SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Mentha

Mentha is a genus of plants in the family Lamiaceae. The exact distinction between species is unclear. Hybridization occurs where some species range overlap. Many hybrids and cultivars are known; the genus has a subcosmopolitan distribution across Europe, Asia and North America. The species that makes up the genus Mentha are distributed and can be found in many environments. Most grow best in wet environments and moist soils. Mints can spread over an indeterminate area. Due to their tendency to spread unchecked, some mints are considered invasive. Mints are aromatic exclusively perennial herbs, they have wide-spreading underground and overground stolons and erect, branched stems. The leaves are arranged in opposite pairs, from oblong to lanceolate downy, with a serrated margin. Leaf colors range from dark green and gray-green to purple and sometimes pale yellow; the flowers are white to purple and produced in false whorls called verticillasters. The corolla is two-lipped with four subequal lobes, the upper lobe the largest.

The fruit is a nutlet. Mentha is a member of the tribe Mentheae in the subfamily Nepetoideae; the tribe contains about 65 genera, relationships within it remain obscure. Authors have disagreed on the circumscription of Mentha. For example, M. cervina has been placed in Pulegium and Preslia, M. cunninghamii has been placed in Micromeria. In 2004, a molecular phylogenetic study indicated that both M. cervina and M. cunninghamii should be included in Mentha. However, M. cunninghamii was excluded in a 2007 treatment of the genus. More than 3,000 names have been published in the genus Mentha, at ranks from species to forms, the majority of which are regarded as synonyms or illegitimate names; the taxonomy of the genus is made difficult because many species hybridize or are themselves derived from ancient hybridization events. Seeds from hybrids give rise to variable offspring; the variability has led to what has been described as "paroxysms of species and subspecific taxa". Recent sources recognize between 24 species.

As of July 2019, Plants of the World Online recognized the following species: The mint genus has a large grouping of recognized hybrids. Those accepted by Plants of the World Online are listed below. Parent species are taken from Naczi. Synonyms, along with cultivars and varieties where available, are included within the specific nothospecies. Mentha × carinthiaca Host Mentha × dalmatica Tausch Mentha × dumetorum Schult. Mentha × gayeri Trautm. Mentha × gentilis L. – ginger mint, Scotch spearmint Mentha × kuemmerlei Trautm. Mentha × locyana Borbás Mentha × piperita L. – peppermint, chocolate mint Mentha × pyramidalis Ten. Mentha × rotundifolia Huds. – false apple mint Mentha × suavis Guss. Mentha × verticillata L. Mentha × villosa Huds. – large apple mint, foxtail mint, hairy mint, woolly mint, Cuban mint, mojito mint, yerba buena in Cuba Mentha × villosa-nervata Opiz – sharp-toothed mint Mentha × wirtgeniana F. W. Schultz – red raripila mint All mints thrive near pools of water, lakes and cool moist spots in partial shade.

In general, mints tolerate a wide range of conditions, can be grown in full sun. Mint grows all year round, they are fast-growing. Due to their speedy growth, one plant of each desired mint, along with a little care, will provide more than enough mint for home use; some mint species are more invasive than others. With the less invasive mints, care should be taken when mixing any mint with any other plants, lest the mint take over. To control mints in an open environment, they should be planted in deep, bottomless containers sunk in the ground, or planted above ground in tubs and barrels; some mints can be propagated by seed, but growth from seed can be an unreliable method for raising mint for two reasons: mint seeds are variable — one might not end up with what one supposed was planted — and some mint varieties are sterile. It is more effective to plant cuttings from the runners of healthy mints; the most common and popular mints for commercial cultivation are peppermint, native spearmint, Scotch spearmint, cornmint.

Mints are supposed to make good companion plants, repelling pesty insects and attracting beneficial ones. They are susceptible to whitefly and aphids. Harvesting of mint leaves can be done at any time. Fresh leaves should be used or stored up to a few days in plastic bags in a refrigerator. Optionally, leaves can be frozen in ice cube trays. Dried mint leaves should be stored in an airtight container placed in a cool, dry area; the leaf, fresh or dried, is the culinary source of mint. Fresh mint is preferred over dried mint when storage of the mint is not a problem; the leaves have a warm, aromatic, sweet flavor with a cool aftertaste, are used in teas, jelli

Man at Sea

Man at Sea is a 2011 Greek drama film directed by Constantine Giannaris. Alex, the captain of a Greek oil tanker, is still dealing with the death of his son four years ago. While his ship the "Sea Voyager" is in the Mediterranean Sea, Captain Alex comes across a boat filled with adolescent refugees from Iran and Afghanistan, he allows them on his ship. He plans to drop the refugees off at a port, but local authorities refuse to take them, forcing the refugees to stay on the boat, their residence angers the ship's owners, the "Sea Voyager" becomes a claustrophobic war zone between the refugees and the ship's owners. Antonis Karistinos as Alex Theodora Tzimou as Katia Konstadinos Avarikiotis as Andreas Konstadinos Siradakis as Pantelis Stathis Papadopoulos as Yuri Thanasis Tatavlalis as Petros Nikos Tsourakis as Samir Stathis Apostolou as Johnny Chalil Ali Zada as Rafik Rahim Rahimi as Kamal "Man at Sea" was featured in the Panorama section of the 2011 Berlin Film Festival, it was observed, "If Man at Sea isn’t the director’s best work – although it is his most ambitious – it’s because of his inability to orchestrate the internal rhythms of the conflict."

Movies Ltd. listed the diverse sociological issues that the movie deals with: "Illegal immigration, family loss, financial crisis, illegality". Boyd van Hoeij wrote, "Giannaris’s latest plays more like'Around the World in 80 Plot Twists.'" Man at Sea on IMDb

The Dead Sea Scrolls Deception

The Dead Sea Scrolls Deception is a book by authors Michael Baigent and Richard Leigh. Rejecting the established, scholarly consensus that the Dead Sea scrolls were the work of a marginal Jewish apocalyptic movement, following the thesis of Robert Eisenman, the authors argue that the scrolls were the work of Jewish zealots who had much in common with, may have been identical to, the early followers of Jesus led by his brother James the Just, their unconventional hypothesis provides a different version of the history of early Christianity and challenges the divinity of Jesus. Leigh and Baigent describe how the scrolls were kept under wraps for decades by a team dominated by Catholic scholars under the leadership of a Dominican friar, Roland de Vaux, they contend that the preconceptions of de Vaux and other members of the team led them to ignore evidence of the probable 1st-century provenance of many of the scrolls, instead, to consign these scrolls safely to the distant past. The book was criticised by Hershel Shanks of Biblical Archaeology Review.

Joseph Fitzmyer has described it as consisting of a "pattern of errors and misinformed statements". The book makes a number of incorrect claims and has been ridiculed by scholars who have worked with the Dead Sea scrolls and who have come to the conclusion that Jesus and early Christianity are different from the ideas and people represented in the Dead Sea scrolls. John Allegro Christ myth theory Gnosticism and the New Testament Historicity of Jesus The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail