The Mercedes-Benz W186 model 300 was a four-door luxury tourer produced by Mercedes-Benz between 1951 and 1957. The company's largest and most prestigious automobile, it was the Maybach of its day, powerful and expensive. Three versions were produced in succession, known informally as the 300a, 300b, 300c. An enlarged "300d" variant built on the W189 chassis succeeded it in late 1957. Referred to as a "Type 300", the W186 was equal in features and price but superior in performance to the rival Rolls-Royce Silver Cloud. Favored by statesmen and business leaders, it offered options such as a glass partition, VHF mobile telephone, dictation machine. All but hand-built as the company flagship, the W186 is identified as an Adenauer after Konrad Adenauer, the first Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, who employed six custom cabriolet, hardtop saloon, landaulet versions of the W186 and its successor W189 during his 1949-1963 tenure. Among the custom features in these "parade cars" were writing desks, curtains, dividing partitions and half-roof "landaulet" configurations.
Technologically advanced, the 300 was regarded as a "driver's" car, sharing numerous design innovations and mechanical components with the iconic Mercedes-Benz 300 SL "Gullwing", including engine and chassis. The four door 300 was introduced at the Frankfurt Motor Show in April 1951 and entered series production in November 1951, it had no "a" designation, informally added, along with the "b" and "c", by enthusiasts seeking to distinguish the three W186 generations. Available as both a saloon and cabriolet, it featured graceful modernist bodywork atop Mercedes' proven X-frame chassis. An all new 3.0 L overhead cam, aluminum head M186 straight-6 was coupled to a 4-speed all-synchromesh manual gearbox. Twin downdraft Solex carburetors and an innovative diagonal head-to-block joint that allowed for oversized intake and exhaust valves produced 115 PS at a 6.4:1 compression ratio. Designed to give reliable service under prolonged hard use, the engine featured deep water jackets, thermostatically controlled oil cooling, copper-lead bearings and a hardened crankshaft.
With no natural cruising speed, the car could sustain anything up to its maximum speed all day, road conditions permitting. The combination of a rigid X-shaped ovoid steel tube frame and four-wheel independent suspension provided nimble handling. Double wishbones, coil springs, a stabilizer bar were used up front and Mercedes' typical double coil spring swing axle in rear. An innovative dashboard-operated rear load-leveling suspension engaged a torsion bar to increase stiffness by one-third when needed, a pedal-operated central lubrication system kept friction points silent. Brakes were hydraulic drum all around, steering worm-and-sector, replaced in 1952 by recirculating ball. A total of 6,214 saloons and 591 Cabriolet Ds, retroactively referred to as the "300a" series, were produced through September, 1955, including a brief 300b run incorporating elements of the 300c's partial facelift prior to its debut; the 300b was introduced in March 1954, adding vacuum assisted power brakes and front door vent windows.
Engine power was upped to 125 PS via different Solex carburetors and an increased compression ratio of 7.5:1. The 300c made its debut in September, 1955, adding a larger rear window and optional 3-speed automatic transmission, it was priced at $10,864 in the United States, with the convertible a third more at $14,231. A special Innenlenker limousine with on a 20 cm longer wheelbase became available from July, 1956, priced at DM 25,000. A total of 1,432 300c saloons were produced through July, 1957. Only 51 300c series Cabriolet D's were built through June 1956; the 300c was succeeded by a limousine-length "300d" in 1957. It featured sweeping changes that included revised bodywork, fuel injection, unique hardtop configuration transforming it into a pillarless phaeton. Mercedes-Benz 300 S "300 S". Phil Seed's Virtual Car Museum. Retrieved December 1, 2005. "300". Phil Seed's Virtual Car Museum. Retrieved December 1, 2005. "Mercedes-Benz Type 300 Adenauer". MBZPonton. Org. Retrieved December 1, 2005
Mercedes-Benz is a German global automobile marque and a division of Daimler AG. The brand is known for luxury vehicles, buses and trucks; the headquarters is in Baden-Württemberg. The name first appeared in 1926 under Daimler-Benz. In 2018, Mercedes-Benz was the biggest selling premium vehicle brand in the world, having sold 2.31 million passenger cars. Mercedes-Benz traces its origins to Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft's 1901 Mercedes and Karl Benz's 1886 Benz Patent-Motorwagen, regarded as the first gasoline-powered automobile; the slogan for the brand is "the best or nothing". Mercedes-Benz traces its origins to Karl Benz's creation of the first petrol-powered car, the Benz Patent Motorwagen, financed by Bertha Benz and patented in January 1886, Gottlieb Daimler and engineer Wilhelm Maybach's conversion of a stagecoach by the addition of a petrol engine that year; the Mercedes automobile was first marketed in 1901 by Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft. Emil Jellinek, an Austrian automobile entrepreneur who worked with DMG, created the trademark in 1902, naming the 1901 Mercedes 35 hp after his daughter Mercedes Jellinek.
