SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Memorex

Memorex Corp. began as a computer tape producer and expanded to become both a consumer media supplier and a major IBM plug compatible peripheral supplier. It was broken up and ceased to exist after 1996 other than as a consumer electronics brand specializing in disk recordable media for CD and DVD drives, flash memory, computer accessories and other electronics. Established in 1961 in Silicon Valley, Memorex started by selling computer tapes added other media such as disk packs; the company expanded into disk drives and other peripheral equipment for IBM mainframes. During the 1970s and into the early 1980s Memorex was worldwide one of the largest independent suppliers of disk drives and communications controllers to users of IBM-compatible mainframes, as well as media for computer uses and consumers. Memorex entered the consumer media business in 1971 and started the ad campaign, first with its "shattering glass" advertisements and with a series of famous television commercials featuring Ella Fitzgerald.

In the commercials she would sing a note that shattered a glass while being recorded to a Memorex audio cassette. The tape was played back and the recording broke the glass, asking "Is it live, or is it Memorex?" This would become the company slogan, used in a series of advertisements released through 1970s and 1980s. In 1982 Memorex was bought by Burroughs. Over the next six years and its successor Unisys shut down, sold off or spun out the various parts of Memorex; the computer media, communications and IBM end user sales and service organization were spun out as Memorex International. In 1988 Memorex International acquired the Telex Corporation becoming Memorex Telex NV, a corporation based in the Netherlands, which survived as an entity until the middle 1990s; the company evolved into a provider of information technology solutions including the distribution and integration of data network and storage products and the provision of related services in 18 countries worldwide. As late as 2006, several pieces existed as subsidiaries of other companies, see e.g. Memorex Telex Japan Ltd a subsidiary of Kanematsu or Memorex Telex Ltd. a subsidiary of EDS Global Field Services.

Over time the Memorex consumer brand has been owned by Handy Holdings and Imation. As of 2016 the Memorex brand is owned by Digital Products International. 1961 - Memorex is founded by Laurence L. Spitters, Arnold T. Challman, Donald F. Eldridge and W Lawrence Noon with Spitters as President. 1962 - Memorex is one of the early independent companies to ship computer tape. May 1965 - Memorex IPO's at $25 and closes at $32. 1966 - Memorex is first independent company to ship a disk pack. Jun 1968 - Memorex is first to ship an IBM-plug-compatible disk drive 1970 - Memorex ships 1270 Communications Controller 1971 - With CBS Memorex forms CMX Systems, a company formed to design videotape editing systems Sep 1971 - Memorex launches its consumer tape business 1972 - Memorex launches its "Is it live, or is it Memorex?" Campaign Apr 1981 - Burroughs acquires Memorex Apr 1982 - Burroughs sells Memorex consumer brand to Tandy May 1985 - Burroughs exits OEM disk drive business, selling sales and service to Toshiba Sep 1986 - Burroughs acquires Sperry and renames itself as Unisys Dec 1986 - Unisys spins off Memorex Media, Telecommunications and International businesses as Memorex International NV.

Jan 1988 - Memorex-Telex merger Dec 1988 - Unisys shuts down large disk business and spins off service and repair as Sequel. Nov 1993 - Tandy sells Memorex consumer brand to Hanny Holdings of Hong Kong Oct 1996 - The U. S. operations of Memorex Telex NV filed for bankruptcy and with court approval were sold November 1, 1996. Jan 2006 - Imation acquires Memorex brand for $330 million. Jan 2016 - Imation closed on the sale of its Memorex trademark and two associated trademark licenses to DPI Inc. a St. Louis-based branded consumer electronics company for $9.4 million. Memorex History at Computer History Museum website

Drug eruption

In medicine, a drug eruption is an adverse drug reaction of the skin. Most drug-induced cutaneous reactions disappear when the offending drug is withdrawn; these are called "simple" drug eruptions. However, more serious drug eruptions may be associated with organ injury such as liver or kidney damage and are categorized as "complex". Drugs can cause hair and nail changes, affect the mucous membranes, or cause itching without outward skin changes; the use of synthetic pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals in medicine has revolutionized human health, allowing us to live longer lives. The average human adult is exposed to many drugs over longer treatment periods throughout a lifetime; this unprecedented rise in pharmaceutical use has led to an increasing number of observed adverse drug reactions. There are two broad categories of adverse drug reactions. Type A reactions are known side effects of a drug that are predictable and are called, pharmatoxicologic. Whereas Type B or hypersensitivity reactions, are immune-mediated and reproducible with repeated exposure to normal dosages of a given drug.

Unlike type A reactions, the mechanism of type B or hypersensitivity drug reactions is not elucidated. However, there is a complex interplay between a patient's inherited genetics, the pharmacotoxicology of the drug and the immune response that give rise to the manifestation of a drug eruption; because the manifestation of a drug eruption is complex and individual, there are many subfields in medicine that are studying this phenomenon. For example, the field of pharmacogenomics aims to prevent the occurrence of severe adverse drug reactions by analyzing a person's inherited genetic risk; as such, there are clinical examples of inherited genetic alleles that are known to predict drug hypersensitivities and for which diagnostic testing is available. Some of the most severe and life-threatening examples of drug eruptions are erythema multiforme, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, hypersensitivity vasculitis, drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis.

These severe cutaneous drug eruptions are categorized as hypersensitivity reactions and are immune-mediated. There are four types of hypersensitivity reactions and many drugs can induce one or more hypersensitivity reactions; the most common type of eruption is a morbilliform or erythematous rash. Less the appearance may be urticarial, pustular, bullous or lichenoid. Angioedema can be drug-induced; the underlying mechanism can be non-immunological. A fixed drug eruption is the term for a drug eruption that occurs in the same skin area every time the person is exposed to the drug. Eruptions can occur with a certain drug, or be rare; the culprit can be both an over-the-counter medication. Examples of common drugs causing drug eruptions are antibiotics and other antimicrobial drugs, sulfa drugs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, biopharmaceuticals, chemotherapy agents and psychotropic drugs. Common examples include photodermatitis due to local NSAIDs or due to antibiotics, fixed drug eruption due to acetaminophen or NSAIDs, the rash following ampicillin in cases of mononucleosis.

Certain drugs are less to cause drug eruptions. These include: digoxin, aluminum hydroxide, acetaminophen, aspirin, prednisone, codeine, hydrochlorothiazide, insulin and spironolactone. Drug eruptions are diagnosed from the medical history and clinical examination. However, they can mimic various other conditions. A skin biopsy, blood tests or immunological tests can be useful. Drug reactions have characteristic timing; the typical amount of time it takes for a rash to appear after exposure to a drug can help categorize the type of reaction. For example, Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis occurs within 4 days of starting the culprit drug. Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms occurs between 15 and 40 days after exposure. Toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome occur 7–21 days after exposure. Anaphylaxis occurs within minutes. Simple exanthematous eruptions occur between 14 days after exposure. TEN and SJS are severe cutaneous drug reactions. To diagnose this condition, a detailed drug history is crucial.

Several drugs may be causative and allergy testing may be helpful. Sulfa drugs are well-known to induce SJS in certain people. For example, HIV patients have an increased incidence of SJS or TEN compared to the general population and have been found to express low levels of the drug metabolizing enzyme responsible for detoxifying sulfa drugs. Genetics plays an important role in predisposing certain populations to TEN and SJS; as such, there are some FDA recommended genetic screening tests available for certain drugs and ethnic populations to prevent the occurrence of a drug eruption. The most well known example is carbamezepine hypersensitivity associated wi

The Host (2013 film)

The Host is a 2013 American romantic science fiction thriller film adapted from Stephenie Meyer's 2008 novel of the same name. It tells the story of a young woman, captured after the human race has been taken over by parasitic aliens called "Souls". After Melanie is infused with a soul called "Wanderer", Melanie and the alien "Soul" vie for control of her body. Written and directed by Andrew Niccol, the film stars Saoirse Ronan, Max Irons, Jake Abel, William Hurt, Diane Kruger. Released in theaters on March 29, 2013, the film was poorly received by critics; the human race has been taken over by small parasitic aliens called "Souls". They travel to planets inserting themselves into a host body of that planet's dominant species while suppressing the host's consciousness. Deeming the humans too violent to deserve the planet, they have now successfully taken over Earth; the consciousness of the original owner is erased, but the Souls can access the host's memories, occupied hosts are identifiable by silver rings in the hosts' eyes.

