of immigrants arriving since 1990, notably from Ethiopia and the former Soviet Union. In 2017 it had a population of 93,973. Hadera was established in 1891 as a farming colony by members of the Zionist group, Hovevei Zion, from Lithuania and Latvia. By 1948, it was a regional center with a population of 11,800. In 1952, Hadera was declared a city, with jurisdiction over an area of 53,000 dunams. Hadera was founded in 1891, in the early days of modern Zionism by Jewish immigrants from Lithuania and Latvia on land purchased by Yehoshua Hankin, known as the Redeemer of the Valley; the land was purchased from Selim Khuri. This was the largest purchase of land in Eretz Israel by a Zionist group, although the land was of low quality and swampland.
The only inhabitants prior to the purchase were a few families raising water buffaloes and selling reeds. The town may derive its name from the Arabic word khadra, meaning "green" in reference to the wild weeds which covered the marshes on which the town is built. Historical geographer, Mordechai Eshel, citing a geographical work written in 1913, claims that the existing site whereon is now built Hadera was called in Arabic Ǧadera, being the site of the town, Gadera of Caesarea, mentioned in Tosefta Shevi'it, ch. 7. Others say; the first Jewish settlers lived in a building known as the Khan near Hadera's main synagogue. The population consisted of four guards. Baron Edmond de Rothschild provided funding for Egyptian laborers to drain the swamps. Old tombstones in the local cemetery reveal; therefore a Bible verse from the Psalms was inscribed in the city's logo: "Those who sow in tears, will reap with songs of joy." Hashomer guards kept watch over the fields to prevent incursions by the neighboring Bedouin.
By the early twentieth century, Hadera had become the regional economic center. Land disputes in the area were resolved by the 1930s, by which time, the population had grown to 2,002 in 1931. Free schooling was introduced in the city in 1937 in all schools apart from the Histadrut school. Hadera's population increased in 1948 as immigrants flocked to the country. Most of the newcomers were from Europe. In 1953, Israel's first paper mill opened in Hadera. Financed by investors from Israel, United States and Australia, the mill was designed to meet all of Israel's paper needs. New neighborhoods were built, among them Givat Olga on the coast, Beit Eliezer in the east of the city. In 1964, Hadera was declared a city. In the 1990s, large numbers of Russian and Ethiopian immigrants settled in Hadera. Hadera, considered a safe place by its inhabitants, was jolted by several acts of terrorism, including a massacre of six civilians at a Bat Mitzvah and a suicide bomber who blew himself up at a falafel stand on October 26, 2005, killing seven civilians, 55 were injured, of them five in severe condition.
In addition, four civilians were killed when a terrorist opened fire on pedestrians at a bus stop on October 28, 2001. However, since the construction of the nearby West Bank barrier, the frequency of such incidents has dropped drastically. On August 4, 2006, three rockets fired by Hezbollah hit Hadera. Hadera is 50 miles south of the Lebanese border and marked the farthest point inside Israel hit by Hezbollah. In the 2000s, the city center was rejuventated, a high-tech business park was constructed, the world's largest desalination plant was built. New neighborhoods are under construction in the underdeveloped northeastern part of the city, plans are under way for a large park, shopping malls and hotels with a total of 1,800 rooms; the city is envisaged as a future vacation destination due to its closeness to the Galilee and access to major highways. Hadera is located on 45 km north of Tel Aviv; the city's jurisdiction covers 53,000 dunams. Nahal Hadera Park, a eucalyptus forest covering 1,300 dunams and Hasharon Park are located on the outskirts of Hadera.
Hot water gushing from the Hadera power plant draws schools of hundreds of sandbar and dusky sharks every winter. Scientists are researching the rare phenomenon, unknown in the vicinity, it is speculated that the water, ten degrees warmer than the rest of the sea, may be the attraction. Hadera lies along two main Israel Railways lines: the Coastal Line and the nowadays freight-only Eastern Line; the city's railway station is located in the west of the city and is on the Tel Aviv suburban line which runs between Binyamina and Ashkelon. The city center of Hadera is located near Israel's two main north-south highways; this made Hadera an important junction for all coastal bus transportation after 1948 and into the 1950s. Hadera Paper, established in 1953, continues to be a major employer in the city; the world's largest desalination plant of its type, was inaugurated in December 2009. Hadera is the location of Israel's largest power station. According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, as of October 2013, Hadera had a population of 91,634, growing at an annual rate of 1.2%.
As of 2003
Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge