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Battle of Las Babias

The Battle of Las Babias occurred in the year 795 when the Emir of Cordoba, Hisham I of Córdoba sought to avenge his previous military incursions in 794 against the Kingdom of Asturias under the command of the brothers Abd al-Karim ibn Abd al-Walid ibn Mugaith and Abd al-Malik ibn Abd al-Walid ibn Mugaith. The previous battles resulted in devastating losses for the Emirate, most at the Battle of Lutos where one of the Emir's generals was killed in action; the battle resulted in a Córdoban victory. The Córdoban Emir, Hirsham I sought revenge for the defeat of his army in 794 at the Battle of Lutos in which the Córdoban general Abd al-Malik ibn Abd al-Walid ibn Mugaith was killed in action. To achieve this end, he sent his brother, Abd al-Karim ibn Abd al-Walid ibn Mugaith at the head of an army of 10,000 men under arms against the Kingdom of Asturias; the Emir organized another army which marched against the Kingdom of Galicia to divert any potential conversion of Christian forces on his brother's army in Asturias.

This second column proceeded to lay waste to the land. Upon its withdrawal, it came into a separate engagement with Galician and Asturian forces and was routed. In this action, the Muslims suffered heavy losses and forces captured, but managed to escape eventually. King Alfonso II of Asturias, who had reinforced his army with local machus made his camp near Astorga; the area had been a base of operations for Muslim attacks against Asturias via Puerto de Mesa. From there, the Asturian king sent the local inhabitants into the surrounding mountains and waited for the Córdoban forces to engage him; the location was favorable in. Abd al-Karim sent his vanguard of 4,000 men against Alfonso II's main force under the command of Farach ibn Kinanah, the commander of the Sidoniyya Division. Abd al-Karim ibn Abd al-Walid ibn Mugaith himself advanced shortly afterwards with the rearguard and reserves and their combined forces managed to rout the Asturians; as planned, the Asturians retreated via Puerto de Ventana while fighting a rearguard action against pursuing Córdoban cavalry.

Abd al-Karim ibn Abd al-Walid ibn Mugaith and Farach ibn Kinanah proceeded to defeat the forces of the Kingdom of Asturias at the Battle of Río Quirós, again at the Battle of Río Nalón, culminating in the capture of Oviedo. With the onset of winter, the Córdoban forces retreated back to their lands without dealing a finishing blow to the Kingdom of Asturias; the Asturian king Alfonso II was able to escape with his host. The death of Hisham I of Córdoba and the subsequent disputes between his heirs ensured that the Kingdom of Asturias could recover from the series of defeats in the course of a few years; the time allowed for Alfonso II of Asturias to cement an alliance with Charlemagne, King of the Franks. Cabal, Benito Ruano, Eloy. pr.:Alfonso II El Casto, fundador de Oviedo. Grupo Editorial Asturiano. 1991. ISBN 84-404-8512-3 Asturianos universales 7: Alfonso II, el Casto, Félix de Aramburu y Zuloaga, Alfonso I, José Posada Herrera, Ramón Menéndez Pidal. Ediciones Páramo, S. A. 1996. ISBN 84-87253-26-1 Códice testamento Alfonso II el Casto y estudio de la obra.

Ediciones Madú 2 v ISBN 84-95998-72-6 David Levering Lewis. El Crisol de Dios. El Islam y el nacimiento de Europa. Editorial Paidós, Barcelona, ISBN 978-84-493-2233-4. Gebhardt, Víctor. Historia general de España y de sus Indias desde los tiempos más remotos hasta nuestros días: tomada de las principales historias, crónicas y anales que acerca de los sucesos ocurridos en nuestra patria se han escrito. Madrid: Librería Española. Retrieved February 27, 2014. Tomo II Torrente, Mariano. Geografía universal física, política é histórica. Madrid: Imprenta de Don Miguel de Burgos. Retrieved February 27, 2014. Tomo I Historia militar de España. Batallas y Combates. Batalla del río Quirós

The Birthday Party (play)

The Birthday Party is the second full-length play by Harold Pinter, first published in London by Encore Publishing in 1959. It is one of his best-known and most performed plays. In the setting of a rundown seaside boarding house, a little birthday party is turned into a nightmare when two sinister strangers arrive unexpectedly; the play has been classified as a comedy of menace, characterised by Pinteresque elements such as ambiguous identity, confusions of time and place, dark political symbolism. Pinter began writing The Birthday Party in the summer of 1957 while touring in Doctor in the House, he said: "I remember writing the big interrogation scene in a dressing room in Leicester." Petey, a man in his sixties Meg, a woman in her sixties Stanley, a man in his late thirties Lulu, a girl in her early twenties Goldberg, a man in his fifties McCann, a man of thirty The Birthday Party is about Stanley Webber, an erstwhile piano player who lives in a rundown boarding house run by Meg and Petey Boles, in an English seaside town, "probably on the south coast, not too far from London".

Two sinister strangers, Goldberg and McCann, arrive looking for him on his birthday, turn his innocuous birthday party organized by Meg into a nightmare. While Meg prepares to serve her husband Petey breakfast, described as a man "in his late thirties", dishevelled and unshaven, enters from upstairs. Alternating between maternal and flirtatious affectation toward Stanley, Meg tells him that "two gentlemen", two new "visitors", will be arriving. At " sudden knock on the front door", Meg goes offstage while Stanley "listens" at a voice coming "through the letter box," but it is just Lulu carrying in a package delivered for Meg. Right after Meg and Lulu exit, Goldberg and McCann arrive, but Stanley "sidles through the kitchen door and out of the back door" to eavesdrop, but they speak only vaguely about "this job" they must do with bureaucratic clichés rendering McCann "satisfied". After Meg's new "guests" go up to their room, Stanley enters and Meg gives him the package brought by Lulu containing his birthday present.

He opens it to reveal a toy drum. Stanley encounters the two talk. McCann is determined to stop Stanley from leaving the house. Stanley's behaviour and speech start to become erratic, he denies the fact that it is his birthday, insists that Meg is mad for saying so, asks McCann if Goldberg told him why he has been brought to the house. Goldberg sends McCann out to collect some Whiskey that he has ordered for the party; when McCann returns, he and Goldberg interrogate Stanley with a series of ambiguous, rhetorical questions, tormenting him to complete collapse. Meg enters in her party dress, the party proceeds with a series of toasts in Stanley's honor. Lulu arrives and engages with Goldberg in romance; the party culminates with a game of blind man's buff, during which McCann further taunts Stanley by breaking his glasses and trapping his foot in the toy drum. Stanley attacks Meg and, in the blackout that follows and attempts to rape Lulu; the act ends with McCann backing the maniacally laughing Stanley against a wall.

Paralleling the first scene of the play, Petey is having breakfast, Meg asks him innocuous questions, with important differences revealing the aftermath of the party. After Meg leaves to do some shopping, Petey begins to express concern to Goldberg about Stanley's condition and Goldberg's intention to take him to an unseen character called Monty. There follows an exchange between Goldberg and McCann during which Goldberg's usual confident style temporarily abandons him, though he seems to recover after asking McCann to blow in his mouth. Lulu confronts Goldberg about the way he was the previous night but is driven from the house by McCann making unsavoury comments about her character and demanding that she confess her sins to him. McCann brings in Stanley, with his broken glasses, he and Goldberg bombard him with a list of his faults and of all the benefits he will obtain by submitting to their influence; when asked for his opinion of what he has to gain, Stanley is unable to answer. They begin to lead him out of the house toward the car waiting to take him to Monty.

Petey confronts them one last time but passively backs down as they take Stanley away, "broken", calling out "Stan, don't let them tell you what to do!". After Meg returns from shopping, she notices that "The car's gone" and as Petey remains silent, he continues to withhold his knowledge of Stanley's departure, allowing her to end the play without knowing the truth about Stanley; the Birthday Party has been described by Irving Wardle and critics as a "comedy of menace" and by Martin Esslin as an example of the Theatre of the Absurd. It includes such features as the fluidity and ambiguity of time and identity and the disintegration of language. Produced by Michael Codron and David Hall, the play had its world première at the Arts Theatre, in Cambridge, England, on 28 April 1958, where the play was "warmly received" on its pre-London tour, in Oxford and Wolverhampton, where it met with a "positive reception" as "the most enthralling experience the Grand Theatre has given us in many months."On 19 May 1958, the production moved to the Lyric Opera House, for its début in London, where it was a commercial and critical failure, instigating "bewildered hysteria" and closing after only eight performances.

The weekend after it had closed, Harold Hobso

Tom Armstrong (rugby league)

Tom Armstrong is an English professional rugby league footballer who last played for the Toronto Wolfpack in the Betfred Championship. After Being released from the club. Armstrong is a centre but can comfortably deputise on the wing and the back row, he played for amateur side Pilkington Recs, before joining St Helens. Armstrong has played for Leigh and Swinton and the Widnes Vikings. Armstrong's début game for Saints came against Warrington in the first round of Super League XIV. Standing in for New Zealand international Francis Meli, he scored a try in a 26-14 win, he went on from this to play against Huddersfield in the next round, Hull Kingston Rovers and a try scoring performance in a 4-0 win over Crusaders After a period in the reserves, he came back to play in the win over Harlequins RL where he scored a try in a 44-24 victory. It took Armstrong 13 rounds to break back into the first-team. At the Magic Weekend, held at Murrayfield, he scored a try from left centre in a 54-0 win over Hull Kingston Rovers, in his first game of the season.

Armstrong was dual registered with Leigh for 2011's Super League XVI. Armstrong scored the winning try in Leigh's 20-16 win over Halifax in the 2011 Northern Rail Cup Final. Armstrong was released from his contract with St. Helens and has decided to join Swinton ahead of the 2012 season. Toronto Wolfpack profile Saints Heritage Society profile

Moisture cure polyurethane

Moisture-cure polyurethanes or polyurethane prepolymer are isocyanate-terminated prepolymers that are formulated to cure with ambient water. Cured PURs are segmented copolymer polyurethane-ureas exhibiting microphase-separated morphologies. One phase is derived from a flexible polyol, referred to as the “soft phase”; the corresponding “hard phase” is born from the di- or polyisocyanates that through water reaction produce a crosslinked material with softening temperature well above room temperature. Moisture cure polyurethanes have been used in the adhesive and coating industries. Thermal and surface properties of hyperbranched polyurethane-urea moisture cured coatings have been studied in relationship to chemical structure. Different NCO terminated HBPU prepolymers were prepared by reacting hyperbranched polymers with isophorone diisocyanate or 4,4'-bis-methylene cyclohexane diisocyanate. A range of NCO/OH eq. ratios from 1.2 - 1.6 was used. Thermal and mechanical properties of moisture cured polyurethane-urea /clay nanocomposite coatings have been studied in relationship to clay dispersion and intercalation of clay platelets in the urethane-urea matrix.

Coatings were prepared by moisture curing of IPDI capped hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene/clay dispersions in a relative humidity of 50% at 25 °C. Moisture cured polyurethane–urea coatings have been made by reacting 1,2,3-triazole rich polyether polyols with HMDI at NCO/OH eq. ratio of 1.2 to obtain isocyanate-terminated polyurethane prepolymers. The prepolymers were cured under atmospheric moisture to make polyurethane–urea free films

James Henry Pope

James Henry Pope was a New Zealand teacher, school inspector, amateur astronomer and writer. He was the first Inspector of Native schools in New Zealand in 1980. Pope was one of the founders of the Polynesian Society and was its President from 1899 to 1900, he was the father of the poet and teacher Robert J. Pope James Henry Pope was born in St Helier, Channel Islands in 1837. On 11 September 1837, the son of Jane Dacombe and her husband James Pope, a retired English confectioner who migrated from Hampshire to Jersey in the early 1830s, he was educated in Jersey where he became fluent in French before he emigrated to Melbourne, with his parents in 1852 aged 15, on the "Castle Eden" and landed at Port Phillip, Melbourne. Pope spent the next five or so years in the Victorian gold diggings, pursuing his studies at the same time, his scholastic efforts were rewarded with the highest attainable honours of the Victorian Denominational School Board. On 22 December 1862, at Ballarat he married Helen Grant Rattray, daughter of the Sexton of the Ballarat Cemetery, in a Presbyterian service: they were to have 12 children.

