Mehmed I

Mehmed I known as Mehmed Çelebi or Kirişçi, was the Ottoman Sultan from 1413 to 1421. The fourth son of Sultan Bayezid I and Devlet Hatun, he fought with his brothers over control of the Ottoman realm in the Ottoman Interregnum. Starting from the province of Rûm he managed to bring first Anatolia and the European territories under his control, reuniting the Ottoman state by 1413, ruling it until his death in 1421. Mehmed was born in 1379 as the fourth son of Sultan Bayezid I and one of his consorts, the slave girl Devlet Hatun. Following Ottoman custom, when he reached adolescence in 1399, he was sent to gain experience as provincial governor over the Rûm Eyalet conquered from its Eretnid rulers. On 20 July 1402, his father Bayezid was defeated in the Battle of Ankara by the Turko-Mongol conqueror and ruler Timur; the brothers were rescued from the battlefield, Mehmed being saved by Bayezid Pasha, who took him to his hometown of Amasya. Mehmed made Bayezid Pasha his grand vizier; the early Ottoman Empire had no regulated succession, according to Turkish tradition, every son could succeed his father.

Of Mehmed's brothers, the eldest, Ertuğrul, had died in 1400, while the next in line, was a prisoner of Timur. Leaving aside the underage siblings, this left four princes—Mehmed, Süleyman, İsa, Musa, to contend over control of the remaining Ottoman territories in the civil war known as the "Ottoman Interregnum". In modern historiography, these princes are called by the title Çelebi, but in contemporary sources, the title is reserved for Mehmed and Musa; the Byzantine sources translated the title as Kyritzes, in turn adopted into Turkish as kirişçi, sometimes misinterpreted as güreşçi, "the wrestler". After winning the Interregnum, Mehmed crowned himself sultan in the Thracian city of Edirne that lay in the European part of the empire, becoming Mehmed I, he consolidated his power, made Edirne the most important of the dual capitals, conquered parts of Albania, the Jandarid emirate, the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia from the Mamelukes. Taking his many achievements into consideration, Mehmed is known as the "second founder" of the Ottoman Sultanate.

Soon after Mehmed began his reign, his brother Mustafa Çelebi, captured along with their father Bayezid I during the Battle of Ankara and held captive in Samarkand, hiding in Anatolia during the Interregnum and asked Mehmed to partition the empire with him. Mehmed refused and met Mustafa's forces in battle defeating them. Mustafa escaped to the Byzantine city of Thessaloniki, but after an agreement with Mehmed, the Byzantine emperor Manuel II Palaiologos exiled Mustafa to the island of Lemnos. However, Mehmed still faced some problems, first being the problem of his nephew Orhan, who Mehmed perceived as a threat to his rule, much like his late brothers had been. There was a plot involving him by Manuel II Palaiologos, who tried to use Orhan against Sultan Mehmed. Furthermore, as a result of the Battle of Ankara and other civil wars, the population of the empire had become unstable and traumatized. A powerful social and religious movement arose in the empire and became disruptive; the movement was led by a famous Muslim Sufi and charismatic theologian.

He was an eminent Ulema, born of a Muslim father in Simavna southwest of Edirne. Mehmed's brother Musa had made Bedreddin his "qadi of the army," or the supreme judge. Bedreddin created a populist religious movement in the Ottoman Sultanate, "subversive conclusions promoting the suppression of social differences between rich and poor as well as the barriers between different forms of monotheism." Developing a popular social revolution and syncretism of the various religions and sects of the empire, Bedreddin's movement began in the European side of the empire and underwent further expansion in western Anatolia. In 1416, Sheikh Bedreddin started his rebellion against the throne. After a four-year struggle, he was captured by Mehmed's grand vizier Bayezid Pasha and hanged in the city of Serres, a city in modern-day Greece, in 1420; the reign of Mehmed I as sultan of the re-united empire lasted only eight years before his death, but he had been the most powerful brother contending for the throne and de facto ruler of most of the empire for nearly the whole preceding period of 11 years of the Ottoman Interregnum that passed between his father's captivity at Ankara and his own final victory over his brother Musa Çelebi at the Battle of Çamurlu.

He was buried in Bursa, in a mausoleum erected by himself near the celebrated mosque which he built there, which, because of its decorations of green glazed tiles, is called the Green Mosque. Mehmed I completed another mosque in Bursa, which his grandfather Murad I had commenced but, neglected during the reign of Bayezid. Mehmed founded in the vicinity of his own Green Mosque and mausoleum two other characteristic institutions, one a school and one a refectory for the poor, both of which he endowed with royal munificence. ConsortsŞehzade Hatun, daughter of Dividdar Ahmed Paşa, third ruler of Kutluşah of Canik.

Hermann Oppenheim

Hermann Oppenheim was one of the leading neurologists in Germany. He studied medicine at the Universities of Göttingen and Bonn, he started his career at the Charité-Hospital in Berlin as an assistant to Karl Westphal. In 1891 Oppenheim opened a successful private hospital in Berlin. In 1894, Oppenheim was the author of a textbook on nervous diseases titled Lehrbuch der Nervenkrankheiten für Ärzte und Studierende, a book that soon became a standard in his profession, it was published in several editions and languages, is considered one of the best textbooks on neurology written. He published significant works on tabes dorsalis, anterior poliomyelitis, multiple sclerosis and traumatic neurosis. In the field of physiology, he published articles on metabolism of urea with the aid of Nathan Zuntz. In 1889 he published a treatise on traumatic neuroses, harshly criticized by eminent physicians that included Jean-Martin Charcot and Max Nonne, his expertise involving brain disease led directly to the first successful removal of a brain tumor, an operation, performed by a physician named R. Köhler.

With surgeon Fedor Krause, he reported the first successful removal of a pineal tumor. He coined the term "dystonia musculorum deformans" for a type of childhood torsion disease he described, a disorder, to become known as "Ziehen-Oppenheim syndrome". Another name for amyotonia congenita is "Oppenheim's disease", his son Hans Oppenheim became an opera conductor and emigrated to Britain following the Nazi takeover. Die traumatischen Neurosen nach den in der Nervenklinik der Charité in den letzten 5 Jahren gesammelten Beobachtungen. 1889. Weitere Mitteilungen über die traumatischen Neurosen. 1891. Lehrbuch der Nervenkrankheiten für Ärzte und Studierende. Two volumes, 1894. English translation as "Textbook of Nervous Disease". 1911 translated into Russian and Italian. De Geschwülste des Gehirns. 1896. In Hermann Nothnagel's Handbuch der speciellen Pathologie und Therapie. 1896. Die syphilitischen Erkrankungen des Gehirns. in Hermann Nothnagel's Handbuch der speciellen Pathologie und Therapie. 1896. Die Encephalitis und der Hirnabszess. in Hermann Nothnagel's Handbuch der speciellen Pathologie und Therapie, 1897 Psychotherapeutische Briefe.

1906. Operative Erfolge bei Geschwülsten der Sehhügel- under Vierhügel gegend. Berliner klinische Wochenschrift, 1913, 50: 2316-2322.. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Kriegsverletzungen des peripherischen Nervensystems. 1917. Die ersten Zeichen der Nervosität im Kindesalter. 1917. Stand und Lehre von kriegs- und Unfallneurosen. 1918. Obituary by Richard Cassirer, in Berliner klinische Wochenschrift, 1919, 52: 669-671. Hermann Oppenheim at Who Named It

Claude Pujade-Renaud

Claude Pujade-Renaud is a French writer, whose first novel Le Ventriloque appeared in 1978. Since that time she has published over twenty novels, short-story and poetry collections, as well as combined creative works with long-time partner Daniel Zimmermann, she won the prix Goncourt des lycéens in 1994 for Belle mère, her novel on stepmothering, is a recipient of the French Writer's Guild Prize for her life's work. A dance teacher, she taught Body Expression courses at the University of Paris-VIII, is the author of a number of pedagogical texts relating to the body and the class-room. Childlessness and sexuality are recurring themes in her novels, which have veered towards the historical in the latter part of her career. None of her work is available in English. Novels1988: La Danse océane, Fabert. Correspondance 1973-1993, Le Cherche midi éditeur 2004: Championne à Olympie, Folio JuniorCollective Novel1995: L'Affaire Grimaudi, Editions du Rocher