In Greek mythology, Menelaus was a king of Mycenaean Sparta, the husband of Helen of Troy, the son of Atreus and Aerope. According to the Iliad, Menelaus was a central figure in the Trojan War, leading the Spartan contingent of the Greek army, under his elder brother Agamemnon, king of Mycenae. Prominent in both the Iliad and Odyssey, Menelaus was popular in Greek vase painting and Greek tragedy, the latter more as a hero of the Trojan War than as a member of the doomed House of Atreus. Although early authors, such as Aeschylus refer in passing to Menelaus’ early life, detailed sources are quite late, post-dating 5th-century BC Greek tragedy. According to these sources, Menelaus' father, had been feuding with his brother Thyestes over the throne of Mycenae. After a back-and-forth struggle that featured adultery and cannibalism, Thyestes gained the throne after his son Aegisthus murdered Atreus; as a result, Atreus’ sons and Agamemnon, went into exile. They first stayed with King Polypheides of Sicyon, with King Oeneus of Calydon.
But when they thought the time was ripe to dethrone Mycenae’s hostile ruler, they returned. Assisted by King Tyndareus of Sparta, they drove Thyestes away, Agamemnon took the throne for himself; when it was time for Tyndareus’ stepdaughter Helen to marry, many kings and princes came to seek her hand. Among the contenders were Odysseus, Ajax the Great and Idomeneus. Most offered opulent gifts. Tyndareus would accept none of the gifts, nor would he send any of the suitors away for fear of offending them and giving grounds for a quarrel. Odysseus promised to solve the problem in a satisfactory manner if Tyndareus would support him in his courting of Tyndareus’s niece Penelope, the daughter of Icarius. Tyndareus agreed, Odysseus proposed that, before the decision was made, all the suitors should swear a most solemn oath to defend the chosen husband in any quarrel, it was decreed that straws were to be drawn for Helen’s hand. The suitor who won was Menelaus; the rest of the suitors swore their oaths, Helen and Menelaus were married, Menelaus becoming a ruler of Sparta with Helen after Tyndareus and Leda abdicated the thrones.
Menelaus and Helen had a daughter Hermione as supported, for example, by Sappho, while some variations of the myth suggest they had three sons as well: Aithiolas and Pleisthenes. Their palace has been discovered in Laconia, to the north-west of modern Sparta. Other archaeologists consider that Pellana is too far away from other Mycenaean centres to have been the "capital of Menelaus". According to legend, in return for awarding her a golden apple inscribed "to the fairest," Aphrodite promised Paris the most beautiful woman in all the world. After concluding a diplomatic mission to Sparta during the latter part of which Menelaus was absent to attend the funeral of his maternal grandfather Catreus in Crete, Paris ran off to Troy with Helen despite his brother Hector's prohibition. Invoking the oath of Tyndareus and Agamemnon raised a fleet of a thousand ships and went to Troy to secure Helen's return. Homer's Iliad is the most comprehensive source for Menelaus’s exploits during the Trojan War.
In Book 3, Menelaus challenges Paris to a duel for Helen’s return. Menelaus soundly beats Paris, but before he can kill him and claim victory, Aphrodite spirits Paris away inside the walls of Troy. In Book 4, while the Greeks and Trojans squabble over the duel’s winner, Athena inspires the Trojan Pandarus to shoot Menelaus with his bow and arrow. However, Athena never intended for Menelaus to die and she protects him from the arrow of Pandarus. Menelaus is wounded in the abdomen, the fighting resumes. In Book 17, Homer gives Menelaus an extended aristeia as the hero retrieves the corpse of Patroclus from the battlefield. According to Hyginus, Menelaus killed eight men in the war, was one of the Greeks hidden inside the Trojan Horse. During the sack of Troy, Menelaus killed Deiphobus. There are four versions of Menelaus’ and Helen’s reunion on the night of the sack of Troy: Menelaus sought out Helen in the conquered city. Raging at her infidelity, he raised his sword to kill her, but as he saw her weeping at his feet, begging for her life, Menelaus' wrath left him.
He decided to take her back as his wife. Menelaus resolved to kill Helen, but her irresistible beauty prompted him to drop his sword and take her back to his ship “to punish her at Sparta”, as he claimed. According to the Bibliotheca, Menelaus raised his sword in front of the temple in the central square of Troy to kill her, but his wrath went away when he saw her rending her clothes in anguish, revealing her naked breasts. A similar version by Stesichorus in “Ilion’s Conquest” narrated that Menelaus surrendered her to his soldiers to stone her to death, but when she ripped the front of her robes, the Achaean warriors were stunned by her beauty and the stones fell harmlessly from their hands. Book 4 of the Odyssey provides an account of his homelife in Sparta; when visited by Odysseus’ son Telemachus, Menelaus recounts his voyage home. As happened to many Greeks, Menelaus' homebound fleet was blown by storms to Crete and Egypt where they were becalmed, unable to sail away, they forced him to reveal how to make the voyage home.
After their homecoming and Hele
Steering is the collection of components, etc. which allows any vehicle to follow the desired course. An exception is the case of rail transport by which rail tracks combined together with railroad switches provide the steering function; the primary purpose of the steering system is to allow the driver to guide the vehicle. The most conventional steering arrangement is to turn the front wheels using a hand–operated steering wheel, positioned in front of the driver, via the steering column, which may contain universal joints, to allow it to deviate somewhat from a straight line. Other arrangements are sometimes found on different types of vehicles, for example, a tiller or rear–wheel steering. Tracked vehicles such as bulldozers and tanks employ differential steering—that is, the tracks are made to move at different speeds or in opposite directions, using clutches and brakes, to bring about a change of course or direction; the basic aim of steering is to ensure. This is achieved by a series of linkages, rods and gears.
One of the fundamental concepts is that of caster angle – each wheel is steered with a pivot point ahead of the wheel. The steering linkages connecting the steering box and the wheels conform to a variation of Ackermann steering geometry, to account for the fact that in a turn, the inner wheel is travelling a path of smaller radius than the outer wheel, so that the degree of toe suitable for driving in a straight path is not suitable for turns; the angle the wheels make with the vertical plane influences steering dynamics as do the tires. Many modern cars use rack and pinion steering mechanisms, where the steering wheel turns the pinion gear; this motion applies steering torque to the swivel pin ball joints that replaced used kingpins of the stub axle of the steered wheels via tie rods and a short lever arm called the steering arm. The rack and pinion design has the advantages of a large degree of feedback and direct steering "feel". A disadvantage is that it is not adjustable, so that when it does wear and develop lash, the only cure is replacement.
BMW began to use rack and pinion steering systems in the 1930s, many other European manufacturers adopted the technology. American automakers adopted pinion steering beginning with the 1974 Ford Pinto. Older designs use two main principles: the screw and nut. Both types were enhanced by reducing the friction; the steering column turns a large screw. The nut moves a sector of a gear; the recirculating ball version of this apparatus reduces the considerable friction by placing large ball bearings between the screw and the nut. The recirculating ball mechanism has the advantage of a much greater mechanical advantage, so that it was found on larger, heavier vehicles while the rack and pinion was limited to smaller and lighter ones; the recirculating ball design has a perceptible lash, or "dead spot" on center, where a minute turn of the steering wheel in either direction does not move the steering apparatus. This design is still in use in trucks and other large vehicles, where rapidity of steering and direct feel are less important than robustness and mechanical advantage.
The worm and sector was an older design, used for example in Willys and Chrysler vehicles, the Ford Falcon. To reduce friction the sector is replaced by rotating pins on the rocker shaft arm. Older vehicles use the recirculating ball mechanism, only newer vehicles use rack-and-pinion steering; this division is not strict and rack-and-pinion steering systems can be found on British sports cars of the mid-1950s, some German carmakers did not give up recirculating ball technology until the early 1990s. Other systems for steering are uncommon on road vehicles. Children's toys and go-karts use a direct linkage in the form of a bellcrank attached directly between the steering column and the steering arms, the use of cable-operated steering linkages is found on some home-built vehicles such as soapbox cars and recumbent tricycles. Power steering helps the driver of a vehicle to steer by directing some of its power to assist in swiveling the steered road wheels about their steering axes; as vehicles have become heavier and switched to
The Holy Dragon Flower Church of the Heart-bound Heavenly Way known as Yixin Tiandao, Yizhendao or the Holy Church of the One Truth, or Changmaodao, is a Chinese folk religious sect part of the Xiantiandao tradition. The first hall of the religion was founded in 1913 by Ma Shiwei in the Zouping County of Shandong. In 1917 the One-Heart movement expanded opening a branch in Shanxi, in 1922 it started a branch in Hebei, its headquarters were located in Wutai Jinan. In 1937 the first congregation was established in Shanghai. Chinese folk religion Chinese salvationist religions Xiantiandao Palmer, David A.. "Redemptive Societies in Cultural and Historical Context". Journal of Chinese Theatre and Folklore / Minsu Quyi. 173: 1–12. DuBois, Thomas David. "The Salvation of Religion? Public Charity and the New Religions of the Early Republic". Journal of Chinese Theatre and Folklore / Minsu Quyi. 172: 73–126