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Memex

The memex is the name of the hypothetical proto-hypertext system that Vannevar Bush described in his 1945 The Atlantic Monthly article "As We May Think". Bush envisioned the memex as a device in which individuals would compress and store all of their books and communications, "mechanized so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility"; the memex would provide an "enlarged intimate supplement to one's memory". The concept of the memex influenced the development of early hypertext systems and personal knowledge base software; the hypothetical implementation depicted by Bush for the purpose of concrete illustration was based upon a document bookmark list of static microfilm pages and lacked a true hypertext system, where parts of pages would have internal structure beyond the common textual format. Early electronic hypertext systems were thus inspired by memex rather than modeled directly upon it. In "As We May Think", Bush describes a memex as an electromechanical device enabling individuals to develop and read a large self-contained research library and follow associative trails of links and personal annotations, recall these trails at any time to share them with other researchers.

This device would mimic the associative processes of the human mind, but it would be gifted with permanent recollection. As Bush writes, "Thus science may implement the ways in which man produces and consults the record of the race"; the technology used would have been a combination of electromechanical controls, microfilm cameras and readers, all integrated into a large desk. Most of the microfilm library would have been contained within the desk, but the user could add or remove microfilm reels at will. A memex would hypothetically read and write content on these microfilm reels, using electric photocells to read coded symbols recorded next to individual microfilm frames while the reels spun at high speed, stopping on command; the coded symbols would enable the memex to index and link content to create and follow associative trails. The top of the desk would have slanting translucent screens on which material could be projected for convenient reading; the top of the memex would have a transparent platen.

When a longhand note, memoranda, or other things were placed on the platen, the depression of a lever would cause the item to be photographed onto the next blank space in a section of the memex film. The memex would become "'a sort of mechanized private file and library', it would use microfilm storage, dry photography, analog computing to give postwar scholars access to a huge, indexed repository of knowledge – any section of which could be called up with a few keystrokes."The vision of the memex predates, is credited as the inspiration for, the first practical hypertext systems of the 1960s. Bush describes the memex and other visions of As We May Think as projections of technology known in the 1930s and 1940s – in the spirit of Jules Verne's adventures, or Arthur C. Clarke's 1945 proposal to orbit geosynchronous satellites for global telecommunication; the memex proposed by Bush would create trails of links connecting sequences of microfilm frames, rather than links in the modern sense where a hyperlink connects a single word, phrase or picture within a document and a local or remote destination.

An associative trail as conceived by Bush would be a way to create a new linear sequence of microfilm frames across any arbitrary sequence of microfilm frames by creating a chained sequence of links in the way just described, along with personal comments and side trails. At the time Bush saw the current ways of indexing information as limiting and instead proposed a way to store information, analogous to the mental association of the human brain: storing information with the capability of easy access at a time using certain cues; the closest analogy with the modern Web browser would be to create a list of bookmarks to articles relevant to a topic, to have some mechanism for automatically scrolling through the articles. Modern hypertext systems with word and phrase-level linking offer more sophistication in connecting relevant information, but until the rise of wiki and other social software models, modern hypertext systems have imitated Bush in providing individuals with the ability to create personal trails and share them with colleagues – or publish them widely.

The memex would have features other than linking. The user could record new information on microfilm, by taking photos from paper or from a touch-sensitive translucent screen. A user could "...insert a comment of his own, either linking it into the main trail or joining it by a side trail to a particular item.... Thus he builds a trail of his interest through the maze of materials available to him." A user could create a copy of an interesting trail and "...pass it to his friend for insertion in his own memex, there to be linked into the more general trail." As observers like Tim Oren have pointed out, the memex could be considered to be a microfilm-based precursor to the personal computer. The September 10, 1945, Life magazine article showed the first illustrations of what the memex desk could look like, as well as illustrations of a head-mounted camera, which a scientist could wear while doing experiments, a typewriter capable of voice recognition and of reading text by speech synthes

Philipp Christoph Zeller

Philipp Christoph Zeller was a German entomologist. Zeller was born at Steinheim an der Murr, Württemberg, two miles from Marbach, the birthplace of Schiller; the family moved to Frankfurt where Philipp went to the gymnasium where natural history was not taught. Instead, helped by Alois Metzner, he taught himself entomology by copying books. Copying and hence memorising, developed in response to early financial privation became a lifetime habit. Zeller went next to the University of Berlin where he became a candidat, the first degree, obtained after two or three years' study around 1833; the subject was philology. He became an Oberlehrer or senior primary school teacher in Glogau in 1835, he became an instructor at the secondary school in Frankfurt and in 1860 he was appointed as the senior instructor of the highest technical high school in Meseritz. He resigned this post after leaving in 1869 for home of the Stettin Entomological Society. Zeller's first entomological studies were of Coleoptera and Diptera and he admired Johann Wilhem Meigen's “Zweiflügler”.

This is of great importance since studies of Lepidoptera were as now, more concerned with species descriptions than with systematics and phylogenetic relationships and the nomenclature was very confused. Zeller's precise, orderly approach culminated in the most significant lepidopterological work of the nineteenth century – The Natural History of the Tineina. This, a monumental 13-volume monograph, was commenced in 1855 and completed in 1873; the other main authors were the Englishman Henry Tibbats Stainton, a Swiss, Heinrich Frey and another Englishman, John William Douglas. The Natural History of the Tineina appeared in English, French and Latin editions, the Irish entomologist Alexander Henry Haliday doing the bulk of the translations; the work established Zeller as the greatest lepidopterist of the century. He named 186 new genera of moths His collection was acquired by Thomas de Grey, 6th Baron Walsingham and donated to the Natural History Museum. Versuch einer naturgemässen Eintheilung der Schaben, Tinea.

Kritische Bestimmung der in Reaumur's Memoiren vorkommenden Lepidopteren Kritische Bestimmung der in de Geer's Memoiren enthaltenen Schmetterlinge Monographie des Genus Hyponomeuta Anmerkungen zu Lienig's Lepidopterologischer Fauna von Livland und Curland Die Arten der Blattminiergattung Lithocolletis beschrieben Bemerkungen über die auf einer Reise nach Italien und Sicilien gesammelten Schmetterlingsarten" Verzeichnis der vom Professor Dr. Loew in der Türkei und Asien gesammelten Lepidoptera Isis von Oken 1847: 3-39 Exotische Phyciden Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Coleophoren" Revision der Pterophoriden Lepidoptera microptera quae J. A. Wahlberg in caffrorum terra legit Die Arten der Gattung Butalis beschrieben With Henry Tibbats Stainton, Heinrich Frey and John William Douglas The Natural History of the Tineina, 13 volumes, 2000 pages Beiträge zur Kenntnis der nordamerikanischen Nachtfalter" Beiträge zur Lepidopterenfauna der Ober-Albula in Graubünden Exotische Lepidopteren SMNH Type of Botys cancellalis Zeller, 1852 Encyclopedia of Life Type Zeller into th search box to reveal 3000 + taxa described by Zeller Gaedike, R..

Ernst Nolte

Ernst Nolte was a German historian and philosopher. Nolte's major interest was the comparative studies of communism. Trained in philosophy, he was professor emeritus of modern history at the Free University of Berlin, where he taught from 1973 until his 1991 retirement, he was a professor at the University of Marburg from 1965 to 1973. He was best known for his seminal work Fascism in Its Epoch, which received widespread acclaim when it was published in 1963. Nolte was a prominent conservative academic from the early 1960s and was involved in many controversies related to the interpretation of the history of fascism and communism, including the Historikerstreit in the late 1980s. In recent years, Nolte focused on Islamism and "Islamic fascism", he was the father of legal scholar Georg Nolte. Nolte received several prizes, including the Hanns Martin Schleyer Prize and the Konrad Adenauer Prize. Nolte was born in Witten, Germany to a Roman Catholic family. Nolte's parents were Heinrich Nolte, a school rector, Anna Nolte.

According to Nolte in a March 28, 2003 interview with a French newspaper Eurozine, his first encounter with communism occurred when he was 7 years old in 1930, when he read in a doctor's office a German translation of a Soviet children's book attacking the Catholic Church, which angered him. In 1941, Nolte was excused from military service because of a deformed hand, he studied Philosophy and Greek at the Universities of Münster and Freiburg. At Freiburg, Nolte was a student of Martin Heidegger. From 1944 onwards, Nolte was a close friend of the Heidegger family, when in 1945 the professor feared arrest by the French, Nolte provided him with food and clothing for an attempted escape. Eugen Fink was another professor. After 1945 when Nolte received his BA in philosophy at Freiburg, he worked as a Gymnasium teacher. In 1952, he received a PhD in philosophy at Freiburg for his thesis Selbstentfremdung und Dialektik im deutschen Idealismus und bei Marx. Subsequently, Nolte began studies in Zeitgeschichte.

He published his Habilitationsschrift awarded at the University of Cologne, Der Faschismus in seiner Epoche, as a book in 1963. Between 1965 and 1973, Nolte worked as a professor at the University of Marburg, from 1973 to 1991 at the Free University of Berlin. Nolte married Annedore Mortier and they had a son, Georg Nolte, now a professor of international law at Humboldt University of Berlin. Nolte rose to fame with his 1963 book Der Faschismus in seiner Epoche, in which he argued that fascism arose as a form of resistance to and a reaction against modernity. Nolte's basic hypothesis and methodology were rooted in the German "philosophy of history" tradition, a form of intellectual history which seeks to discover the "metapolitical dimension" of history; the "metapolitical dimension" is considered to be the history of grand ideas functioning as profound spiritual powers, which infuse all levels of society with their force. In Nolte's opinion, only those with training in philosophy can discover the "metapolitical dimension", those who use normal historical methods miss this dimension of time.

Using the methods of phenomenology, Nolte subjected German Nazism, Italian Fascism, the French Action Française movements to a comparative analysis. Nolte's conclusion was that fascism was the great anti-movement: it was anti-liberal, anti-communist, anti-capitalist, anti-bourgeois. In Nolte's view, fascism was the rejection of everything the modern world had to offer and was an negative phenomenon. In a Hegelian dialectic, Nolte argued that the Action Française was the thesis, Italian Fascism was the antithesis, German National Socialism the synthesis of the two earlier fascist movements. Nolte argued that fascism functioned at three levels, namely in the world of politics as a form of opposition to Marxism, at the sociological level in opposition to bourgeois values, in the "metapolitical" world as "resistance to transcendence". Nolte defined the relationship between fascism and Marxism as such: Fascism is anti-Marxism which seeks to destroy the enemy by the evolvement of a radically opposed and yet related ideology and by the use of identical and yet modified methods, however within the unyielding framework of national self-assertion and autonomy.

Nolte defined "transcendence" as a "metapolitical" force comprising two types of change. The first type, "practical transcendence", manifesting in material progress, technological change, political equality, social advancement, comprises the process by which humanity liberates itself from traditional, hierarchical societies in favor of societies where all men and women are equal; the second type is "theoretical transcendence", the striving to go beyond what exists in the world towards a new future, eliminating traditional fetters imposed on the human mind by poverty, backwardness and class. Nolte himself defined "theoretical transcendence" as such: Theoretical transcendence may be taken to mean the reaching out of the mind beyond what exists and what can exist toward an absolute whole. Nolte cited the flight of Yuri Gagarin in 1961 as an example of “prac

Saltimbanco

Saltimbanco was a touring show by Cirque du Soleil. Saltimbanco ran from 1992 to 2006 in its original form, performed under a large circus tent called the Grand Chapiteau. A new adaptation of the show started touring North America on July 31, 2007, with its first stop in London, Canada; the new version was staged in arenas with fewer performances in each city it visited. The new version closed at the end of 2012; the show was described by Cirque du Soleil as a celebration of life. Its creators say they developed it as an antidote to the violence and despair prevalent in the 20th century. English has lost the word'saltimbank' from current usage. According to the company's site, the word "saltimbanco" comes from the Italian "saltare in banco", which means "to jump on a bench." The etymology of the word reflects its acrobatic associations. A'salto' means a jump in Italian. Saltimbanco was Cirque du Soleil's longest running production when it closed at the end of 2012. In 2011 it was the first show by Cirque du Soleil to be presented in Turkey, Ukraine, in 2012 the first show in Slovakia and in Amman, Jordan.

Saltimbanco's last performance took place in Montreal on December 30, 2012 after 6,000 big top and arena appearances before 14 million spectators in 200 cities worldwide. Saltimbanco's set played on contradictions located within a cityscape. A rosace made of metal rings suspended over the stage allowed light to filter through like leaves on a tree; the lighting was cinematic in effect due to the usage of different colored gels. The facts listed below applied to the arena format of Saltimbanco, although some of these were applicable to the grand chapiteau tour as well; the stage was 65 feet in width. The Chinese poles were 24 feet in height; the equipment for the show weighed a total of 180 tonnes and was transported and configured by 26 specialty technicians and 12 truck drivers. 140 people were hired locally in each city to set up and load out the show for the arena. The 51-member performance troupe included multiple musicians, singers and characters. Characters mentioned in the show's promotional literature included: The Urban Worms The Multicolored Worms The Cavaliers The Baroques The Death The Ringmaster The Baron The Dreamer The Punks The Songbird The Blue Gypsy The Child Eddie The AngelsNumerous performers had portrayed the Baron and Eddie over the years, including René Bazinet, Gordon White, Julien Cottereau, Lee Ross, Jesko von den Steinen, Amo Gulinello, Martin Pons.

The acts in Saltimbanco were a mix of traditional circus acts with more modern acts. Adagio trio: Three acrobats performed in an adagio that drew inspiration from acrosport. Chinese poles: Up to 26 performers performed in this act using four 25-foot-tall poles in the middle of the stage, they climbed up, dropped down, jumped between, hung from, spun on these poles. Balancing on canes: A handbalance artist performed feats of strength and various contortion poses, including the Marinelli bend, while balancing on high handstand supports. Juggling: A juggler used multiple balls in a display of increasing dexterity. Boleadoras: Two performers twirled boleadoras in this unique act; the bolas are a percussion instrument, hit against the ground to produce a loud popping sound. The act included the use of the Taiko by one of the performers while the other used the bolas to play a complementary beat. Russian swing: Multiple artists jumped off a large swing, performing twists and flips, before landing on human pyramids, a mat, other props.

Solo trapeze: A young artist swung a trapeze high, whenever the trapeze was swung high the artist would spin up multiple times, would catch the bar of the trapeze with her legs. Hand-to-hand: A duo used an incredible amount of body strength in this act as one would balance in a handstand on the other. Bungee: Four aerialists suspended from bungees flipped and bounced in synchronization with each other. Aerial straps: A performer swung on these straps and would use upper body strength to create many dangerous poses. Tight rope: An acrobat ascended a wire as two more tightropes, one three feet higher than the other, were revealed, she performed various tricks including flips and splits. She backflipped from one rope to the other, jumped back; this act was removed from the arena version due to rigging issues. Contortion: This act featured four female contortionists from a previous Cirque du Soleil show, Nouvelle Expérience, it did not continue after the 1998 revival. Diabolo: This was a solo diabolo act using Western-style diabolo tricks.

Vertical rope: This was one of the original Saltimbanco acts, a Spanish web act performed by the adagio troupe. This act was not seen outside of the North America/Japan tour. Manipulation: This act featured three women manipulating ribbons and hoops, it replaced the boleadoras act. Artistic bicycle: A bicycle artist wheeled around the stage, all the while playing the guitar, hand balancing and dancing on wheels

Phyllonorycter stettinensis

Phyllonorycter stettinensis is a moth of the family Gracillariidae. It is found from Scandinavia and Finland to the Pyrenees, Corsica and Bulgaria and from Great Britain to Russia; the wingspan is 6.5-7.5 mm. There are two generations per year with adults on wing in May and again in August; the larvae feed on Alnus cordata, Alnus glutinosa and Alnus incana, mining the leaves of their host plant. They create an upper-surface small flat tentiform mine with a yellow-green colour; the mine has a single strong fold and is positioned over a lateral vein. The frass is deposited in a clump in a corner of the mine

Micromoog

The Moog model 2090 Micromoog is a monophonic analog synthesizer produced by Moog Music from 1975–79. During 1973 & 74, Moog attempted to produce a synth system as a result of seeing Yamaha's massive GX-1; the bass and polyphonic components of the "Constellation" became the Taurus and Polymoog, while the Lyra monophonic lead synth never went into production, the smaller MicroMoog emerged, using some of the ideas and technology. The monophonic Micromoog was designed by Moog Engineer Jim Scott in consultation with Tom Rhea, with electronic refinement input from David Luce, Robert Moog, as a scaled-down, cheaper alternative to the Minimoog, it was designed to tap into a market of musicians who wanted an introduction to synthesis, but who could not afford the $1,500 Minimoog. However, while the basic architecture was a simple VCO/VCF/VCA, inexpensive enhancements made it a more creative synth, its single voltage-controlled oscillator has variable waveshape which can be modulated and a sub-octave can be added one or two octaves below.

Its -24 dB per octave low-pass filter has its own envelope generator, can be frequency modulated by the VCO. The voltage-controlled amplifier has its own envelope generator. A noise generator and hold, low-frequency oscillator, modulation routing complete the voicing. Moog chose to use two AR envelope generators instead of the single ADSR more found on budget synths. Other switches like VCA bypass, VCF tone mode and release on/off allow quick changes to be made live, it has a 32-note keyboardwith a built-in ribbon controller instead of the more common pitch bend wheel, although a retrofit pitch bend wheel was available. The Micromoog features the Moog Open System control inputs, a pre-MIDI control system which enables the unit to control or be controlled by other Moog synthesizers suggesting using it with Moog modules and sequencer. Unusually, the CV inputs were designed to operate at 0.95v per octave - the idea being that the 1v/octave outputs of synths could get loaded down, but could still be used into the Micromoog.

In practice, this is hard to achieve, cannot exceed 0.98v per octave without modifications. Triggering is Moog standard S-triggering on Cinch Jones connectors. Modulation in/out is on a stereo 3/16" jack - a difficult connector to find. An "access pwr" socket is provided for connection of Moog accessories such as the drum controller and hold, ribbon controller. Early Micromoogs had different panel labelling - from serial number 1500 "Articulator" become "Loudness Contour". Micromoogs gained an extra potentiometer on the back to adjust the keyboard output tracking. There were internal changes to the keyboard; the Micromoog has an audio input allowing external audio to be run through the filter and VCA. The connections on the rear connection panel are as follows: Outputs: LO Audio -10 dbm, HI Audio +12dbm, S-trig, KBD, Access power ± 15 VDC, 50 MA Inputs: filter, oscillator, S-trig, Audio Modulation The Micromoog served as the basis for the Multimoog, a styled, but more generously equipped synthesizer featuring two VCOs, a larger 44 note keyboard, greater modulation options and an early implementation of keyboard aftertouch functions.

The Micromoog has a "fault". The modification can be found here and has been said to make it able to compete with the Minimoog on a one oscillator level. Minimoog Multimoog Moog synthesizer Polymoog Robert Moog Moog Music List of Moog synthesizer players Micromoog Original Manual Gates and Triggers Explained Micromoog at Synthmuseum.com Micromoog at Vintage Synth Explorer Wikipedia CV/Gate