Jellinek was a businessman and marketing strategist who promoted "horseless" Daimler automobiles among the highest circles of society in his adopted home, which, at that time, was a meeting place for the "Haute Volée" of France and Europe in winter. His customers included other well-known personalities, but Jellinek's plans went further: as early as 1901, he was selling Mercedes cars in the New World as well, including US billionaires Rockefeller, Astor and Taylor. At a race in Nice in 1899, Jellinek drove under the pseudonym "Monsieur Mercédès", a way of concealing the competitor's real name as was normal and regularly done in those days; the race ranks as the hour of birth of the Mercedes-Benz brand. In 1901, the name "Mercedes" was registered by Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft worldwide as a protected trademark; the first Mercedes-Benz brand name vehicles were produced in 1926, following the merger of Karl Benz's and Gottlieb Daimler's companies into the Daimler-Benz company on 28 June of the same year.
Gottlieb Daimler was born on 17 March 1834 in Schorndorf. After training as a gunsmith and working in France, he attended the Polytechnic School in Stuttgart from 1857 to 1859. After completing various technical activities in France and England, he started working as a draftsman in Geislingen in 1862. At the end of 1863, he was appointed workshop inspector in a machine tool factory in Reutlingen, where he met Wilhelm Maybach in 1865. Throughout the 1930s, Mercedes-Benz produced the 770 model, a car, popular during Germany's Nazi period. Adolf Hitler was known to have driven these cars during his time in power, with bulletproof windshields. Most of the surviving models have been sold at auctions to private buyers. One of them is on display at the War Museum in Ottawa, Ontario; the pontiff's Popemobile has been sourced from Mercedes-Benz. In 1944, 46,000 forced laborers were used in Daimler-Benz's factories to bolster Nazi war efforts; the company paid $12 million in reparations to the laborers' families.
Mercedes-Benz has introduced many technological and safety innovations that became common in other vehicles. Mercedes-Benz is one of the best-known and established automotive brands in the world. For information relating to the famous three-pointed star, see under the title Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft, including the merger into Daimler-Benz; as part of the Daimler AG company, the Mercedes-Benz Cars division includes Mercedes-Benz and Smart car production. Mercedes-AMG became a majority owned division of Mercedes-Benz in 1999; the company was integrated into DaimlerChrysler in 1999, became Mercedes-Benz AMG beginning on 1 January 1999. Daimler's ultra-luxury brand Maybach was under Mercedes-Benz cars division until 2013, when the production stopped due to poor sales volumes, it now exists under the Mercedes-Maybach name, with the models being ultra-luxury versions of Mercedes cars, such as the 2016 Mercedes-Maybach S600. Daimler cooperates with BYD Auto to sell a battery-electric car called Denza in China.
