Tokugawa Ieyasu was the founder and first shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, which ruled Japan from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Ieyasu seized power in 1600, received appointment as shōgun in 1603, abdicated from office in 1605, but remained in power until his death in 1616, his given name is sometimes spelled Iyeyasu, according to the historical pronunciation of the kana character he. Ieyasu was posthumously enshrined at Nikkō Tōshō-gū with the name Tōshō Daigongen, he was one of the three unifiers of Japan, along with his former lord Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi. During the Muromachi period, the Matsudaira clan controlled a portion of Mikawa Province. Ieyasu's father, Matsudaira Hirotada, was a minor local warlord based at Okazaki Castle who controlled a portion of the Tōkaidō highway linking Kyoto with the eastern provinces, his territory was sandwiched between stronger and predatory neighbors, including the Imagawa clan based in Suruga Province to the east and the Oda clan to the west.
Hirotada's main enemy was the father of Oda Nobunaga. Tokugawa Ieyasu was born in Okazaki Castle on the 26th day of the twelfth month of the eleventh year of Tenbun, according to the Japanese calendar. Named Matsudaira Takechiyo, he was the son of Matsudaira Hirotada, the daimyō of Mikawa of the Matsudaira clan, Odai-no-kata, the daughter of a neighbouring samurai lord, Mizuno Tadamasa, his mother and father were step-siblings. They were just 17 and 15 years old when Ieyasu was born. In the year of Ieyasu's birth, the Matsudaira clan was split. In 1543, Hirotada's uncle, Matsudaira Nobutaka defected to the Oda clan; this gave Oda Nobuhide the confidence to attack Okazaki. Soon afterwards, Hirotada's father-in-law died, his son Mizuno Nobumoto revived the clan's traditional enmity against the Matsudaira and declared for Oda Nobuhide as well; as a result, Hirotada sent her back to her family. As both husband and wife remarried and both went on to have further children, Ieyasu had 11 half-brothers and sisters.
As Oda Nobuhide continued to attack Okazaki, in 1548 Hirotada turned to his powerful eastern neighbor, Imagawa Yoshimoto for assistance. Yoshimoto agreed to an alliance under the condition that Hirotada send his young heir to Sunpu Domain as a hostage. Oda Nobuhide, learned of this arrangement and had Ieyasu abducted from his entourage en route to Sunpu. Ieyasu was just five years old at the time. Nobuhide threatened to execute Ieyasu. Despite this refusal, Nobuhide chose not to kill Ieyasu, but instead held him as a hostage for the next three years at the Mansho-ji Temple in Nagoya. In 1549, when Ieyasu was 6, his father Hirotada was murdered by his own vassals, bribed by the Oda clan. At about the same time, Oda Nobuhide died during an epidemic. Nobuhide's death dealt a heavy blow to the Oda clan. An army under the command of Imagawa Sessai laid siege to the castle where Oda Nobuhiro, Nobuhide's eldest son and the new head of the Oda, was living. With the castle about to fall, Sessai offered a deal to Nobuhide's second son.
Sessai offered to give up the siege. Nobunaga agreed, so Ieyasu was taken as a hostage to Sumpu. At Sumpu, he remained a hostage, but was treated well as a useful future ally of the Imagawa clan until 1556 when he was 15 years old. In 1556 Ieyasu came of age, with Imagawa Yoshimoto presiding over his genpuku ceremony. Following tradition, he changed his name from Matsudaira Takechiyo to Matsudaira Jirōsaburō Motonobu, he was briefly allowed to visit Okazaki to pay his respects to the tomb of his father, receive the homage of his nominal retainers, led by the karō Torii Tadayoshi. One year at the age of 13, he married his first wife, Lady Tsukiyama, a relative of Imagawa Yoshitmoto, changed his name again to Matsudaira Kurandonosuke Motoyasu. Allowed to return to his native Mikawa, the Imagawa ordered him to fight the Oda clan in a series of battles. Motoyasu fought his first battle in 1558 at the Siege of Terabe; the castellan of Terabe in western Mikawa, Suzuki Shigeteru, betrayed the Imagawa by defecting to Oda Nobunaga.
This was nominally within Matsudaira territory, so Imagawa Yoshimoto entrusted the campaign to Ieyasu and his retainers from Okazaki. Ieyasu led the attack in person, but after taking the outer defences, grew fearful of a counterattack to the rear, so he burned the main castle and withdrew; as anticipated, the Oda forces attacked his rear lines, but Motoyasu was prepared and drove off the Oda army. He succeeded in delivering supplies in the 1559 Siege of Odaka. Odaka was the only one of five disputed frontier forts under attack by the Oda which remained in Imagawa hands. Motoyasu launched diversionary attacks against the two neighboring forts, when the garrisons of the other forts went to their assistance, Ieyasu's supply column was able to reach Odaka. By 1560 the leadership of the Oda clan had passed to the brilliant leader Oda Nobunaga. Imagawa Yoshimoto, leading a large army invaded Oda clan territory. Motoyasu was assigned a separate mission to capture the stronghold of Marune; as a result, he and his men were not present at the Battle of Okehazama where Yoshimoto was killed in Nobunaga's surprise assault.
With Yoshimoto dead, the Imagawa clan in a state of confus
Castanopsis called chinquapin or chinkapin, is a genus of evergreen trees belonging to the beech family, Fagaceae. The genus contains about 120 species, which are today restricted to tropical and subtropical eastern Asia. A total of 58 species are native to China, with 30 endemic; the English name chinkapin is shared with other related plants, including the golden chinkapins of the Pacific United States, which are sometimes included within Castanopsis but are more considered a separate but closely related genus, Chrysolepis. They show many characters typical of Fagaceae, they are at least large shrubs but some species grow into sizeable trees. Their leaves are tough and much sclerotized and have a well-developed cuticula, their flowers are unisexual, the male ones are borne in erect catkins. The epigynous female flowers are congregated in small clusters; the fruit is the kind of encased nut typical of Fagaceae. The calybium resembles a pointed acorn. Three thickened ridges run the length of the calybium's shell.
In their rather circumscribed area of occurrence, Castanopsis are able to inhabit a wide range of temperate to tropical habitat and are keystone species in their ecosystems. They are plentiful in ecotones as diverse as Borneo montane rain forests, Taiwan subtropical evergreen forests and Northern Triangle temperate forests, they are common in Fagales-dominated montane forests and temperate to subtropical laurel forests. In the latter, they are characteristic elements of the climax vegetation in their entire continental Asian range, as well as on Taiwan. Plants of this genus grow on many soil types. Several species have adapted to podsolic, peat bog and other acidic and/or wet soils, or to the poor dry soils common in arid habitat. Around the Oligo-Miocene boundary, Castanopsis grew abundantly along rivers and in bogs and swamps of then-subtropical Europe; the prehistoric plant community Castanopsietum oligo-miocenicum is the source of much of the lignite deposits in Western and Central Europe.
Most species yield valuable timber but some have become rare due to unsustainable logging. As noted above, however the most important use for Castanopsis wood is in its fossil form. 175,400 metric tons of lignite - much of, former chinkapin trees - were mined in Germany in 2001. As with many Fagaceae, the nuts of many Castanopsis species are edible; the trees may be grown for their nuts, but more they are used as forestry or ornamental trees and the nuts are collected opportunistically. Among many animals, such as tits, rodents and pigs, the nuts are popular as food too. Meguro and Matsudo, Chiba in Japan use shii as one of their municipal symbols; the well-known and commercially important shiitake mushroom likes to grow on the logs of C. cuspidata and derives its common name from this: shii-take means "Castanopsis cuspidata mushroom". Castanopsis acuminatissima A. DC. Castanopsis argentea A. DC. Castanopsis argyrophylla King ex Hook. f. Castanopsis borneensis King Castanopsis buruana Miq. Castanopsis calathiformis Castanopsis carlesii Hayata Castanopsis catappaefolia Castanopsis ceratacantha Castanopsis cerebrina Castanopsis choboensis Castanopsis chunii Castanopsis clarkei Castanopsis clemensii Soepadmo Castanopsis concinna Castanopsis costata A.
DC. Castanopsis crassifolia Castanopsis curtisii Castanopsis cuspidata – Japanese Chinquapin, shii Castanopsis delavayi Franch. Castanopsis densinervia Soepadmo Castanopsis diversifolia King ex Hook. f. Castanopsis endertii Hatus. Ex Soepadmo Castanopsis evansii Elmer Castanopsis eyrei Tutcher Castanopsis fabri Hance Castanopsis fargesii Franch. Castanopsis fissa Castanopsis fordii Castanopsis foxworthyi Schottky Castanopsis fulva Gamble Castanopsis globigemmata Castanopsis hainanensis Castanopsis hypophoenicea Soepadmo Castanopsis hystrix Castanopsis indica A. DC. Castanopsis inermis Benth. & Hook. f. Castanopsis javanica A. DC. Castanopsis kawakamii Castanopsis kweichowensis Castanopsis lamontii Castanopsis lanceifolia Hickel & A. Camus Castanopsis longzhouica Castanopsis lucida Soepadmo Castanopsis megacarpa Gamble Castanopsis mekongensis Castanopsis microphylla Soepadmo Castanopsis motleyana King Castanopsis nephelioides Castanopsis oligoneura Soepadmo Castanopsis orthacantha Castanopsis ouonbiensis Castanopsis oviformis Soepadmo Castanopsis paucispina Soepadmo Castanopsis pedunculata Soepadmo Castanopsis philipensis S. Vidal Castanopsis platyacantha Castanopsis psilophylla Soepadmo Castanopsis rockii Castanopsis sclerophylla Schottky Castanopsis scortechinii Castanopsis sieboldii Hatus.
Castanopsis tessellata Hickel &
Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t
Nakameguro is a residential district of Meguro, Tokyo. It is popular for its unique boutique cafes and stores, the area near the Meguro River is a popular hanami destination in mid-spring; the district is situated along Yamate Dōri Ave and on the southern region of Komazawa Dōri Ave. Since Nakameguro Station is located not in this district but in northern Kamimeguro, the place name Nakameguro is used for the larger region encompassing Nakameguro and Kamimeguro as well as a small portion of Aobadai and Higashiyama. Yūtenji, built in 1718, is a temple of the Pure Land Buddhism located on the easternmost part of Nakameguro. Note that Yūtenji is the name of a district adjacent to Nakameguro in Meguro, but it is not the Yūtenji district, home to the temple
Setagaya is a special ward in Tokyo, Japan. It is the name of a neighborhood and administrative district within the ward; the ward calls itself Setagaya City in English. Its official bird is the azure-winged magpie, its flower the fringed orchid, its tree the Zelkova serrata. Setagaya has second largest area of Tokyo's special wards; as of March 1, 2018, the ward has an estimated population of 900,095, a population density of 15,497.50 persons per km2 with the total area of 58.08 km2. Setagaya is located at the southwestern corner of the Tokyo's special wards and Tama River separates the boundary between Tokyo Metropolis and Kanagawa Prefecture. Residential population is among the highest in Tokyo as there are many residential neighbourhoods within Setagaya. Setagaya is served by various rail services providing frequent 2 to 3 minutes headway rush hour services to the busiest train terminals of Shinjuku and Shibuya as well as through service trains which continue travelling on to the Tokyo Metro lines providing direct access to the central commercial and business districts.
Most rail lines run parallel from east to west and there are no north to south rail services within Setagaya, except for Setagaya Line light rail. The ward is divided into five districts; these are Setagaya, Tamagawa and Karasuyama. The main ward office and municipal assembly is located in Setagaya District, but other districts have its own branch ward offices as a part of the administrative structure; each branch offices provide identical services as the main office, but does not provide the services related to municipal assembly. Most of the land is in the Musashino Tableland; the parts along the Tama River to the south are comparatively low-lying. The special ward of Setagaya was founded on March 15, 1947. During the Edo period, 42 villages occupied the area. With the abolition of the han system in 1871, the central and eastern portions became part of Tokyo Prefecture while the rest became part of Kanagawa Prefecture. With the establishment of Setagaya Ward in the old Tokyo City in 1932, further consolidation in 1936, Setagaya took its present boundaries.
