The Mensheviks were one dominant faction in the Russian socialist movement, the other being the Bolsheviks. The factions emerged in 1903 following a dispute in the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party between Julius Martov and Vladimir Lenin; the dispute originated at the 2nd Congress of the RSDLP, ostensibly over minor issues of party organization. Martov's supporters, who were in the minority in a crucial vote on the question of party membership, came to be called Mensheviks, derived from the Russian word меньшинство, while Lenin's adherents were known as Bolsheviks, from большинство. Despite the naming, neither side held a consistent majority over the course of the entire 2nd Congress, indeed the numerical advantage fluctuated between both sides throughout the rest of the RSDLP's existence until the Russian Revolution; the split proved to be long-standing and had to do both with pragmatic issues based in history, such as the failed Revolution of 1905 and theoretical issues of class leadership, class alliances and interpretations of historical materialism.
While both factions believed that a proletarian revolution was necessary, the Mensheviks tended to be more moderate, more positive towards the liberal opposition and the peasant-based Socialist Revolutionary Party. At the 2nd Congress of the RSDLP in August 1903, Lenin and Martov disagreed, first about which persons should be in the editorial committee of the party newspaper Iskra and about the definition of a "party member" in the future party statute. Lenin's formulation required the party member to be a member of one of the party's organizations Martov's only stated that he should work under the guidance of a party organization. Although the difference in definitions was small, with Lenin's being more exclusive, it was indicative of what became an essential difference between the philosophies of the two emerging factions as Lenin argued for a small party of professional revolutionaries with a large fringe of non-party sympathizers and supporters whereas Martov believed it was better to have a large party of activists with broad representation.
Martov's proposal was accepted by the majority of the delegates. However, after seven delegates stormed out of the Congress—five of them representatives of the Jewish Bund who left in protest about their own federalist proposal being defeated—Lenin's supporters won a slight majority, reflected in the composition of the Central Committee and the other central party organs elected at the Congress; that was the reason behind the naming of the factions. It was hypothesized that Lenin had purposely offended some of the delegates in order to have them leave the meeting in protest, giving him a majority; however and Mensheviks were united in voting against the Bundist proposal, which lost 41 to 5. Despite the outcome of the Congress, the following years saw the Mensheviks gathering considerable support among regular social democrats and building up a parallel party organization. At the 4th Congress of the RSDLP in 1906, a reunification was formally achieved. In contrast to the 2nd Congress, the Mensheviks were in the majority from start to finish, yet Martov's definition of a party member, which had prevailed at the 1st Congress, was replaced by Lenin's.
On the other hand, numerous disagreements about alliances and strategy emerged. The two factions continued to operate separately; as before, both factions believed that Russia was not developed enough to make socialism possible and that therefore the revolution which they planned, aiming to overthrow the Tsarist regime, would be a bourgeois-democratic revolution. Both believed. However, after 1905 the Mensheviks were more inclined to work with the liberal bourgeois democratic parties such as the Constitutional Democrats because these would be the "natural" leaders of a bourgeois revolution. In contrast, the Bolsheviks believed that the Constitutional Democrats were not capable of sufficiently radical struggle and tended to advocate alliances with peasant representatives and other radical socialist parties such as the Socialist Revolutionaries. In the event of a revolution, this was meant to lead to a dictatorship of the proletariat and the peasantry, which would carry the bourgeois revolution to the end.
The Mensheviks came to argue for predominantly legal methods and trade union work while the Bolsheviks favoured armed violence. Some Mensheviks joined legal opposition organisations. After a while, Lenin's patience wore out with their compromising and in 1908 he called these Mensheviks "liquidationists". In 1912, the RSDLP had its final split, with the Bolsheviks constituting the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party and the Mensheviks the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party; the Menshevik faction split further in 1914 at the beginning of World War I. Most Mensheviks opposed the war, but a vocal minority supported it in terms of "national defense". After the overthrow of the Romanov dynasty by the February Revolution in 1917, the Menshevik leadership led by Irakli Tsereteli demanded that the government pursue a "fair peace without annexations", but in the meantime supported the war effort under the slogan of "defense of the revolution". Along with the other major Russian socialist party, the Socialist Revolutionaries, the Mensheviks led the emerging network of soviets, notably the Petrograd Soviet in the capital, throughout most of 1917.
With the monarchy gone, many social democrats viewed previous tactical differences between the Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks as a thing of the past and a number of local party organizations were m
Peter Binsfeld was a German bishop and theologian. Peter, a son of a farmer and craftsman, was born in the village of Binsfeld in the rural Eifel region, located in the modern state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Binsfeld grew up in the predominantly Catholic environment of the Eifel region. Considered by a local abbot as a gifted boy, Peter Binsfeld was sent to Rome for study. After his studies, Binsfeld returned to his home region and became an important personality in the anti-Protestant Catholic activities of the late 16th century, he was elected Auxiliary bishop of Trier and became a well-known writer on theology, who achieved notoriety as one of the most prominent witch-hunters of his time. Binsfeld was one of the main drivers of the Trier witch trials that ravaged the area under the dominion of Archbishop Johann von Schönenberg between 1581-93. Binsfeld wrote the influential treatise De confessionibus maleficorum et sagarum, translated into several languages; this work discussed the confessions of alleged witches, claimed that if such confessions were produced by torture, they should still be believed.
