Oude Kerk, Amsterdam
The 800-year-old Oude Kerk is Amsterdam’s oldest building and oldest parish church, founded ca.1213 and consecrated in 1306 by the bishop of Utrecht with Saint Nicolas as its patron saint. After the Reformation in 1578 it became a Calvinist church, which it remains today and it stands in De Wallen, now Amsterdams main red-light district. The square surrounding the church is the Oudekerksplein, by around 1213, a wooden chapel had been erected at the location of todays Oude Kerk. Over time, this structure was replaced by a church that was consecrated in 1306. The church has seen a number of performed by 15 generations of Amsterdam citizens. The church stood for only a half-century before the first alterations were made, not long after the turn of the 15th century and south transepts were added to the church creating a cross formation. Work on these renovations was completed in 1460, though it is likely that progress was interrupted by the great fires that besieged the city in 1421 and 1452. Before the Alteratie, or Reformation in Amsterdam of 1578, the Oude Kerk was Roman Catholic, following William the Silent’s defeat of the Spanish in the Dutch Revolt, the church was taken over by the Calvinist Dutch Reformed Church.
Only the paintings on the ceiling, which were unreachable, were spared, locals would gather in the church to gossip, peddlers sold their goods, and beggars sought shelter. This was not tolerated by the Calvinists and the homeless were expelled, in 1681, the choir was closed-off with screen of oak. Above the screen is the text, The prolonged misuse of Gods church, were here undone again in the year seventy-eight, in that same year, the Oude Kerk became home to the registry of marriages. It was used as the city archives, the most important documents were locked in a chest covered with iron plates, the chest was kept safe in the iron chapel. The bust of famous organist and composer Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck celebrates the lifetime he spent playing in the church and his early career began at the age of fifteen when he succeeded his deceased father Pieter Swybertszoon as the Oude Kerk’s organist. He went on to music for all 150 Psalms and secured an international reputation as a leading Dutch composer.
His music would be played over the city from the bell tower. He is buried in the church, Rembrandt was a frequent visitor to the Oude Kerk and his children were all christened here. It is the building in Amsterdam that remains in its original state since Rembrandt walked its halls. In the Holy Sepulchre is a small Rembrandt exhibition, a shrine to his wife Saskia van Uylenburgh who was buried here in 1642, each year on 9 March, at 8,39 am, the early morning sun briefly illuminates her tomb
Ootmarsum is a town in the Dutch province of Overijssel. It is a part of the municipality of Dinkelland, and lies about 10 km north of Oldenzaal, in 2001, the town of Ootmarsum had 4227 inhabitants. The built-up area of the town was 1.5 km², the statistical area Ootmarsum, which can include the peripheral parts of the town, as well as the surrounding countryside, has a population of around 3650. Around 770 one of the first churches of Twente was built in Ootmarsum, in November 917, bisshop of Utrecht, died in Ootmarsum. Around 1000, Ootmarsum was one of the largest parishes in Twente, Ootmarsum received city rights in 1325. The town was converted into a fortress with ditches and earthworks. In the 16th century Ootmarsum was occupied by the Spanish during the Eighty Years War, a cannonball from the siege can be seen today still embedded in the church. Ootmarsum was a municipality until 2001, when it became a part of Dinkelland, together with Denekamp. Map of the municipality, around 1868
A watermill or water mill is a mill that utilizes hydropower. It is a structure that uses a wheel or water turbine to drive a mechanical process such as milling, rolling. Such processes are needed in the production of material goods, including flour, paper, textiles. Thus watermills may be comprise gristmills, paper mills, textile mills, trip hammering mills, rolling mills, wire drawing mills. The former type can be divided, depending on where the water hits the wheel paddles, into undershot, breastshot. Another way to water mills is by an essential trait about their location, tide mills use the movement of the tide. The earliest evidence of a wheel is probably the Perachora wheel. The earliest written reference is in the technical treatises Pneumatica and Parasceuastica of the Greek engineer Philo of Byzantium, the British historian of technology M. J. T. The sakia gear is, already developed, for the first time attested in a 2nd-century BC Hellenistic wall painting in Ptolemaic Egypt. The Greek geographer Strabon reports in his Geography a water-powered grain-mill to have existed near the palace of king Mithradates VI Eupator at Cabira, Asia Minor, before 71 BC.
The Roman engineer Vitruvius has the first technical description of a watermill, dated to 40/10 BC and he seems to indicate the existence of water-powered kneading machines. The Greek epigrammatist Antipater of Thessalonica tells of an overshot wheel mill around 20 BC/10 AD. He praised for its use in grinding grain and the reduction of human labour, Hold back your hand from the mill, you grinding girls, even if the cockcrow heralds the dawn, sleep on. If we learn to feast toil-free on the fruits of the earth, the Roman encyclopedist Pliny mentions in his Naturalis Historia of around 70 AD water-powered trip hammers operating in the greater part of Italy. There is evidence of a mill in 73/4 AD in Antioch. It is likely that a stamp mill was used at Dolaucothi to crush gold-bearing quartz. The stamps were operated as a batch of four working against a large conglomerate block, similar anvil stones have been found at other Roman mines across Europe, especially in Spain and Portugal. The 1st-century AD multiple mill complex of Barbegal in southern France has been described as the greatest known concentration of power in the ancient world
In Dutch history, the year 1672 was known as the rampjaar, the disaster year. The invading armies quickly defeated the Dutch States Army and conquered part of the Republic, a famous Dutch saying coined that year describes the Dutch people redeloos, its government radeloos, and the country reddeloos, irrational and beyond rescue, respectively. Despite the initial shock and successful invasion of the eastern Dutch Republic, the English were defeated by the navy under Michiel de Ruyter in 1674, resulting in the Treaty of Westminster and eventually leading to the Glorious Revolution. The French were pushed back with the help of the Spanish forces in the Spanish Netherlands, the conflict eventually ended with the Treaties of Nijmegen in 1678-9. These tensions had escalated in 1650 when William II, Prince of Orange had tried to conquer Amsterdam, after negotiations he succeeded in removing a number of his adversaries from office. When William died from smallpox that year, the party came back into power.
Johan de Witt was appointed Grand Pensionary of Holland and led the States of Holland, to appease the Orangists, and because of their own business interests, the Dutch Regents tried to keep the peace within Europe. When the Republic fought for its independence from Spain, it had allied with France, in 1648, as part of the Peace of Westphalia, the Republic made peace with Austria and Spain. France had only made peace with Austria and continued fighting Spain until the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, a condition of that peace was that Louis XIV would marry Maria Theresa, daughter of Philip IV of Spain. Maria Theresa would renounce her share of the inheritance in exchange for a large dowry, the dowry, was never paid by the Spanish. During the 1650s and 1660s the existing tensions between Dutch trade interests and English trade interests grew, the First Anglo-Dutch War was fought between the republics, resulting in a victory for the English. Oliver Cromwell, who was Lord Protector of England at that time, an English attempt to take over Dutch trade and colonies led to the Second Anglo-Dutch War.
After the previous war Johan de Witt had supervised the expansion, First Münster and England were forced to make peace. While France had helped to put pressure on England and Münster they had not committed a major part of their army or fleet, after the death of Philip IV, Louis XIV claimed part of the inheritance for his wife. According to local law in parts of the Spanish Netherlands daughters of a marriage took precedence before the sons of a marriage. The way Louis XIV explained this, Maria Theresa, daughter of the first marriage of Philip IV, should inherit the Spanish Netherlands because Philips son and this went against the interests of the Dutch Republic, who preferred having a weak state as their neighbour to the south. Because of this, Johan de Witt allied with the defeated English and Sweden, in secret clauses of the treaty they agreed to use force if Louis XIV would not come to terms with Spain. France made peace with Spain, but because the secret clauses of the Triple Alliance were soon made public, Louis XIV felt insulted by the perfidious Dutch, immediately after the peace agreement, France took steps to isolate the Republic
The Rijksmuseum is a Dutch national museum dedicated to arts and history in Amsterdam. The museum is located at the Museum Square in the borough Amsterdam South, close to the Van Gogh Museum, the Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam, and the Concertgebouw. The Rijksmuseum was founded in The Hague in 1800 and moved to Amsterdam in 1808, the current main building was designed by Pierre Cuypers and first opened its doors in 1885. On 13 April 2013, after a renovation which cost €375 million. In 2013 and 2014, it was the most visited museum in the Netherlands with record numbers of 2.2 million and 2.47 million visitors and it is the largest art museum in the country. The museum has a small Asian collection, which is on display in the Asian pavilion, in 1795, the Batavian Republic was proclaimed. The Minister of Finance Isaac Gogel argued that a museum, following the French example of The Louvre. On 19 November 1798, the government decided to found the museum, on 31 May 1800, the National Art Gallery, precursor of the Rijksmuseum, opened its doors in Huis ten Bosch in The Hague.