During the 1964 Summer Olympics, the district of Karasuyama-machi in Setagaya was part of the athletics marathon and 50 km walk event. Carrot Tower Gōtoku-ji, a temple with the grave of Ii Naosuke, assassinated outside the Sakurada Gate of Edo Castle Hanegi Park Hasegawa Machiko Art Museum Kinuta Park Komazawa Olympic Park NHK Science & Technology Research Laboratories Oya Soichi Bunko St. Mary's International School Sakura-shinmachi Seikadō Bunko Art Museum Seisen International School Setagaya Art Museum Setagaya Business Square Setagaya Castle ruins Setagaya Literary Museum Tamagawadai Park Zenyōmitsu-ji Setagaya Sangenjaya Setagaya Matsubara Higashi-Matsubara Kitazawa Shimokitazawa Meidaimae Tamagawa Futako-Tamagawa: Major commercial and residential district located by the Tama River. Yōga Kamata Todoroki Kinuta Seijō Kinuta Soshigaya Karasuyama Karasuyama Keio Corporation Keiō Line: Daitabashi, Meidai-mae, Shimo Takaido, Sakura Josui, Kami Kitazawa, Hachiman Yama, Roka Koen, Chitose-Karasuyama Stations Keio Inokashira Line: Ikenoue, Shimo-Kitazawa, Higashi-Matsubara, Meidaimae Stations Odakyu Electric Railway Odawara Line: Higashi-Kitazawa, Shimo-Kitazawa, Setagaya-Daita, Umegaoka, Gōtokuji, Kyōdō, Chitose-Funabashi, Soshigaya-Ōkura, Seijōgakuen-Mae, Kitami Stations Tokyu Corporation Den-en-toshi Line: Ikejiri Ohashi, Sangen-Jaya, Komazawa Daigaku, Sakura Shinmachi, Yōga, Futako-Tamagawa Stations Meguro Line: Okusawa Station Oimachi Line: Midorigaoka, Kuhon-butsu, Todoroki, Futako-Tamagawa Stations Setagaya Line: Sangen-Jaya, Nishi Taishido, Shoin Jinja-mae, Kami Machi, Yamashita, Shimo Takaido Stations Toyoko Line: Chūō Expressway Daisan Keihin Road Shuto Expressway No. 3 Shibuya Route No. 4 Shinjuku Route Tomei Expressway National Route 20 National Route 246 National Route 466 On April 25, 2011, amid national concern over the safety of nuclear power triggered by the March 11 earthquake and Fukushima I nuclear accidents, former Social Democratic Party Upper House House of Councillors legislator Nobuto Hosaka was elected mayor on an anti-nuclear platform.
Prior to becoming mayor, Hosaka was well-known for his staunch opposition of the death penalty and his defense of Japan's Otaku culture. Cookie Jar Entertainment had its Japan offices in Setagaya. Game Freak has its Japan offices in Setagaya. Ivan Ramen restaurant: a ramen shop owned by an American chef. OLM, Inc. has its studios in Setagaya. Toho has studio facilities in Setagaya. Universities and colleges with campuses in Setagaya include: Showa Women's University Komazawa University Nihon University Nippon Sport Science University Kokushikan University Sanno Institute of Management Tokyo City University Tokyo University of Agriculture Central Theological College, TokyoSetagaya operates public elementary and junior high schools; the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Board of Education operates public high schools. The following schools are nationally or operated; the following schools are operated by Setagaya. The following schools are nationally or operated; the following schools are operated. Former international schools: Tokyo No. 8 Korean Elementary School - North Korean school Setagaya has sister-city relationships with Winnipeg, Manitoba in Canada.
Setagaya City Official Website
Aobadai is a district located in the northern portion of Meguro, Japan, which consists of 1 to 4-chōme. As of January 1, 2008, it has a total population of 7,265; the Aobadai district borders Shinsenchō, Nanpeidaichō, Hachiyamachō and Sarugakuchō on the north across Kyūyamate Dōri Avenue. A hillside neighborhood in Aobadai 2-chōme is known as Saigōyama meaning "Saigō Mountain." It was named so because Saigō Tsugumichi, a Meiji-period politician and a younger brother of Saigō Takamori, owned a mansion there. The mansion has been moved to the Meiji Mura museum in Inuyama, Aichi for preservation. Today, the site where Saigō's house existed is home to recreation parks including Saigōyama Park and Sugekari Park; the embassies housed in Aobadai includes Senegal. Aobadai is home to Sugekari Elementary School; the institution of higher education located in this district is Sanno University. Although its main campus is located in Isehara, the university maintains the "Daikanyama Campus" in this district.
Note that although Aobadai is administratively one of the Meguro districts, it is in everyday sense considered to belong to the Daikanayama, Shibuya area. The Aoba - Japan International School is located in Aobadai