He encouraged denouncements. He thought that girls under age twelve and boys under age fourteen could not be considered guilty of practising witchcraft, but due to the precocity of some children the law should not be strict; this point of view can be considered as moderate, taking into account that some tribunals had condemned children between two and five years of age to be burnt at the stake. Contrary to other authors of the time, Binsfeld doubted the ability of shapeshifting and the validity of the diabolical mark. In 1589 Binsfield published an influential list of demons and their associated sins, including the demons associated with the Seven Deadly Sins: Lucifer, Asmodeus, Beelzebub and Belphegor. Binsfeld's classification of demons
The Audi Prologue is a concept luxury Coupé and Estate unveiled by Audi at the 2014 LA Auto Show. It features 4.0 TFSI V8 engine with 445 kW and 700 Nm of torque, an eight‑speed tiptronic, Quattro with torque vectoring and self-levelling air suspension with adaptive damping, dynamic all-wheel steering. It is equipped with Matrix laser headlamps, Audi virtual cockpit, 3 OLED tablet-like touchscreens and a next-generation Multi Media Interface. An innovative feature is the central driver assistance control unit, a main computer in the vehicle trunk that controls all vehicle functions and Advanced driver-assistance systems with real-time computing through a high-speed FlexRay optical fiber data network, it uses a Tegra K1 System on a chip. Its design and technology previews the next generation Audi A8, unveiled in 2017. Mercedes-Benz s Coupé BMW 8 series Coupé Cadillac Elmiraj Audi Corporate website Audi Prologue - images and video First drive: Audi's Prologue concept
The third season of Demark har talent aired on TV2 on 7 January 2017 and finished on 8 April 2017. The series will be again host by Felix Schmidt. On the judging panel Jarl Friis-Mikkelsen, Cecilie Lassen and Peter Frödin will return while. Once again in this season the golden buzzer is available for each judge—and for the hosts for the first time—to press once the whole season to put one act straight through to the live shows; the competition was won by Drummer Johanne Astrid while Mind Reader Mads Fencker came Second and Acrobats Rasta Mizizi Acrobats came third. The semi finals began on 4 March 2017. 7 acts will perform every week. 1 act will advanced from the public vote 1 act will advanced from the judges vote ^1 Due to the majority vote for Villain State of Mind, Cecilie's voting intention was not revealed
The history of the cooperative movement concerns the origins and history of cooperatives across the world. Although cooperative arrangements, such as mutual insurance, principles of cooperation existed long before, the cooperative movement began with the application of cooperative principles to business organization; the cooperative movement began in Europe in the 19th century in Britain and France. The Shore Porters Society claims to be one of the world's first cooperatives, being established in Aberdeen in 1498; the industrial revolution and the increasing mechanism of the economy transformed society and threatened the livelihoods of many workers. The concurrent labour and social movements and the issues they attempted to address describe the climate at the time; the first documented consumer cooperative was founded in 1769, in a furnished cottage in Fenwick, East Ayrshire, when local weavers manhandled a sack of oatmeal into John Walker's whitewashed front room and began selling the contents at a discount, forming the Fenwick Weavers' Society.
In the decades that followed, several cooperatives or cooperative societies formed including Lennoxtown Friendly Victualling Society, founded in 1812. By 1830, there were several hundred co-operatives; some were successful, but most cooperatives founded in the early 19th century had failed by 1840. However, Lockhurst Lane Industrial Co-operative Society, Galashiels and Hawick Co-operative Societies still trade today, it was not until 1844 when the Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers established the "Rochdale Principles" on which they ran their cooperative, that the basis for development and growth of the modern cooperative movement was established. Financially, cooperative banks, called credit unions in the US, were invented in Germany in the mid-19th century, first by Franz Hermann Schulze-Delitzsch by Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen. While Schulze-Delitzsch is chronologically earlier, Raiffeisen has proven more influential over time – see history of credit unions. In Britain, the friendly society, building society, mutual savings bank were earlier forms of similar institutions.