The museum exhibited around 200 paintings and historic objects from the collections of the Dutch stadtholders, in 1805, the National Art Gallery moved within The Hague to the Buitenhof. In 1806, the Kingdom of Holland was established by Napoleon Bonaparte, on the orders of king Louis Bonaparte, brother of Napoleon, the museum moved to Amsterdam in 1808. The paintings owned by city, such as The Night Watch by Rembrandt. In 1809, the museum opened its doors in the Royal Palace in Amsterdam, in 1817, the museum moved to the Trippenhuis. The Trippenhuis turned out to be unsuitable as a museum, in 1820, the historical objects were moved to the Mauritshuis in The Hague, and in 1838 the 19th-century paintings were moved to Paviljoen Welgelegen in Haarlem. In 1863, there was a design contest for a new building for the Rijksmuseum, Pierre Cuypers participated in the contest and his submission reached the second place. In 1876 a new contest was held and this time Pierre Cuypers won, the design was a combination of gothic and renaissance elements.
The construction began on 1 October 1876, on both the inside and the outside, the building was richly decorated with references to Dutch art history. Another contest was held for these decorations, the winners were B. van Hove and J. F. Vermeylen for the sculptures, G. Sturm for the tile tableaus and painting and W. F. Dixon for the stained glass. The museum was opened at its new location on 13 July 1885, in 1890 a new building was added a short distance to the south-west of the Rijksmuseum
The Veluwe is a forest-rich ridge of hills in the province of Gelderland in the Netherlands. The Veluwe features many different landscapes, including woodland, the Veluwe is the largest push moraine complex in the Netherlands, stretching 60 km from north to south, and reaching heights of up to 110 metres. The Veluwe was formed by the Saalian glacial during the Pleistocene epoch, glaciers some 200 metres thick pushed the sand deposits in the Rhine and Maas Delta sideways, creating the hills which now form most of the Veluwe. Because the hills are made of sand, rain water disappears rapidly, originally the Veluwe was surrounded by a string of swamps, heavily populated with game such as deer and wild boar because these areas offered rich vegetation to feed on. Since the 1990s many plans are underway, or have already been implemented and this results in very dry heathland changing into wetland within a span of just a few hundred metres. The Wisselse Veen near the village of Epe, on the northeastern Veluwe, Veluwe derives from Proto-Germanic *falwaz and *awjō.
The name corresponds to fallow lands in English and probably was used in opposition to the fertile lands of the Betuwe to the south. There are both coniferous and deciduous forests on the Veluwe, and some 500 different plant species can be found. The region is home to many different species of animals, such as wild boar, several species of deer, several species of snakes, pine martens, foxes. Furthermore, the raven was successfully reintroduced, and the exotic Reevess muntjac. In all, the Veluwe is among the best places in the Netherlands to see wildlife, parts of the Veluwe that have been separated from each other by roads and farmland are being reconnected by returning farmland to nature and creating wildlife crossings over highways. In 2012, nine of these overpasses had been built, each one about 50 metres wide and covered with sand, wildlife corridors connecting the Veluwe to other wildlife areas such as the Oostvaardersplassen in the Netherlands are being developed and further connections to Germany are an option.
It is hoped that by doing so the diversity of the wildlife population will increase. The Veluwe is a popular tourist destination, especially for Dutch people wanting to go on a vacation in their own country. Campsites and bungalow parks are the place to stay for most visitors. There are more than 500 of these sites, most located on the outskirts of the natural area. Besides the natural beauty of the area, other tourist attractions include four zoos, over 50 museums including the famous Kröller-Müller art museum, the National Sports Centre Papendal, a large sports complex and Olympic Games training facility is located in the south of the Veluwe near Arnhem
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn was a Dutch draughtsman and printmaker. A prolific and versatile master across three media, he is considered one of the greatest visual artists in the history of art. Having achieved youthful success as a painter, Rembrandts years were marked by personal tragedy. Yet his etchings and paintings were popular throughout his lifetime, his reputation as an artist remained high, Rembrandts portraits of his contemporaries, self-portraits and illustrations of scenes from the Bible are regarded as his greatest creative triumphs. His self-portraits form a unique and intimate biography, in which the artist surveyed himself without vanity and his reputation as the greatest etcher in the history of the medium was established in his lifetime, and never questioned since. Few of his paintings left the Dutch Republic whilst he lived, but his prints were circulated throughout Europe, because of his empathy for the human condition, he has been called one of the great prophets of civilization.
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn was born on 15 July 1606 in Leiden, in the Dutch Republic and he was the ninth child born to Harmen Gerritszoon van Rijn and Neeltgen Willemsdochter van Zuijtbrouck. His family was quite well-to-do, his father was a miller, religion is a central theme in Rembrandts paintings and the religiously fraught period in which he lived makes his faith a matter of interest. His mother was Roman Catholic, and his father belonged to the Dutch Reformed Church, unlike many of his contemporaries who traveled to Italy as part of their artistic training, Rembrandt never left the Dutch Republic during his lifetime. He opened a studio in Leiden in 1624 or 1625, which he shared with friend, in 1627, Rembrandt began to accept students, among them Gerrit Dou in 1628. In 1629, Rembrandt was discovered by the statesman Constantijn Huygens, as a result of this connection, Prince Frederik Hendrik continued to purchase paintings from Rembrandt until 1646. He initially stayed with an art dealer, Hendrick van Uylenburgh, Saskia came from a good family, her father had been a lawyer and the burgemeester of Leeuwarden.
When Saskia, as the youngest daughter, became an orphan and Saskia were married in the local church of St. Annaparochie without the presence of Rembrandts relatives. In the same year, Rembrandt became a burgess of Amsterdam and he acquired a number of students, among them Ferdinand Bol and Govert Flinck. In 1635 Rembrandt and Saskia moved into their own house, renting in fashionable Nieuwe Doelenstraat, in 1639 they moved to a prominent newly built house in the upscale Breestraat, today known as Jodenbreestraat in what was becoming the Jewish quarter, a young upcoming neighborhood. The mortgage to finance the 13,000 guilder purchase would be a cause for financial difficulties. Rembrandt should easily have been able to pay the house off with his income, but it appears his spending always kept pace with his income. It was there that Rembrandt frequently sought his Jewish neighbors to model for his Old Testament scenes, in 1640, they had a second daughter, named Cornelia, who died after living barely over a month
Deventer is a municipality and city in the Salland region of the Dutch province of Overijssel. Deventer is largely situated on the east bank of the river IJssel, in 2005 the municipality of Bathmen was merged with Deventer as part of a national effort to reduce bureaucracy in the country. Deventer was probably founded around 768 by the English missionary Lebuinus and it was immediately rebuilt and fortified with an earthen wall. Deventer received city rights in 956, after which fortifications were built or replaced by stone walls around the city for defense. Between 1000 and 1500, Deventer grew to be a trade city because of its harbour on the river IJssel. The city eventually joined the Hanseatic League, Deventer is the birthplace of Geert Groote and home to his Brethren of the Common Life, a school of religious thought that influenced Thomas a Kempis and Erasmus in times. Together with Haarlem it was among the first cities to have printing presses, from around 1300, it housed a Latin School, which became internationally renowned, and remained in service in changing forms until 1971.
Its most famous pupil was the scholar Desiderius Erasmus, who was born in 1466, between 1500 and 1800, the mass of water flowing through the IJssel decreased, decreasing the importance of Deventers harbour. The competition with trade centres in Holland, as well as the war between 1568 and 1648, brought a decline in the citys economy. In the 18th century, the industry came to Deventer. East of the town, so-called oer, riversand containing iron, was found as early as 900, from this material, ore was produced and brought to town. The main road of the villages Okkenbroek and Schalkhaar is still named Oerdijk, in the 19th century, Deventer became an industrial town. Bicycles, carpets and cans for food and drinks, cigars and heavy machinery, some of these industries are still thriving today, such as beds and accessories and publishing The citys trade and industry is still of some importance. The city is host to a factory producing central heating systems, as well as Wolters Kluwer, the Deventer honey cake, produced in Deventer for over 500 years, is still manufactured locally and sold all over the Netherlands and beyond.
Deventer has seen few military engagements throughout its history, although it was a garrison city of the Dutch cavalry. The industrial area and harbour were bombed heavily during World War II, the city centre has been largely spared, thus offering a view that has remained largely unchanged for the past few centuries. The female Jewish poet and writer Etty Hillesum lived in Deventer during the war before being deported to Auschwitz, in Schalkhaar, a village only 2 km northeast of the city centre, barracks were used by the German occupying forces to train Nazi policemen. The compound is now a centre for asylum seekers, Deventer has been somewhat popular with the film industry
Gorinchem, called Gorkum, is a city and municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. The municipality covers an area of 21.93 km2 of which 3.01 km2 is water and it had a population of 35,271 in 2014. The municipality of Gorinchem includes the centre of Dalem. It is assumed that Gorinchem was founded circa the year 1000 by fishermen, goriks Heem is first mentioned in a document from 1224 in which Floris IV granted people from Gorinchem exemption of toll payments throughout Holland. Somewhere between 1247 and 1267, Gorinchem became property of the Lords of Arkel, at the end of the 13th century earthen mounts reinforced with palisades were built around the settlement to protect it from domination by the neighboring counties of Holland and Gelre. Half a century real city walls were complete with 7 gates and 23 watchtowers. Otto van Arkel granted it city rights on 11 November 1322, jan van Arkel had a dispute with Albert I, brother of Willem V of Holland, leading to war and subsequently to the annexation of Gorinchem to Holland in 1417.
This resulted in increased trade and Gorinchem grew to be the city of Holland. On 9 July 1572, the Watergeuzen conquered the city and captured 19 Catholic priests, because they refused to renounce their faith, these priests and monks were brought to Brielle where they were hanged and were from on known among Catholics as the Martyrs of Gorkum. In the 16th century the city walls were so deteriorated that they were replaced with new fortifications and eleven bastions, the new walls were rounded off in 1609 and were placed farther from the town centre, making the city twice as large. In 1673 Gorinchem became part of the old Dutch Water Line, the city walls had four city gates, the Arkel Gate in the north, the Dalem Gate in the east, the Water Gate in the south, and the Kansel Gate in the west. Of these four only the Dalem Gate remains. The others were removed in the 19th century to make way for vehicular traffic, a portion of the Water Gate was preserved in the gardens of the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam.
