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Melodrama

A melodrama is a dramatic work wherein the plot, sensational and designed to appeal to the emotions, takes precedence over detailed characterization. Melodramas concentrate on dialogue, bombastic or excessively sentimental, rather than action. Characters are simply drawn and may appear stereotyped. Melodramas are set in the private sphere of the home, focus on morality and family issues and marriage with challenges from an outside source, such as a "temptress", or an aristocratic villain. A melodrama on stage, film or television is accompanied by dramatic and suggestive music that offers cues to the audience of the drama being presented. In scholarly and historical musical contexts, melodramas are Victorian dramas in which orchestral music or song was used to accompany the action; the term is now applied to stage performances without incidental music, movies and radio broadcasts. In modern contexts, the term "melodrama" is pejorative, as it suggests that the work in question lacks subtlety, character development, or both.

By extension, language or behavior which resembles melodrama is called melodramatic. The term originated from the early 19th-century French word mélodrame, it is derived from Greek μέλος melos, "song, strain", French drame, drama. Melodrama originated in the 5th century BC; the relationship of melodrama to realism is complex. The protagonists of melodramatic works may either be ordinary people who are caught up in extraordinary events, or exaggerated and unrealistic characters. Peter Brooks writes that melodrama, in its high emotions and dramatic rhetoric, represents a "victory over repression." According to Singer, late Victorian and Edwardian melodrama combined a conscious focus on realism in stage sets and props with "anti-realism" in character and plot. Melodrama in this period strove for "credible accuracy in the depiction of incredible, extraordinary" scenes. Novelist Wilkie Collins is noted for his attention to accuracy in detail in his works, no matter how sensational the plot. Melodramas were 10 to 20,000 words in length.

Melodramas put most of their attention on the victim and a struggle between good and evil choices, such as a man being encouraged to leave his family by an "evil temptress". Other stock characters are the "fallen woman", the single mother, the orphan and the male, struggling with the impacts of the modern world; the melodrama examines family and social issues in the context of a private home, with its intended audience being the female spectator. Melodrama looks back at ideal, nostalgic eras, emphasizing "forbidden longings". Melodramas are rooted in medieval morality plays; the melodrama approach was revived in the 18th- and 19th-century French romantic drama and the sentimental novels that were popular in both England and France. These dramas and novels focused on moral codes in regards to family life and marriage, they can be seen as a reflection of the issues brought up by the French Revolution, the industrial revolution and the shift to modernization. Many melodramas were about a middle-class young woman who experienced unwanted sexual advances from an aristocratic miscreant, with the sexual assault being a metaphor for class conflict.

The melodrama reflected post-industrial revolution anxieties of the middle class, who were afraid of both aristocratic power brokers and the impoverished working class "mob". Beginning in the 18th century, melodrama was a technique of combining spoken recitation with short pieces of accompanying music. In such works and spoken dialogue alternated, although the music was sometimes used to accompany pantomime; the earliest known examples are scenes in J. E. Eberlin's Latin school play Sigismundus; the first full melodrama was Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Pygmalion, the text of, written in 1762 but was first staged in Lyon in 1770. The overture and an Andante were composed by Rousseau, but the bulk of the music was composed by Horace Coignet. A different musical setting of Rousseau's Pygmalion by Anton Schweitzer was performed in Weimar in 1772, Goethe wrote of it approvingly in Dichtung und Wahrheit. Pygmalion is a monodrama, written for one actor; some 30 other monodramas were produced in Germany in the fourth quarter of the 18th century.

When two actors were involved, the term duodrama could be used. Georg Benda was successful with his duodramas Ariadne Auf Naxos and Medea; the sensational success of Benda's melodramas led Mozart to use two long melodramatic monologues in his opera Zaide. Other and better-known examples of the melodramatic style in operas are the grave-digging scene in Beethoven's Fidelio and the incantation scene in Weber's Der Freischütz. After the English Restoration of Charles II in 1660, most British theatres were prohibited from performing "serious" drama, but were permitted to show comedy or plays with music. Charles II issued letters patent to permit only two London theatre companies to perform "serious" drama; these were the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane and Lisle's Tennis Court in Lincoln's Inn Fields, the latter of which moved to the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden in 1720. The two patent theatres closed in the summer months. To fill the gap, the Theatre Royal, Haymarket became a third patent theatre in London in 1766

The Mansion (novel)

The Mansion is a novel by the American author William Faulkner, published in 1959. It is the last in a trilogy of books about the fictional Snopes family of Mississippi, following The Hamlet and The Town; the Mansion completes Faulkner’s trilogy of novels about the fictional Snopes family in the fictional county of Yoknapatawpha, Mississippi. The trilogy includes The Hamlet and The Town. Beginning with the murder of Jack Houston, ending with the murder of Flem Snopes, it traces the downfall of this post-bellum family, who managed to seize control of the town of Jefferson within a generation; the novel charts the downfall of Flem Snopes at the hands of his relative Mink Snopes, in part aided by Flem's deaf Spanish-Civil-War-veteran daughter, Linda Snopes. It falls into three parts:'Mink','Linda', and'Flem'. Three narrators tell the story: Gavin Stevens, V. K. Ratliff, Charles Mallison. Mink Snopes, on trial for murder, waits for his successful cousin Flem to show up and use his power and influence to save him from prison.

Flem doesn’t appear, Mink spends his entire prison sentence waiting until he is free and can murder Flem. Flem knows that Mink will kill him once he is free, so he arranges for Mink to attempt an escape and his sentence is increased. However, after thirty-eight years, Mink is released. With the money he has upon release, he buys a cheap gun, finds his way to Jefferson, kills Flem. Gavin Stevens, one of the narrators, an intellectual and idealist, was in love with Flem's wife, Eula Varner, who committed suicide before the events of this novel; because of his feelings for Eula, Stevens loves and idealizes Eula's daughter, Linda. After Flem is killed, Steven comes to realize that Linda intentionally helped Mink find and kill Flem, as revenge for what she perceives as Flem's role in her mother's suicide; this shakes Stevens's perception of Linda as innocent. After Flem dies, the townspeople of Jefferson come to realize that his death changed nothing, as more and more Snopes family members are appearing and establishing themselves in Jefferson.

The Mansion deals with the South's displaced economic landscape in the first half of the twentieth century, rural populism, racial and social tensions. Theodore Greene has discussed the key characters of the novel and related them to his interpretation of Faulkner's general philosophy of life. Enrique García Díez has examined the change in stature of Mink in the course of the novel, makes analogies with older literary forms and figures. Gordon Bigelow has commented on the evolution of Faulkner's own attitude towards Flem during the course of the trilogy. Paul Levine has discussed the recurring themes of money in the course of the trilogy; the Hamlet The Town The Mansion at Faded Page

Douglas Pharmaceuticals

Douglas Pharmaceuticals Ltd is a New Zealand-based manufacturer of pharmaceutical products. Founded in 1967 by West Auckland chemist Graeme Douglas, the company started out distributing prescription medicines, before manufacturing and successfully researching and developing its own products for export. Douglas Pharmaceuticals began when founder, Graeme Douglas, created a cough syrup called Kofsin, while working as a chemist in Te Atatu, West Auckland; as demand for the cough syrup grew, the company contracted manufacturing chemists to maintain enough supply. Afterwards, the company began importing niche pharmaceuticals and packaging them at Douglas's chemist shop before distributing them to other pharmacists. In the early 1970s, Douglas's chemist shop had over $2 million in revenue when he sold it to focus on the pharmaceutical business. By the late 80s, Douglas Pharmaceuticals was selling over 40 products and had a revenue of $25 million, which increased in ten years to more than $70 million.

In 2012, Sir Graeme's eldest son Jeff began handling much of the day-to-day running of the company. In 2014, Graeme Douglas stepped down from the company's day-to-day business, his son Jeff Douglas became managing director of the company; as of 2016, the company employed more than 450 people and manufactured products sold in 35 countries. Founder Sir Graeme Douglas died on 1 September 2016. Douglas Pharmaceuticals global web site NZ Herald - NZ firm targets US acne market