Robert Owen is considered as the father of the cooperative movement. A Welshman who made his fortune in the cotton trade, Owen believed in putting his workers in a good environment with access to education for themselves and their children; these ideas were put into effect in the cotton mills of New Lanark, Scotland. It was here. Spurred on by the success of this, he had the idea of forming "villages of co-operation" where workers would drag themselves out of poverty by growing their own food, making their own clothes and becoming self-governing, he tried to form such communities in Orbiston in Scotland and in New Harmony, Indiana in the United States of America, but both communities failed. Although Owen inspired the co-operative movement, others – such as Dr. William King – took his ideas and made them more workable and practical. King believed in starting small, realized that the working classes would need to set up co-operatives for themselves, so he saw his role as one of instruction, he founded a monthly periodical called The Co-operator, the first edition of which appeared on 1 May 1828.
This gave a mixture of co-operative philosophy and practical advice about running a shop using cooperative principles. King advised people not to cut themselves off from society, but rather to form a society within a society, to start with a shop because, "We must go to a shop every day to buy food and necessaries – why should we not go to our own shop?" He proposed sensible rules, such as having a weekly account audit, having 3 trustees, not having meetings in pubs. The Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers was a group of 10 weavers and 20 others in Rochdale, formed in 1844; as the mechanization of the Industrial Revolution was forcing more and more skilled workers into poverty, these tradesmen decided to band together to open their own store selling food items they could not otherwise afford. With lessons from prior failed attempts at co-operation in mind, they designed the now famous Rochdale Principles, over a period of four months they struggled to pool one pound sterling per person for a total of 28 pounds of capital.
On December 21, 1844, they opened their store with a meagre selection of butter, flour, oatmeal and a few candles. Within three months, they expanded their selection to include tea and tobacco, they were soon known for providing high quality, unadulterated goods; the Co-operative Group formed over 140 years from the merger of many independent retail societies, their wholesale societies and federations. In 1863, twenty years after the Rochdale Pioneers opened their co-operative, the North of England Co-operative Society was launched by 300 individual co-ops across Yorkshire and Lancashire. By 1872, it had become known as the Co-operative Wholesale Society. Through the 20th century, smaller societies merged with CWS, such as the Scottish Co-operative Wholesale Society and the South Suburban Co-operative Society. By the 1990s, CWS's share of the market had declined and many came to doubt the viability of co-operative model. CWS sold its factories to Andrew Regan in 1994. Regan returned in 1997 with a £1.2 billion bid for CWS.
There were allegations of "carpet-bagging" – new members who joined to make money from the sale – and more fraud and commerci
Lumen Christi High School is a private Roman Catholic high school located in Anchorage Alaska, USA, is affiliated with the Archdiocese of Anchorage. Lumen Christi Catholic High School was founded in the fall of 1996, it was open to grades 7-10, but expanded to 11th in 1997, 12th in 1998. The school moved from its first building at 69 West Fireweed Lane in 2000 to its current location at 8110 Jewel Lake Road as a ministry of St. Benedict's Parish in Anchorage, Alaska. Lumen is a member of the National Catholic Education Association and is regionally accredited by the Northwest Association of Accredited Schools, through AdvancED; the school serves 85 students as of Fall 2014. It has an 11.3:1 student/teacher ratio. The majority of the full-time teaching staff hold master's degrees or higher in their areas of expertise, it is a member of the Alaska School Activities Association for athletics and is classified as 1A school. Lumen Christi's mascot is the Archangel and the school's colors are navy blue and silver.
Brian Ross is the principal at Lumen Christi. In 2015 Lumen Christi High School added campus ministry to its school life. Campus ministry creates the intentional presence of Catholic faith in active practice, it seeks to anticipate and provide for the faith needs of high school and middle school students, provide varied opportunities for faith development, opportunities for school family to grow in faith and community. Among other opportunities, varied prayer, liturgy preparation and collaborative teams are organized and promoted. Lumen is the only Catholic school in Anchorage, recognized by the state of Alaska as an accredited high school, accredited by the Northwest Accreditation Commission through AdvancED. Lumen Christi does not follow the Common Core Curriculum, which means that Lumen teachers and parents work together to set the curriculum. Furthermore, the curriculum is aligned to the recommendations by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. Athletics For soccer and basketball, Lumen Christi is a part of the Peninsula Conference known as Region II, District III.
Recognition for the past five years includes: 2013: ASAA 1A High School Boys' Basketball 3rd place State 2013: ASAA 1A High School Boys' Basketball Region Champions 2012: ASAA 2A High School Boys' Basketball Conference Champions 2012: ASAA 2A High School Boys' Basketball Region Champions 2011: ACSAA Jr. High Volleyball Champions ASAA 2A High School Volleyball Regions Runner-Up 2010 ACSAA High School Soccer State Champions 2010Drama Lumen Christi's Drama Club produces a comedy in the spring. Previous performances include: 2017: "The Hollow" 2016: The Importance of Being Earnest 2015: Daddy's Girl 2014: Spirit 2013 Cinderella! Cinderella! Yearbook Since its opening Lumen Christi has published a yearbook every year. Archery Recently Lumen Christi added archery. Catholic schools in the United States Higher education List of high schools in Alaska Parochial school Official site