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Meme

A meme is an idea, behavior, or style that spreads by means of imitation from person to person within a culture—often with the aim of conveying a particular phenomenon, theme, or meaning represented by the meme. A meme acts as a unit for carrying cultural ideas, symbols, or practices, that can be transmitted from one mind to another through writing, gestures, rituals, or other imitable phenomena with a mimicked theme. Supporters of the concept regard memes as cultural analogues to genes in that they self-replicate and respond to selective pressures. Proponents theorize that memes are a viral phenomenon that may evolve by natural selection in a manner analogous to that of biological evolution. Memes do this through the processes of variation, mutation and inheritance, each of which influences a meme's reproductive success. Memes spread through the behavior. Memes that propagate less prolifically may become extinct, while others may survive and mutate. Memes that replicate most enjoy more success, some may replicate even when they prove to be detrimental to the welfare of their hosts.

A field of study called memetics arose in the 1990s to explore the concepts and transmission of memes in terms of an evolutionary model. Criticism from a variety of fronts has challenged the notion that academic study can examine memes empirically. However, developments in neuroimaging may make empirical study possible; some commentators in the social sciences question the idea that one can meaningfully categorize culture in terms of discrete units, are critical of the biological nature of the theory's underpinnings. Others have argued that this use of the term is the result of a misunderstanding of the original proposal; the word meme is a neologism coined by Richard Dawkins. It originated from Dawkins's 1976 book The Selfish Gene. Dawkins's own position is somewhat ambiguous: he welcomed N. K. Humphrey's suggestion that "memes should be considered as living structures, not just metaphorically" and proposed to regard memes as "physically residing in the brain", he argued that his original intentions before his approval of Humphrey's opinion, had been simpler.

The word meme is a shortening of mimeme coined by British evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins in The Selfish Gene as a concept for discussion of evolutionary principles in explaining the spread of ideas and cultural phenomena. Examples of memes given in the book included melodies, catchphrases and the technology of building arches. Kenneth Pike had in 1954 coined the related terms emic and etic, generalizing the linguistic units of phoneme, grapheme and tagmeme, distinguishing insider and outside views of communicative behavior; the word meme originated with Richard Dawkins' 1976 book The Selfish Gene. Dawkins cites as inspiration the work of geneticist L. L. Cavalli-Sforza, anthropologist F. T. Cloak and ethologist J. M. Cullen. Dawkins wrote that evolution depended not on the particular chemical basis of genetics, but only on the existence of a self-replicating unit of transmission—in the case of biological evolution, the gene. For Dawkins, the meme exemplified another self-replicating unit with potential significance in explaining human behavior and cultural evolution.

Although Dawkins invented the term'meme' and developed meme theory, the possibility that ideas were subject to the same pressures of evolution as were biological attributes was discussed in Darwin's time. T. H. Huxley claimed that'The struggle for existence holds as much in the intellectual as in the physical world. A theory is a species of thinking, its right to exist is coextensive with its power of resisting extinction by its rivals.' Dawkins used the term to refer to any cultural entity. He hypothesized that one could view many cultural entities as replicators, pointed to melodies and learned skills as examples. Memes replicate through exposure to humans, who have evolved as efficient copiers of information and behavior; because humans do not always copy memes and because they may refine, combine or otherwise modify them with other memes to create new memes, they can change over time. Dawkins likened the process by which memes survive and change through the evolution of culture to the natural selection of genes in biological evolution.

Dawkins defined the meme as a unit of cultural transmission, or a unit of imitation and replication, but definitions would vary. The lack of a consistent and precise understanding of what makes up one unit of cultural transmission remains a problem in debates about memetics. In contrast, the concept of genetics gained concrete evidence with the discovery of the biological functions of DNA. Meme transmission requires a physical medium, such as photons, sound waves, taste, or smell because memes can be transmitted only through the senses. Dawkins noted that in a society with culture a person need not have descendants to remain influential in the actions of individuals thousands of years after their death: But if you contribute to the world's culture, if you have a good idea...it may live on, long after your genes have dissolved in the common pool. Socrates may or may not have a gene or two alive in the world today, as G. C. Williams has remarked, but who cares? The meme-complexes of Socrates, Leonardo and Marconi are still going strong.

Although Dawkins invented the term meme, he has not claimed that the idea was entirely

Michael Cvetkovski

Michael Cvetkovski Mihael Cvetkovski is an Australian/Macedonian footballer who plays as a defender. Michael Cvetkovski was born in Sydney, Australia on the 21st Nov 1987. Michael started his professional career at age 8 with his local football club Rockdale City Suns, in Sydney. Eager to develop his skills he moved to Macedonia at age 14 and signed with top league side FC Pelister. Cvetkovski continued to develop as a football player and progressed through the youth system of Pelister playing through each season, not long his performances caught the attention of the first team management of Pelister and was offered a 4-year professional contract at age 18; as a young skillful player Cvetkovski was sent out on loan to top tier side FC Belasica to gain experience and receive exposure to top tier football in the country. It did not take long for Cvetkovski to show his football qualities as he was selected to represent Belasica internationally at the Viareggio Cup World Football Tournament Coppa Carnevale 2008.

FC Belasica, AC Milan, FC Bari, Malaysian Indian, were drawn in group D of the tournament. Cvetkovski made 3 appearances with FC Belasica and finished second on equal points with FC Bari, but due to goal difference FC Belasica did not qualify to the second round. After having a successful year at FC Belasica, Cvetkovski returns to FC Pelister in 2009 and makes his debut on the 15/08/09. FC Pelister had an outstanding season finishing 4th on 2009/10 season. Cvetkovski once again impressed with his performances, after two seasons with FC Pelister and 44 appearances decided to accept an offer from Persebaya 1927. On December 20, 2010 Cvetkovski transfers to Persebaya 1927 and signs a 1-year contract for an undisclosed amount. Cvetkovski made 24 appearances for Persebaya 1927 and scored 3 goals helping to secure the top position on the table for the 2010/11 season. On 21 August 2011, he has been offered a contract to play for Kitchee in the 2011-12 Hong Kong First Division League and 2012 AFC Cup, after performing to the satisfaction of coach Josep Gombau in the pre-season training matches in Spain.

Due to goalkeeper Li Jian's injury, Cvetkovski's registration was delayed in case a foreign goalkeeper was needed. But after Guo Jianqiao was signed from Tai Chung FC, Cvetkovski's registration was completed and he will be able to make his debut against Hong Kong Sapling. Michael made his first appearance in the Hong Kong First Division League as a second-half substitute on 25 September 2011 in the match against Hong Kong Sapling, which Kitchee won 6:0, but on 1 December, Ken Ng announced that as Michael cannot adapt to Kitchee's playing style,and on the request of Cvetkovski that he be released from the club. Cvetkovski was interviewed and quoted," I and Mr Ken have had some minor indifference's I've decided that it is best i leave". In 2012, he returned to Macedonia signing with top league side FC Rabotnicki. On 4 January 2013, he transfers to Yangon United from Myanmar. Cvetkovski won the 2013 Myanmar Championship with Yangon United and led the club to the 2013 AFC Cup Round of 16 for the first time in the club’s history.

He scored 3 goals for the club in all competitions. Yangon United qualify for the top 16 of the 2013 AFC Cup after finishing top of there group. On 2014 March, he signed a short-term deal with FC Belasica. On September 2014, Cvetkovski returned to Macedonia on a short-term deal. In January 2015, Cvetkovski signed with Royal Thai Navy F. C. in the Thai Premier League on a one-year contract. Returns to home club FC Pelister, Macedonia signs two-year contract. Cvetkovski is married, has one daughter: Anastasia. Football Federation of Macedonia Profile Macedonian Football FK Pelister Official website Michael Cvetkovski Official Website Twitter Official Michael Cvetkovski Viareggio Cup World Football Tournament Coppa Carnevale 2008 Persebaya 1927 Yangon United FC Belasica FC Bari Official site

Helen Asher

Helen Asher was an Australian novelist and short story writer. Born Helen Waltraud Rosalie Ulrich, Asher migrated to Australia from Germany as a post-World War Two refugee. Asher and her husband Mervyn were active in the Australian literary scene. Asher published Tilly’s Fortunes through Penguin in 1986, she wrote under the name Helen Ulrich, her short stories were featured in numerous anthologies. Asher bequeathed money to the Australia Council for the establishment of a biennial prize to be awarded to “a female author whose work carries an anti-war theme”; the $12,000 Asher Award was administered by the Australian Society of Authors from 2005 to 2017. Novels Tilly’s Fortunes List of Asher Award winners Trove record for TIlly’s Fortunes