In 1858 he was appointed Headmaster of a large primary school in Ballarat, a position he held until 1863. In 1864 Pope moved to Dunedin, he was soon respected for his breadth of knowledge and teaching ability. He was large, untidy vague in manner, considered to be unconventional in his methods, but he knew everything that went on in the classroom and kept strict order, he was an accomplished linguist at home, it was said, in Greek, Latin and German, well versed in Hebrew. He was an accomplished musician. Although unassuming, he had the confidence of his colleagues, was acting Rector of the school from 1868 to 1869, he transferred to the Otago Girls' High School in 1873, where the principal, Margaret Burn, regarded him as her right-hand man. In 1876 Pope went back to Ballarat to become Rector of Ballarat College, but his health broke down after a few months and he resigned and returned to Dunedin to recuperate. There was a staffing disruption at the Girls' High School in 1878 and as one of the steps to restore confidence in the school, Pope was appointed Deputy Principal.

He continued to be dogged by ill health, retired at the end of the year esteemed by staff and students alike. After a three-month period as an organising teacher in Taranaki in 1879; this was the first opportunity of the Education Department to exert a direct influence on this branch of the national education system. His role was to inspect their work and examine pupils, his title was changed to Inspector of Native Schools in 1885. Popes first task was to draft the native school code. For that period, the Māori schools were well provided with textbooks, teaching equipment and reference books. School gardens, properly fenced, were developed as model gardens for each village. New species of trees and plants were sent to schools for planting in the school glebe. James Pope became a fluent speaker of Māori and one of the best informed Pakehas of his time on Māori lore and traditions, he won the respect of tribal leaders throughout the country and conferred continually with them to establish schools, keep them in good running order, ensure that the children of school age attended school regularly.

He was known in the villages as "Te Popi". While in Dunedin he was a regular writer of leaders and astronomy notes for the Evening Star, he is remembered for the reading primers he wrote for the native school pupils and for his reader on Māori health and sanitation, "Health for the Māori: A Manual for Use in Native Schools", to be used as a basis for the marae campaigns of Āpirana Ngata, Reweti Kohere and Tahupōtiki Wiremu Rātana. After Pope's retirement as Chief Inspector of Native Schools in December 1903 he was presented with an Illuminated Address and a beautifully carved bookcase by the Teachers of the Native Schools Teacher's Association. Both are now on display in the Old Government Buildings, now the home for the Law School of Victoria University, Wellington; the farewell statement concludes, "...we, the teachers in these schools are compelled reluctantly to bid you farewell. It is no exaggeration to say that your benevolence, your matured wisdom, your absolute justice have built up between us a relationship quite unique in its paternal character as well as in its warmth and extent".

A silver epergne presented by the Officers of the Education Department is now in the care of Rev Moorie Robinson. The history of the telescope owned by Pope is described by Tony; the With-Browning Telescope at Pauatahunui. Bibcode:1996SouSt..37...45D. He stated that Ida Fownes inherited the instrument when the Fownes bought 34 Kelburn Parade from the widow of Frederick Sidney Pope who had in turn inherited the property and telescope from his father James Henry Pope in 1913. William Renwick in his biography wrote, "All references to James Henry Pope mention his modesty, the breadth of his sympathies, the range of his interests and his considerable talents, he was, Reweti Tuhorouta Kohere wrote,'of a lovable nature and so transparent that he won your respect and confidence on your first meeting.' He was one among a handful of men who shaped the direction of public education in this country and left a valued personal stamp on its ethos". Barrington, J M & T H Beaglehole, Maori schools in a Ch