Meknes is one of the four Imperial cities of Morocco, located in northern central Morocco and the sixth largest city by population in the kingdom. Founded in the 11th century by the Almoravids as a military settlement, Meknes became capital of Morocco under the reign of Sultan Moulay Ismaïl, son of the founder of the Alaouite dynasty. Moulay Ismaïl turned Meknes into an impressive city in Spanish-Moorish style, surrounded by high walls with great doors, where the harmonious blending of the Islamic and European styles of the 17th century Maghreb are still evident today; the city recorded a population of 632,079 in the 2014 Moroccan census. It is an important economic pole in the region of Fès-Meknès. Meknes is named after a Berber tribe which, was known as Miknasa in the medieval North African documents. A Berber tribe called the Miknasa from the Tunisian south, settled here in the 9th century; the Almoravids founded a fortress in Meknes during the 11th century. It resisted the Almohads rise, was thus destroyed by them, only to be rebuilt in a larger size with mosques and large fortifications.
Under the Merinids it received further madrasas and mosques in the early 14th century, continued to thrive under the Wattasid dynasty. Meknes saw its golden age as the imperial capital of Moulay Ismail following his accession to the Sultanate of Morocco. A little known fact of Meknes is that when Moulay Ismail selected it to be the capital city of his empire he used European and North American Christian slaves to carry out the work; the Sale coursairs terrorised the Atlantic and Mediterranean and siezed an estimated number close to 1 million seafaring Christian men and women over a 100 year period. Moulay Ismail closed the Moroccan slave markets when he came to power - however this was not for the benefit of the slaves, it was so that he could keep all slaves for his own purpose and set them to work on this colossal palace city. According to the ICOMOS Heritage at Risk report of 2000, the historic city of Meknes contains insufficient drainage systems, as a result suffers from inundation and leakage in certain areas.
Meknes is located in a strategic position in the heart of Morocco. To its south and south-east are the rich cedar forests and mountains of the Middle Atlas mountains with the cities Ifrane and Azrou. To the west are the two largest metropolitan areas of Morocco: Casablanca and Rabat. To the north is the mountainous north of Morocco with the cities of Tangier and Tétouan. Oujda and Fes lie east of Meknes. Meknes has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate with continental influences, its climate is similar to some areas of southern inland southern Portugal. The temperatures shifts from cool in winter to hot days in the summer months of June–September. Afternoon temperatures rise 10-14C above the low on most days; the winter highs reach only 15.5 °C in December–January, whereas night temperatures average 5 °C.. It snows in Meknes. Meknes is the seat of the prefecture of Meknès, which consists of 6 municipalities and 15 rural communes; the following map depicts some of the monuments in the old Medina and a general view over the old and new parts of Meknes.
Volubilis This site is one of the most famous sites in Meknes. It is a site of Roman construction, it is located on a hill where tourists can see the spread out countryside and see the pieces of the once tall and grandeur Roman villa. Many artifacts from this site are located in the Rabat's Archaeology Museum but the floors of the villas remain at the original site. Dar El Makhzen palace, located in El Mechouar Stinia, it is sided by a 2 km-long corridor formed by two large walls. It was Moulay Ismaïl's official palace. Bab al-Mansour gate, named after the architect, El-Mansour, it was completed 5 years after Moulay Ismail's death, in 1732. The design of the gate plays with Almohad patterns, it has zellij mosaics of excellent quality. The marble columns were taken from the Roman ruins of Volubilis; when the structure was completed, Moulay Ismail inspected the gate, asking El-Mansur if he could do better. El-Mansur felt compelled making the sultan so furious he had him executed. Still, according to historical records, the gate was finished after Moulay Ismail's death.
The gate itself is now used as an crafts gallery. This is the main gate between the Imperial City of Meknes, it is designed with Almohad patterns and some of Volubilis's columns were taken apart to build the wall. Lahboul gardens, it houses an open-air theatre. Mausoleum of Moulay Ismail, built in 1703 by Ahmed Eddahbi Koubat Al Khayatin: a pavilion in which sultan Moulay Ismaïl received foreign ambassadors. Bab El Khemis: a large decorated gate from the 17th century. Bab Berdaïne: a majestic gate built by Moulay Ismaïl in the 17th century. Dar El Beida, a 19th-century palace built by sultan Mohammed ben Abdallah, it is home to the Royal Military Academy. Royal stables Agdal reservoir, built by Moulay Ismail, it measures 319 x 149 meters, with a depth of 2 m. Cara subterranean prison; the ruins of the Roman town of Volubilis, another UNESCO World Heritage Site are about half an hour to the north. Some of the historic mosques in Meknes include: The Grand Mosque of Meknes covers about 3,500 square meters and was founded in the 12th century by the Almoravids.