In the 18th century, the economy went into decline, after the French domination, the retreating French troops took station in the bastion fortress of Gorinchem. After a three-month siege they capitulated but the city was heavily damaged, during the Industrial Revolution, Gorinchem recovered. Increased shipping led to new canals being dug and a connection to the city. Its population quickly rose, filling the innercity and new neighbourhoods had to be built outside the city walls, at the beginning of the 20th century, expansion took place in the Lingewijk and West neighbourhoods. After World War II, expansion started in the portion of the municipality which was completed in the 1970s
Frans Hals the Elder was a Dutch Golden Age portrait painter who lived and worked in Haarlem. He is notable for his loose painterly brushwork, and he helped introduce this style of painting into Dutch art. Hals played an important role in the evolution of 17th-century group portraiture, Hals was born in 1582 or 1583 in Antwerp as the son of cloth merchant Franchois Fransz Hals van Mechelen and his second wife Adriaentje van Geertenryck. Like many, Hals parents fled during the Fall of Antwerp from the Spanish Netherlands to Haarlem, Hals studied under Flemish émigré Karel van Mander, whose Mannerist influence, however, is barely noticeable in Hals work. In 1610, Hals became a member of the Haarlem Guild of Saint Luke and he worked on their large art collection that Karel van Mander had described in his Schilderboeck published in Haarlem in 1604. The most notable of these were the works of Geertgen tot Sint Jans, Jan van Scorel, the entire collection of paintings was not formally possessed by the city council until 1625, after the city fathers had decided which paintings were suitable for the city hall.
The remaining art that was considered too Roman Catholic was sold to Cornelis Claesz van Wieringen and it was in this cultural context that Hals began his career in portraiture, since the market had disappeared for religious themes. The earliest known example of Hals art is the portrait of Jacobus Zaffius and his breakthrough came with the life-sized group portrait The Banquet of the Officers of the St George Militia Company in 1616. His most noted portrait today is the one of René Descartes which he made in 1649, Frans Hals married his first wife Anneke Harmensdochter around 1610. Frans was of Catholic birth, however, so their marriage was recorded in the city hall, the exact date is unknown because the older marriage records of the Haarlem city hall before 1688 have not been preserved. Bavochurch where both are buried, though Frans took over 40 years to join his first wife there, Anneke died in 1615, shortly after the birth of their third child and, of the three, Harmen survived infancy and one had died before Hals second marriage.
As biographer Seymour Slive has pointed out, older stories of Frans Hals abusing his first wife were confused with another Haarlem resident of the same name. Indeed, at the time of charges, the artist had no wife to mistreat. After his first wife died, Hals took on the daughter of a fishmonger to look after his children and, in 1617. They married in Spaarndam, a village outside the banns of Haarlem. Frans Hals was a father, and they went on to have eight children. Contemporaries such as Rembrandt moved their households according to the caprices of their patrons, for this reason, we can be sure that all sitters were either from Haarlem or were visiting Haarlem when they had their portraits made. Hals work was in throughout his life, but he lived so long that he eventually went out of style as a painter
Nicolaes Pieterszoon Berchem
He was a member of the second generation of Dutch Italianate landscape painters. These were artists who travelled to Italy, or aspired to, in order to soak up the romanticism of the country, bringing home sketchbooks full of drawings of classical ruins and pastoral imagery. His paintings, of which he produced a number, were in great demand. His landscapes, painted in the Italian style of idealized rural scenes, with hills, mountains and trees in a golden dawn are sought after. Berchem painted inspired and attractive human and animal figures in works of artists, like Allaert van Everdingen, Jan Hackaert, Gerrit Dou, Meindert Hobbema. Born in Haarlem, he received instruction from his father Pieter Claesz, according to Houbraken, Carel de Moor told him that Berchem got his name from two words Berg hem for Save him. An expression used by his fellows in Van Goyens workshop whenever his father chased him there with the intent to beat him, today his name is assumed to come from his fathers hometown of Berchem, Antwerp.
According to the RKD he traveled to Italy with Jan Baptist Weenix, works by him are signed both as CBerghem and Berchem. In 1645 he became a member of the Dutch reformed church, around 1650 he travelled to Westphalia with Jacob van Ruisdael, where a dated piece showing Burg Bentheim is recorded. Maybe Berchem went to Italy after this trip and before he moved to Amsterdam - he is not clearly documented in the Netherlands between 1650 and 1656, around 1660 he worked for the engraver Jan de Visscher designing an atlas. In 1661-1670 he is registered in Amsterdam and in 1670 he moved back to Haarlem, but was living back in Amsterdam by 1677 and he was the uncle of Govert van der Leeuw and his brother Pieter