A human on the run, Melanie Stryder, is captured and infused with a Soul called "Wanderer." Wanderer is asked by a “Seeker” Soul to access Melanie's memories and learn the location of a pocket of unassimilated humans. Melanie's consciousness, has not been eliminated. Wanderer tells Seeker that Melanie was traveling with her brother and her boyfriend, Jared Howe, to find Melanie's uncle Jeb in the desert. Wanderer admits that Melanie is still present, so Seeker decides to be transferred into Melanie's body to get the information herself. With Melanie’s guidance, Wanderer escapes and makes her way to the desert, where she is found by Jeb, who takes her to a series of caves inside a mountain where the humans are hiding. Wanderer's presence is met with hostility by all but Jamie. Melanie instructs Wanderer not to tell anyone she is still alive, since it would provoke them, though she allows her to tell Jamie. Wanderer begins interacting with the humans and begins to gain their trust, forming a bond with Ian O'Shea.

Seeker leads a search party into the desert. They intercept one of the shelter's supply teams, in the ensuing chase and Brandt commit suicide to avoid capture. During the chase, Seeker accidentally kills another Soul, leading her superiors to call off the search. Jared and Kyle move to kill Wanderer. Jeb and Ian accept this, but Jared refuses to believe it until he strategically kisses Wanderer, provoking Melanie to take back control and slap him, proving to Jared that she is still alive. Kyle tries to kill Wanderer but ends up being saved by Wanderer. Ian believes that Kyle attacked Wanderer and tells her he has feelings for her. Wanderer admits that Melanie's body is compelled to love Jared, but she has feelings of her own, the two kiss. Wanderer enters the community's medical facility and is shocked to discover that Doc has been experimenting with ways to remove Souls and allow the host's mind to regain control, resulting in the deaths of many Souls and hosts. After isolating herself for several days, Wanderer learns that Jamie is critically ill with an infection in his leg.

She infiltrates a Soul medical facility to steal some alien medicine. Seeker has continued looking for Wanderer on her own. Wanderer offers to show Doc the proper method of removing Souls, on the condition that he remove her from Melanie's body. Doc uses the technique to remove Seeker from her host, with Soul surviving. Wanderer takes Seeker’s tiny alien form to a Soul space-travel site, where she sends it so far from Earth that it can not return for numerous generations. Tired of the many lives she’s lived and finding it too painful to leave everyone behind, Wanderer makes Doc promise to let her die when she is removed and not tell anyone; the others in the shelter intervene with Doc, who inserts Wanderer into Pet, a human, left brain-dead after the Soul inside her was removed. Now with a body of her own, Wanderer is able to be with Ian. A few months while on a supply run, Melanie and Jared are captured, they discover that their captors are humans, who reveal that there are several other human groups as well.

They learn that a Soul with this group has sided with the human resistance, as Wanderer has, they may not be the last Souls to do so. Producers Nick Wechsler, Steve Schwartz, Paula Mae Schwartz acquired the film rights to The Host in September 2009, but Open Road Films acquired the film rights, made Stephenie Meyer, Nick Wechsler, Steve Schwartz, Paula Mae Schwartz the main producers. Andrew Niccol was hired to direct the film. In February 2011, Susanna White was hired to replace Niccol as director, but he resumed the role in May 2011. Saoirse Ronan was cast in May as Melanie Stryder/Wanderer. On June 27, the release date was set for the film for March 29, 2013, it was announced that principal photography would begin in February 2012, in Louisiana and New Mexico. Distributed by Open Road Films, the film was released theatrically on March 29, 2013; the first official trailer was released on March 22, 2012, was shown before The Hunger Games. The Host was released on DVD and Blu-ray on July 9, 2013.

The film grossed $63,327,201 worldwide, of which $26,627,201 was from North America, $36,700,000 from other territories. It opened at #6 at the US box office, for its opening weekend grossed $10,600,112.