In 2016, Daimler announced plans to sell. Beside its native Germany, Mercedes-Benz vehicles are manufactured or assembled in: Since its inception, Mercedes-Benz has maintained a reputation for its quality and durability. Objective measures looking at passenger vehicles, such as J. D. Power surveys, demonstrated a downturn in reputation in these criteria in the late 1990s and early 2000s. By mid-2005, Mercedes temporarily returned to the industry average for initial quality, a measure of problems after the first 90 days of ownership, according to J. D. Power. In J. D. Power's Initial Quality Study for the first quarter of 2007, Mercedes showed dramatic improvement by climbing from 25th to 5th place and earning several awards for its models. For 2008, Mercedes-Benz's initial quality rating improved to fourth place. On top of this accolade, it received the Platinum Plant Quality Award for its Mercedes’ Sindelfingen, Germany assembly plant. J. D. Power's 2011 US Initial Quality and Vehicle Dependability Studies both ranked Mercedes-Benz vehicles above average in build quality and reliability.
In the 2011 UK J. D. Power Survey, Mercedes cars were rated above average. A 2014 iSeeCars.com study for Reuters found Mercedes to have the lowest vehicle recall rate. Mercedes-Benz offers a full range of light commercial and heavy commercial equipment. Vehicles are manufactured in multiple countries worldwide; the Smart marque of city cars are produced by Daimler AG
The crumple zone,is an area of biles to absorb the energy from the impact during a collision by controlled deformation, also incorporated into railcars. Crumple zones are designed to absorb the energy from the impact during a traffic collision by controlled deformation by crumpling; this energy is much greater than is realized. A 2,000 kg car travelling at 60 km/h, before crashing into a thick concrete wall, is subject to the same impact force as a front-down drop from a height of 14.2 m crashing on to a solid concrete surface. Increasing that speed by 50% to 90 km/h compares to a fall from 32 m —an increase of 125%; this is because the stored kinetic energy increases by the square of the impact velocity and not in proportion with the increase in speed. Is given by E = mass × speed squared. Crumple zones are located in the front part of the vehicle, in order to absorb the impact of a head-on collision, though they may be found on other parts of the vehicle as well. According to a British Motor Insurance Repair Research Centre study of where on the vehicle impact damage occurs: 65% were front impacts, 25% rear impacts, 5% left side, 5% right side.
Some racing cars use aluminium, composite/carbon fibre honeycomb, or energy absorbing foam to form an impact attenuator that dissipates crash energy using a much smaller volume and lower weight than road car crumple zones. Impact attenuators have been introduced on highway maintenance vehicles in some countries. On September 10, 2009, the ABC News programs Good Morning America and World News showed a U. S. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety crash test of a 2009 Chevrolet Malibu in an offset head-on collision with a 1959 Chevrolet Bel Air sedan, it demonstrated the effectiveness of modern car safety design over 1950s design of rigid passenger safety cells and crumple zones. The crumple zone concept was invented and patented by the Austrian Mercedes-Benz engineer Béla Barényi in 1937 before he worked for Mercedes-Benz and in a more developed form in 1952; the 1953 Mercedes-Benz "Ponton" was a partial implementation of his ideas by having a strong deep platform to form a partial safety cell, patented in 1941.
The Mercedes-Benz patent number 854157, granted in 1952, describes the decisive feature of passive safety. Barényi questioned the opinion prevailing until that a safe car had to be rigid, he divided the car body into three sections: the rigid non-deforming passenger compartment and the crumple zones in the front and the rear. They are designed to absorb the energy of an impact by deformation during collision; the first Mercedes-Benz carbody developed using this patent was the 1959 Mercedes W111 “Tail Fin” Saloon. The safety cell and crumple zones were achieved by the design of the longitudinal members: these were straight in the centre of the vehicle and formed a rigid safety cage with the body panels, the front and rear supports were curved so they deformed in the event of an accident, absorbing part of the collision energy and preventing the full force of the impact from reaching the occupants. A more recent development was for these curved longitudinal members is to be weakened by vertical and lateral ribs to form telescoping "crash can" or "crush tube" deformation structures.
Crumple zones work by managing crash energy, absorbing it within the outer parts of the vehicle, rather than being directly transferred to the occupants, while preventing intrusion into or deformation of the passenger cabin. This better protects car occupants against injury; this is achieved by controlled weakening of sacrificial outer parts of the car, while strengthening and increasing the rigidity of the inner part of the body of the car, making the passenger cabin into a "safety cell", by using more reinforcing beams and higher strength steels. Impact energy that does reach the "safety cell" is spread over as wide an area as possible to reduce its deformation. Volvo introduced the side crumple zone with the introduction of the SIPS in the early 1990s; when a vehicle and all its contents, including passengers and luggage are travelling at speed, they have inertia / momentum, which means that they will continue forward with that direction and speed. In the event of a sudden deceleration of a rigid framed vehicle due to impact, unrestrained vehicle contents will continue forwards at their previous speed due to inertia, impact the vehicle interior, with a force equivalent to many times their normal weight due to gravity.
The purpose of crumple zones is to slow down the collision and to absorb energy to reduce the difference in speeds between the vehicle and its occupants. Seatbelts restrain the passengers so they don't fly through the windshield, are in the correct position for the airbag and spread the loading of impact on the body. Seat belts absorb passenger inertial energy by being designed to stretch during an impact, again to reduce the speed differential between the passenger's body and their vehicle interior. In short: a passenger whose body is decelerated more due to the crumple zone over a longer time survives much more than a passenger whose body indirectly impacts a hard, undamaged metal car body which has come to a halt nearly instantaneously, it is like the difference between slamming someone into a wall headfirst and shoulder-first is that the arm, being softer, has tens of times longer to slow its speed, yielding a little at a time, than the hard skull, which isn't in contact with the wall until it has to deal with high pressures.
The stretching of seatbelts while restraining occupan
A seat belt is a vehicle safety device designed to secure the occupant of a vehicle against harmful movement that may result during a collision or a sudden stop. A seat belt functions to reduce the likelihood of death or serious injury in a traffic collision by reducing the force of secondary impacts with interior strike hazards, by keeping occupants positioned for maximum effectiveness of the airbag and by preventing occupants being ejected from the vehicle in a crash or if the vehicle rolls over; when in motion, the driver and passengers are travelling at the same speed as the car. If the driver makes the car stop or crashes it, the driver and passengers continue at the same speed the car was going before it stopped. A seatbelt applies an opposing force to the driver and passengers to prevent them from falling out or making contact with the interior of the car. Seatbelts are considered Primary Restraint Systems, because of their vital role in occupant safety. An analysis conducted in the United States in 1984 compared a variety of seat belt types alone and in combination with air bags.
The range of fatality reduction for front seat passengers was broad, from 20% to 55%, as was the range of major injury, from 25% to 60%. More the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has summarized this data by stating "seat belts reduce serious crash-related injuries and deaths by about half." Most seatbelt malfunctions are a result of there being too much slack in the seatbelt at the time of the accident. In 1946, Dr. C. Hunter Shelden opened a neurological practice at Huntington Memorial Hospital in Pasadena, California. In the early 1950s, Dr. Shelden made a major contribution to the automotive industry with his idea of retractable seat belts; this came about his from his care of the high number of head injuries coming through the emergency room. He investigated the early seat belts whose primitive designs were implicated in these injuries and deaths. To reduce the high level of injuries he was seeing, he proposed, in late 1955, retractable seat belts, recessed steering wheels, reinforced roofs, roll bars, automatic door locks, passive restraints such as the air bag.
Subsequently, in 1966, Congress passed the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act requiring all automobiles to comply with certain safety standards. American car manufacturers Nash and Ford offered seat belts as options, while Swedish Saab first introduced seat belts as standard in 1958. After the Saab GT 750 was introduced at the New York Motor Show in 1958 with safety belts fitted as standard, the practice became commonplace. Glenn Sheren, of Mason, submitted a patent application on March 31, 1955 for an automotive seat belt and was awarded US Patent 2,855,215 in 1958; this was a continuation of an earlier patent application that Mr. Sheren had filed on September 22, 1952. However, the first modern three point seat belt used in most consumer vehicles today was patented in 1955 U. S. Patent 2,710,649 by the Americans Roger W. Griswold and Hugh DeHaven; the Swedish national electric utility, did a study of all fatal, on-the-job accidents among their employees. The study revealed that the majority of fatalities occurred while the employees were on the road on company business.
In response, two Vattenfall safety engineers, Bengt Odelgard and Per-Olof Weman, started to develop a seat belt. Their work was presented to Swedish manufacturer Volvo in the late 1950s, set the standard for seat belts in Swedish cars; the three-point seatbelt was developed to its modern form by Swedish inventor Nils Bohlin for Volvo—who introduced it in 1959 as standard equipment. In addition to designing an effective three-point belt, Bohlin demonstrated its effectiveness in a study of 28,000 accidents in Sweden. Unbelted occupants sustained fatal injuries throughout the whole speed scale, whereas none of the belted occupants were fatally injured at accident speeds below 60 mph. No belted occupant was fatally injured. Bohlin was granted U. S. Patent 3,043,625 for the device; the world's first seat belt law was put in place in 1970, in the state of Victoria, making the wearing of a seat belt compulsory for drivers and front-seat passengers. This legislation was enacted after trialing Hemco seatbelts, designed by Desmond Hemphill, in the front seats of police vehicles, lowering the incidence of officer injury and death.
A 2-point belt attaches at its two endpoints. A simple strap was first used March 12, 1910 by pilot Benjamin Foulois, a pioneering aviator with the Aeronautical Division, U. S. Signal Corps, so he might remain at the controls during turbulence. A lap belt is a strap; this was the most installed type of belt prior to legislation requiring three-point belts, is found in older cars. Coaches are equipped with lap belts. University of Minnesota Professor James J. Ryan was the inventor of and held the patent on the automatic retractable lap safety belt. Ralph Nader cited Ryan's work in Unsafe at Any Speed and in 1966 President Lyndon Johnson signed two bills requiring safety belts in all passenger vehicles starting in 1968; until the 1980s, three-point belts were available only in the front outboard seats of cars. Evidence of the potential of lap belts to cause separation of the lumbar vertebrae and the sometimes associated paralysis, or "seat belt syndrome", led to progressive revision of passenger safety regulations in nearly all developed countries to require three-point belts first in all outboard seating position
See Mercedes-Benz SL-Class for a complete overview of all SL-Class models. The Mercedes-Benz W 113 is a two-seat roadster/coupé, introduced at the 1963 Geneva Motor Show, produced from 1963 through 1971, it replaced both the 300 SL and the 190 SL. Of the 48,912 W 113 SLs produced, 19,440 were sold in the US; the W 113 SL was developed under the auspices of Mercedes-Benz Technical Director Fritz Nallinger, Chief Engineer Rudolf Uhlenhaut and Head of Styling Friedrich Geiger. The lead designers were Paul Bracq and Béla Barényi, who created its patented concave hardtop, which inspired the "Pagoda" nickname. All models were equipped with an inline-six cylinder engine with multi-port fuel injection; the bonnet, trunk lid, door skins and tonneau cover were made of aluminum to reduce weight. The comparatively short and wide chassis, combined with an excellent suspension, powerful brakes and radial tires gave the W 113 superb handling for its time; the styling of the front, with its characteristic upright Bosch "fishbowl" headlights and simple chrome grille, dominated by the large three-pointed star in the nose panel, paid homage to the 300 SL roadster.
W 113 SLs were configured as a "Coupe/Roadster" with a soft-top and an optional removable hardtop. A 2+2 was introduced with the 250 SL "California Coupe," which had a fold-down rear bench seat instead of the soft-top. By 1955, Mercedes-Benz Technical Director Prof. Fritz Nallinger and his team held no illusions regarding the 190 SL's lack of performance, while the high price tag of the legendary 300 SL supercar kept it elusive for all but the most affluent buyers, thus Mercedes-Benz started evolving the 190 SL on a new platform, model code W127, with a fuel-injected 2.2 liter M127 inline-six engine, internally denoted as 220SL. Encouraged by positive test results, