Jodha of Mandore
Rao Jodha was an Indian ruler of Mandore in the present-day state of Rajasthan. He was the son of Rao Ranmal of the Rathore clan, he is known for founding the city of Jodhpur in 1459. Rao Ranmal secured the throne of Mandore in 1427. In addition to ruling Mandore, Rao Ranmal became the administrator of Mewar to assist Maharana Mokal. After the assassination of Maharana Mokal by two brothers in 1433, Ranmal continued as administrator of Mewar at the side of Rana Kumbha. After Rana Kumbha assassinated Rao Jodha's father Rao Ranmal, Rao Jodha escaped Mewar with his men. 700 horsemen accompanied Rao Jodha from Chittor. Fighting near Chittor and a valiant attempt to bar the pursuers at Someshwar Pass resulted in heavy losses amongst Jodha's warriors; when Jodha reached Mandore he had only seven people accompanying him. Jodha collected whatever forces he abandoned Mandore and pressed on towards Jangalu. Jodha managed to reach safety at Kahuni. For 15 years Jodha tried in vain to recapture Mandore. Jodha's opportunity to strike came in 1453 with Rana Kumbha facing simultaneous attacks by the Sultans of Malwa and Gujarat.
Jodha made a surprise attack on Mandore using horses seized from the Thakur of Setrawa and other jagirdars. Jodha's forces captured Mandore with relative ease. Jodha successively captured Chaukade, Merta and Kosana. Rana Kumbha did make attempts to recapture these territories, albeit unsuccessfully. Jodha and Kumbha settled their differences in order to face their common enemies, the rulers of Malwa and Gujarat. Once, late at night, Rao Jodha stopped at a farmers house, they did not recognize. He was given a bowl of an Indian stew. Jodha burnt his fingers; the farmer's wife commented, "Stranger, you are making the same mistake. Khichdi is hottest in the centre and coolest at the edge"; this prompted Jodha to stop worrying about Mandore and just focus on outlying forts, which he managed to win with ease. In due time he captured Mandore. According to Nainsi's Vigat the rulers of Jalore and Bundi submitted to Rao Jodha. Ajmer and Sambhar were ceded to Jodha by Udaysimha; the ruler of Mohilavati, Ajit Singh died in a battle with Rao Jodha's forces and the city was captured some years later.
After settling down in the aforementioned village of Kahuni, Jodha's son Bika founded the kingdom of Bikaner. Rao Jodha thus laid the foundation of the powerful Jodhpur State. A holy man sensibly advised Rao Jodha to move the capital to hilltop safety. By 1459, it became evident. Chidia-tunk, a high rocky ridge, nine km to the south of Mandore was an obvious choice for the new city of Jodhagarh; the natural elevation was enhanced by a fortress of staggering proportions, to which Rao Jodha's successors added over the centuries. Jodhagarh was on the important Delhi to Gujarat trade route and it benefited from the trade of silk, sandalwood and other items; the Mehrangarh Fort, situated on a 125 m high hill, is among the most impressive and formidable forts in Rajasthan. The construction of the fort was begun by Maharaja Rao Jodha in 1459 and was improvised by Maharaja Jaswant Singh; the fort had seven gates. There is a first gate with spikes to prevent attack from elephants; the Fatehpol or victory gate was erected by Maharaja Ajit Singh in 1707 to commemorate his victory over the Mughals.
The other gates include the Jayapol, built by Maharaja Man Singh in 1806, following his victory over the armies of Jaipur and Bikaner. Rao Jodha died on 6 April 1489, aged 73; the death of Rao Jodha was followed by a struggle for succession amongst his sons. He was succeeded by his son Rao Satal. After his death, his brother Rao Suja occupied the throne. Jodhpur State Rulers of Marwar Panch Mahal Maroth Jiliya alias Abhaypura List of Rajputs Rao Nara Sharma, Dasharatha. Lectures on Rajput History and Culture, Delhi:Motilal Banarsidass
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare, is used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime. The term is derived from the Latin fortis and facere. From early history to modern times, walls have been necessary for cities to survive in an ever-changing world of invasion and conquest; some settlements in the Indus Valley Civilization were the first small cities to be fortified. In ancient Greece, large stone walls had been built in Mycenaean Greece, such as the ancient site of Mycenae. A Greek phrourion was a fortified collection of buildings used as a military garrison, is the equivalent of the Roman castellum or English fortress; these constructions served the purpose of a watch tower, to guard certain roads and lands that might threaten the kingdom. Though smaller than a real fortress, they acted as a border guard rather than a real strongpoint to watch and maintain the border; the art of setting out a military camp or constructing a fortification traditionally has been called "castrametation" since the time of the Roman legions.
Fortification is divided into two branches: permanent fortification and field fortification. There is an intermediate branch known as semi-permanent fortification. Castles are fortifications which are regarded as being distinct from the generic fort or fortress in that they are a residence of a monarch or noble and command a specific defensive territory. Roman forts and hill forts were the main antecedents of castles in Europe, which emerged in the 9th century in the Carolingian Empire; the Early Middle Ages saw the creation of some towns built around castles. Medieval-style fortifications were made obsolete by the arrival of cannons in the 14th century. Fortifications in the age of black powder evolved into much lower structures with greater use of ditches and earth ramparts that would absorb and disperse the energy of cannon fire. Walls exposed to direct cannon fire were vulnerable, so the walls were sunk into ditches fronted by earth slopes to improve protection; the arrival of explosive shells in the 19th century led to yet another stage in the evolution of fortification.
Star forts did not fare well against the effects of high explosive, the intricate arrangements of bastions, flanking batteries and the constructed lines of fire for the defending cannon could be disrupted by explosive shells. Steel-and-concrete fortifications were common during the early 20th centuries; however the advances in modern warfare since World War I have made large-scale fortifications obsolete in most situations. Demilitarized zones along borders are arguably another type of fortification, although a passive kind, providing a buffer between hostile militaries. Many US military installations are known as forts. Indeed, during the pioneering era of North America, many outposts on the frontiers non-military outposts, were referred to generically as forts. Larger military installations may be called fortresses; the word fortification can refer to the practice of improving an area's defence with defensive works. City walls are fortifications but are not called fortresses; the art of setting out a military camp or constructing a fortification traditionally has been called castrametation since the time of the Roman legions.
The art/science of laying siege to a fortification and of destroying it is called siegecraft or siege warfare and is formally known as poliorcetics. In some texts this latter term applies to the art of building a fortification. Fortification is divided into two branches: permanent fortification and field fortification. Permanent fortifications are erected at leisure, with all the resources that a state can supply of constructive and mechanical skill, are built of enduring materials. Field fortifications—for example breastworks—and known as fieldworks or earthworks, are extemporized by troops in the field assisted by such local labour and tools as may be procurable and with materials that do not require much preparation, such as earth and light timber, or sandbags. An example of field fortification was the construction of Fort Necessity by George Washington in 1754. There is an intermediate branch known as semi-permanent fortification; this is employed when in the course of a campaign it becomes desirable to protect some locality with the best imitation of permanent defences that can be made in a short time, ample resources and skilled civilian labour being available.
An example of this is the construction of Roman forts in England and in other Roman territories where camps were set up with the intention of staying for some time, but not permanently. Castles are fortifications which are regarded as being distinct from the generic fort or fortress in that it describes a residence of a monarch or noble and commands a specific defensive territory. An example of this is the massive medieval castle of Carcassonne. From early history to modern times, walls have been a necessity for many cities. In Bulgaria, near the town of Provadia a walled fortified settlement today called Solnitsata starting from 4700 BC had a diameter of about 300 feet, was home to 350 people living in two-storey houses, was encircled by a fortified wall; the huge walls around the settlement, which were built tall and with stone blocks which are 6 feet high and 4.5 feet thick, make it one of the earliest walled settlements in Europe but it is younger than the walled town of Sesklo in Greece from 6800 BC.
Uruk in ancient Su
Jonathan Richard Guy Greenwood is an English musician and composer. He is the lead guitarist and keyboardist of the alternative rock band Radiohead, has written a number of film scores. Along with his elder brother, Radiohead bassist Colin, Greenwood attended Abingdon School in Oxford, where he met the future band members; the youngest of the group, Greenwood was the last to join, first playing keyboards and harmonica but soon becoming lead guitarist. He abandoned a degree in music. Radiohead have since sold over 30 million albums. A multi-instrumentalist, Greenwood plays bass guitar, piano and drums, among other instruments, is a prominent player of the ondes Martenot, an early electronic instrument, he incorporates electronic techniques such as programming and looping in his work, writes music software used by Radiohead. He described his role in the band as an arranger, helping to transform Thom Yorke's demos into full songs. Greenwood has been named one of the greatest guitarists of all time by several publications.
Radiohead albums feature Greenwood's string and brass arrangements, he has composed for orchestras including the London Contemporary Orchestra and the BBC Concert Orchestra. His first solo work, the soundtrack for the film Bodysong, was released in 2003. In 2007, he scored There Will Be Blood, directed by Paul Thomas Anderson, has composed the soundtrack for every Anderson film since. Greenwood's other scores include two collaborations with director Lynne Ramsay, he has collaborated several times with the Israeli composer Shye Ben Tzur, including on the 2015 album Junun. Jonny Greenwood was born on 5 November 1971 in England, his brother, Radiohead bassist Colin Greenwood, is two years older than him. His father served in the army as a bomb-disposal expert; when he was a child, Greenwood's family would listen to a small number of cassettes in their car, including Mozart's horn concertos, the musicals Flower Drum Song and My Fair Lady, cover versions of Simon and Garfunkel songs. When the cassettes were not playing, Greenwood would listen to the noise of the engine and try to recall every detail of the music.
He credited his older siblings with exposing him to rock bands such as the Beat and New Order. The first gig Greenwood attended was the Fall on their 1988 Frenz Experiment tour, which he found "overwhelming". Greenwood's first instrument was a recorder given to him at five, he took the instrument playing it into adulthood, played baroque music in recorder groups as a teenager. He learnt the viola and joined the Thames Vale youth orchestra, which he described as a formative experience: "I'd been in school orchestras and never seen the point, but in Thames Vale I was with all these 18-year-olds who could play in tune. I remember thinking:'Ah, that's what an orchestra is supposed to sound like!'" Greenwood spent time as a child programming computers, experimenting with BASIC and simple machine code to build "rubbishy computer games". According to Greenwood, "the closer I got to the bare bones of the computer, the more exciting I found it". Along with his brother, Greenwood attended the independent boys' school Abingdon, where they formed a band, On a Friday, with singer Thom Yorke, guitarist Ed O'Brien, drummer Phil Selway.
Jonny had been in a band called Illiterate Hands with Nigel Powell, Matt Hawksworth, Simon Newton, Ben Kendrick and Yorke's brother Andy Yorke. The youngest member of On a Friday, Greenwood was two school years below Yorke and Colin and the last to join, he first played harmonica and keyboards, but soon became lead guitarist. Greenwood studied music at A Level. In 1991, Greenwood was three weeks into a degree in music and psychology at Oxford Brookes University when On a Friday signed a recording contract with EMI, he dropped out of university and On a Friday changed their name to Radiohead. The band found early success with their 1992 single "Creep". According to Rolling Stone, "It was Greenwood's gnashing noise blasts that marked Radiohead as more than just another mopey band... an early indicator of his crucial role in pushing his band forward." Greenwood wrote his first Radiohead string part for the middle eight of "My Iron Lung", which appeared on their second album, The Bends. Radiohead's third album, OK Computer, achieved widespread acclaim, showcasing Greenwood's lead guitar work on songs such as "Paranoid Android".
For the track "Climbing up the Walls", Greenwood wrote a part for 16 stringed instruments playing quarter tones apart, inspired by the Polish composer Krzysztof Penderecki. Radiohead's fourth and fifth albums, Kid A and Amnesiac, recorded marked a dramatic change in sound, incorporating influences from electronica, classical music and krautrock. Greenwood employed a modular synthesiser to build the drum machine rhythm of "Idioteque", played ondes Martenot, an early synthesiser similar to a theremin, he composed a string arrangement for the track "How to Disappear Completely" by multitracking his ondes Martenot playing. According to longtime Radiohead producer Nigel Godrich, when the orchestra musicians saw Greenwood's score "they all just sort of burst into giggles, because they couldn't do what he'd written, because it was impossible—or impossible for them, anyway"; the orchestra leader John Lubbock encouraged the musicians to experiment and work with Greenwood's "naive" ideas. At the 2005 Ether Festival and Yorke performed "Arpeggi"
Rhyolite is an igneous, volcanic rock, of felsic composition. It may have any texture from glassy to aphanitic to porphyritic; the mineral assemblage is quartz and plagioclase. Biotite and hornblende are common accessory minerals, it is the extrusive equivalent to granite. Rhyolite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent to the plutonic granite rock, outcrops of rhyolite may bear a resemblance to granite. Due to their high content of silica and low iron and magnesium contents, rhyolitic magmas form viscous lavas, they occur as breccias or in volcanic plugs and dikes. Rhyolites that cool too to grow crystals form a natural glass or vitrophyre called obsidian. Slower cooling forms microscopic crystals in the lava and results in textures such as flow foliations, spherulitic and lithophysal structures; some rhyolite is vesicular pumice. Many eruptions of rhyolite are explosive and the deposits may consist of fallout tephra/tuff or of ignimbrites. Eruptions of rhyolite are rare compared to eruptions of less felsic lavas.
Only three eruptions of rhyolite have been recorded since the start of the 20th century: at the St. Andrew Strait volcano in Papua New Guinea, Novarupta volcano in Alaska, Chaiten in southern Chile. Rhyolite has been found on islands far from land. Etsch Valley Vulcanite Group near Bolzano and the surrounding area Gréixer rhyolitic complex at Moixeró range Vosges Iceland: all active and extinct central volcanoes, e.g. Torfajökull, Leirhnjúkur / Krafla, Breiddalur central volcano Papa Stour in Shetland Copper Coast Geopark in southeast Ireland various locations around Snowdonia, Wales Massif de l'Esterel, France the Thuringian Forest consists of rhyolites and pyroclastic rocks of the Rotliegendes Saxony the north west Saxony-Anhalt north of Halle Saar-Nahe Basin e.g. the Königstuhl on the Donnersberg mountain Black Forest e.g. on the Karlsruher Grat Odenwald Andes Cascade Range Cobalt, Ontario Sheep Creek, Idaho Rocky Mountains Jemez Mountains Rhyolite, Nevada was named after a rhyolite deposit that characterised the area.
Wichita Mountains within the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen St. Francois Mountains Mount Jasper, New Hampshire Yellowstone Crater Lake, Oregon Palisade Head, a formation found at Tettegouche State Park, Minnesota; the Taupo Volcanic Zone in New Zealand has a large concentration of young rhyolite volcanoes Glass House Mountains National Park, Australia the Gondwana Rainforests of Australia World Heritage Area contains rhyolite-restricted flora along the Great Dividing Range the Flinders Peak Group in the Teviot Range in the Fassifern Valley is a rhyolite of varying colours. The Malani Igneous Suite, India; the Yandang Shan mountain chain, near the town of Wenzhou, Zhejiang province, China Tambora, Indonesia Mount Kilimanjaro, Kenya/Tanzania The name rhyolite was introduced into geology in 1860 by the German traveler and geologist Ferdinand von Richthofen from the Greek word rhýax and the rock name suffix "-lite". In North American pre-historic times, rhyolite was quarried extensively in eastern Pennsylvania in the United States.
Among the leading quarries was the Carbaugh Run Rhyolite Quarry Site in Adams County. Rhyolite was mined there starting 11,500 years ago. Tons of rhyolite were traded across the Delmarva Peninsula, because the rhyolite kept a sharp point when knapped and was used to make spear points and arrowheads. Comendite – A hard, peralkaline igneous rock, a type of light blue grey rhyolite List of rock types – A list of rock types recognized by geologists Pantellerite – A peralkaline rhyolite type of volcanic rock Thunderegg – A nodule-like rock, formed within rhyolitic volcanic ash layers University of North Dakota description of rhyolite Information from rocks-rock.com
Geological Survey of India
The Geological Survey of India, founded in 1851, is a Government of India Ministry of Mines organisation, one of the oldest of such organisations in the world and the second oldest survey in India after Survey of India, for conducting geological surveys and studies of India, as the prime provider of basic earth science information to government and general public, as well as the official participant in steel, metals, power industries and international geoscientific forums. GSI as well as ASI, BSI, FiSI, FSI, IIEE, NIO, RGCCI and language survey), SI, ZSI are key national survey organisations of India. Formed in 1851 by East India Company, its roots can be traced to 1836 when the "Coal Committee", followed by more such committees, was formed to study and explore availability of coals in the eastern parts of India. British colonised India for the systematic financial exploitation of resources, leading to India's deindustrialization and Britain's Industrial Revolution, by using India as both a significant supplier of raw goods to British manufacturers and a large captive market for British manufactured goods, to sell British goods in India without any tariffs or duties and to tax local Indian producers with the imposition of Britain protectionist policies such as bans and high tariffs to restrict Indian finished goods from being sold in Britain, whereas raw material was imported from India without tariffs to British factories, resulting in decline of India's share of the world economy from 24.4% in 1700 to 4.2% in 1950, decline of India's share of global industrial output from 25% in 1750 down to 2% in 1900, corresponding increase in United Kingdom's share of the world economy rose from 2.9% in 1700 up to 9% in 1870.
David Hiram Williams, one of the first surveyors for the British Geological Survey, was appointed'Surveyor of coal districts and superintendent of coal works, Bengal' on 3 December 1845 and arrived in India the following February. The phrase "Geological Survey of India" was first used on his Dec 1847 map of the Damoodah and Adji Great Coal Field, together with Horizontal and Vertical sections of the map. On 4 February 1848, he was appointed the "Geological Surveyor of the Geological Survey of India", but he fell off his elephant and, soon after, died with his assistant, F. B. Jones, of'jungle fever' on 15 November 1848, after which John McClelland took over as the "Officiating Surveyor" until his retirement on 5 March 1851; until 1852, Geological Survey remained focused on exploration for coal for powering steam transport, oil reserves, ore deposits, when Sir Thomas Oldham, father of Richard Dixon Oldham, broadened the ambit of the scope of functioning of the Geological Survey of India by advancing the argument with the government that it was not possible to find coal without first mapping the geology of India.
Thus, the Geological Survey commenced to map the rock types, geological structures and relative ages of different rock types. The age of rock strata was estimated from the presence of index fossils, which consumed much of the geologists' efforts in finding these index fossils, as the method of Radiometric dating for estimating the age of rock strata was not developed at that time. In 19th and early 20th century GSI made important contributions to Seismology by its studies and detailed reports on numerous Indian earthquakes. Richard Dixon Oldham, like his father worked for GSI, first identified p- and s-waves, hypothesised and calculated the diameter of the Earth's core. On 8 April 2017 GSI began pilot project, with the first aerial survey of mineral stocks by GSI, to map the mineral stocks up to a depth of 20 km using specially-equipped aircraft; the GSI was restructured into 5 Missions relating to "Baseline Surveys". Vijay Kumar Additional Secretary in the Ministry of Mines of the Government of India.
Some of the geological parks include Tiruvakkarai National Fossil Wood Park national geo-heritage site with wood fossils scattered over 247 acres nine separate enclaves, Sathanur National Fossil Wood Park national geo-heritage site with an 18-meter 120 million years old fossilised tree trunk from the Cretaceous period, Nehru Zoological Park at Hyderabad with life size figures of T-Rex and other dinosaurs, Saketi Fossil Park near Chandigarh with a fossil museum and life size fiberglass models of six pre-historic animals. Geography of Asia Outline of geography List of National Geological Monuments in India Official website
Karni Mata was a female Hindu warrior sage born in the Charan caste. Known as Shri Karniji Maharaj, she is worshiped as the incarnation of the warrior goddess Durga by her followers, she is an official deity of the royal families of Bikaner. She lived an ascetic life and was revered during her own lifetime. At the request of the Maharajas of Bikaner and Jodhpur, she laid the foundation stones of Bikaner Fort and Mehrangarh Fort, the two most important forts in the region; the most famous of her temples is in the small town of Deshnoke, near Bikaner in Rajasthan, was created following her mysterious disappearance from her home. The temple is famous for its white rats, which are treated as sacred and given protection in the temple. Another temple dedicated to her during her lifetime differs from others in that it does not contain an image or idol of her, but rather a footprint to symbolize her visit to that place. Karni Mata is known as “dadi wali dokri. According to tradition, Karni Mata was the wife of Depoji Charan, of the village of Sathika.
However, she expressed unwillingness to her husband to engage in conjugal relations. He humoured her, thinking that she would relent in time. Instead, Karni arranged for him to marry her younger sister, Gulab, so that he might have a proper married life, she herself remained celibate all her life with the agreement and support of her husband, who died in 1454. Karni lived in her husband's village for about two years before leaving with her followers and a herd of cattle, to live a nomadic life, she and her followers once made camp at the village of Jangloo. A servant of Rao Kanha, ruler of Jangloo denied Karni, her followers, their cattle access to water. Karni Mata declared her follower, Rao Ridmal of Chandasar, the new ruler of the village and continued on her journey. Karni Mata settled at Deshnok. In 1453, she gave her blessing to Rao Jodha of Jodhpur for conquering Ajmer and Mandor. In 1457, she went to Jodhpur at Rao Jodha's request, to lay the cornerstone of the Mehrangarh Fort at Jodhpur.
Her first temple was constructed in the village of Mathania during her lifetime by her follower Amara Charan. In 1472, she arranged the marriage between Rang Kunwar. Rao Bika was the fifth son of Rao Jodha, Rang Kunwar was the daughter of Rao Shekha of Pungal; the marriage was arranged to turn the enmity of the Bhatian families into friendship. In 1485, she laid the foundation stone of the fort of Bikaner at the request of Rao Bika. In 1538, Karniji went to visit the Maharaja of Jaisalmer. On 21 March 1538, she travelled back to Deshnok with her stepson, a few other followers, they were near Gadiyala and Girirajsar of the Kolayat tehsil, in Bikaner district, when she asked the caravan to stop for water. It was reported. In Rajasthan, the goddess Karni Mata is believed to protect the Krishna Saara Mriga; the most famous temple dedicated to Karni Mata is at 30 km from Bikaner. It is known as the Temple of Rats. Another temple dedicated to Karni Mata is Shri Manshapurna Karni Mata Temple or Karni Mata, located on the Machla Hills, near Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay Park in Udaipur, Rajasthan.
One can reach to the temple either by ropeway. Between the years 1620 and 1628, Maharana Karan Singh developed a residential area at Machla Magra for Udaipur's safety, it was during this time. Though for a long period the temple was deserted, in 1997 the Shri Manshapurna Karni Mata Development Committee rebuilt it. A further temple dedicated to Karni Mata is located in the historical city of Rajasthan, it is situated in the heart near the Sagar Palace and Bala Qila. Camel festival Explanation of Karni Read Details about Karni Mata Temple National Geographic News: Rats Rule at Indian Temple Deshnok Temple A three-minute video news report on Karni Mata, aka the "Bagwati Karniji" temple in Deshnoke, Rajasthan. Accessed 10 August 2007
Paul Thomas Anderson
Paul Thomas Anderson referred to as P. T. Anderson or PTA, is an American filmmaker, his films have been nominated for 25 Academy Awards, winning three for cast and crew. An alumnus of the Sundance Institute, Anderson directed his first feature film, Hard Eight, in 1996, he achieved critical and commercial success with Boogie Nights, set during the Golden Age of Porn. His 2007 film There Will Be Blood, about an oil prospector during the Southern California oil boom, is cited as one of the best films of the 2000s. Anderson's other notable films include Magnolia, Punch-Drunk Love, The Master, Inherent Vice, Phantom Thread. Anderson was born on June 26, 1970, in Studio City, Los Angeles, to Edwina and Ernie Anderson. Ernie was an actor, the voice of ABC and a Cleveland television late-night horror movie host known as "Ghoulardi". Anderson grew up in the San Fernando Valley, he is third youngest of nine children, had a troubled relationship with his mother but was close with his father, who encouraged him to become a writer or director.
Anderson attended a number of schools, including Buckley in Sherman Oaks, John Thomas Dye School, Campbell Hall School, Cushing Academy, Montclair Prep. Anderson was involved in filmmaking from a young age and never had an alternative plan to directing films, he made his first film when he was eight years old and started making movies on a Betamax video camera that his dad bought in 1982 when he was 12 years old. He started using 8 mm film but realized that video was easier, he began writing in adolescence, at 17 years old he began experimenting with a Bolex sixteen millimeter camera. After years of experimenting with "standard fare", he wrote and filmed his first real production as a senior in high school at Montclair Prep using money he earned cleaning cages at a pet store; the film was a 30-minute mockumentary shot on video called The Dirk Diggler Story, about a pornography star. Anderson attended Santa Monica College before enrolling and spending two semesters as an English major at Emerson College where he was taught by David Foster Wallace, only two days at New York University before he began his career as a production assistant on television films, music videos and game shows in Los Angeles and New York City.
Feeling that the material shown to him at film school turned the experience into "homework or a chore", Anderson decided to make a 20-minute film that would be his "college". For $20,000, made up of gambling winnings, his girlfriend's credit card, money his father set aside for him for college, Anderson made Cigarettes & Coffee, a short film connecting multiple story lines with a twenty-dollar bill; the film was screened at the 1993 Sundance Festival Shorts Program. He decided to expand the film into a feature-length film and was subsequently invited to the 1994 Sundance Feature Film Program. At the Sundance Feature Film Program, Michael Caton-Jones served as Anderson's mentor. While at the Sundance Feature Film Program, Anderson had a deal with Rysher Entertainment to direct his first full-length feature, retitled Hard Eight. Upon completion of the film, Rysher re-edited it. Anderson, who still had the workprint of his original cut, submitted the film to the 1996 Cannes Film Festival, where it was accepted and screened in the Un Certain Regard section.
Anderson managed to get his version released but only after he retitled the film, raised the $200,000 necessary to finish it. Reilly contributed the funding; the version, released was Anderson's and the acclaim from the film launched his career. The story concerns Sydney Brown, an experienced gambler who takes John Finnegan under his wing, while John becomes romantically involved with a troubled waitress; the film featured Philip Seymour Hoffman as an arrogant gambler, beginning a five-film collaboration between the pair. In his review of the film, Chicago Sun-Times critic Roger Ebert wrote, "Movies like Hard Eight remind me of what original, compelling characters the movies can sometimes give us."Anderson began working on the script for his next feature film during his troubles with Hard Eight, completing the script in 1995. The result was Anderson's breakout for the drama film Boogie Nights, based on his short film The Dirk Diggler Story and is set in the Golden Age of Porn; the film follows a nightclub dishwasher who becomes a popular pornographic actor under his stage name Dirk Diggler.
The script was noticed by New Line Cinema's president, Michael De Luca, who felt "totally gaga" reading it. It was released on October 10, 1997 and was a critical and commercial success; the film revived the career of Burt Reynolds, provided breakout roles for Wahlberg and Julianne Moore. After the film's production, Reynolds refused to star in Anderson's third film Magnolia. At the 70th Academy Awards, the film was nominated for three Academy Awards, including for Best Supporting Actor, Best Supporting Actress and Best Original Screenplay. After the success of Boogie Nights, New Line told Anderson that he could do whatever he wanted for his next film and granted him creative control. Though Anderson wanted to make a film, "intimate and small-scale", the script "kept blossoming"; the resulting film was the ensemble piece Magnolia, which tells the sto