It has 11 gates and 143 arcades, a old and historic l
WJBT is a commercial Urban Contemporary radio station in Jacksonville, Florida broadcasting on 93.3 MHz. The station is licensed to Callahan, Florida; the station's studios are located on Central Parkway in Jacksonville's Southside section, the transmitter is in the Arlington section. In 1995 WAIA switched from Triple-A to modern rock, becoming "Planet Radio 93.3". WJBT has been in its current format since 1992, playing R&B music, it is home to the nationally syndicated Doug Banks Morning Show. It's only other competitor is its own sister station, Urban AC WSOL-FM. WJBT was the second Urban radio station to adopt "The Beat" branding after Los Angeles' KKBT; when it was at 92.7, it served the Jacksonville area, but it did not have enough power to serve the northernmost and westernmost portions of the metro because its frequency was licensed to Green Cove Springs, Florida. However, it had no effect on the Arbitron ratings as it is still among the Top 5 most listened to stations in the city. On November 2, 2007, Clear Channel spun off the 92.7 frequency to a private company and on the evening of December 25 of that same year, moved the station and its format to the more powerful 93.3 signal.
The reason for this was to comply with FCC ownership rules, since WJBT was in a waiver status in which Clear Channel was allowed to own six FMs and one AM in the market. But because of Clear Channel Communications being sold to a private investment group, WJBT's current frequency had to be divested. After Christmas Day 2007, 92.7 and 93.3 were simulcasting. However, on January 11, 2008, a new urban gospel station debuted on the 92.7 frequency named "Hallelujah FM", a moniker used for many Clear Channel-owned gospel stations nationwide. The call letters were switched, with 92.7 becoming WROO and 93.3 becoming WJBT. With the move to a more powerful signal, WJBT received an upgrade in power as well, going from 50 kW to 100 kW, thus covering most of Jacksonville and Northeastern Florida; the Breakfast Club Uptown Angela T-Roy Easy E DJ Q45 DJ Ian Big Sue Lil Tree Hugger DJ Q45 DJ Dr. Doom Program Director G-Wiz 93.3 The Beat Query the FCC's FM station database for WJBT Radio-Locator information on WJBT Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WJBT
Christopher Columbus known as the Christopher Columbus Discovery Monument, is a c. 1890–1892 copper sculpture depicting Christopher Columbus by Alfonso Pelzer, installed on the Ohio Statehouse grounds, in Columbus, United States. The sheet copper statue was cast by W. H. Mullins depicts Columbus holding a globe. Next to Columbus is a granite pedestal with a dove on top of a globe; the statue is 9 feet tall and weighs 150 lbs. The memorial was commissioned by Pontifical College Josephinum to commemorate the 400th anniversary of his voyage, was purchased by Mssgr. Jessing in 1892 for $400–500. From 1892 to 1932, the work was installed along 18th Street between Main and Mound, it was gifted to Ohio in 1932. There are several inscriptions on the base. One on the south side reads, "The Pontifical College Josephinum commissioned this statue from the W. H. Mullins studio". Another on the east side reads, "Donated by the Josephinum to the State of Ohio / The statue was relocated to Capitol Square." An inscription on the north side reads, "The fountain honors Ohio's sister state bond with Liguria, the navigator's home."
The west side has: "Christopher Columbus, an Italian navigator, launched four voyages of discovery to the new world."Similarly, the fountain has multiple inscriptions. One on the south side reads, "1892 A dream shared / by generations / who explored a vast continent / where freedom and opportunity / beckoned to those with / the courage and imagination to venture westward". Another on the east side reads, "1932 Westward into Ohio / came the successors / to the spirit of Columbus, / naming the capital city / of the new state / after the man who symbolized / the spirit of the frontier"; the inscription on the north side reads, "1992 Frontiers explored / by generations of Ohioans / extend beyond land and water / to a new world / whose potential / remains to be unlocked / by the spirit of discovery". The west side has: "1492 The spirit of discovery has the power to change / the course of human history, / as demonstrated by / the voyages of / Christopher Columbus / whose imagination shattered the boundaries / of the western world.
/ Modern history has been shaped by / one man's courage to pursue a dream."The monument has been vandalized multiple times. The dove, removed and found, was rededicated on October 12, 1953; the memorial was relocated while the Statehouse underwent restoration in 1991. During 1991 -- 1992, a new granite base and fountain was designed by E. G. Inc.. The artwork was surveyed by the Smithsonian Institution's "Save Outdoor Sculpture!" program in 1993. List of monuments and memorials to Christopher Columbus Media related to Christopher Columbus by Alfonso Pelzer at Wikimedia Commons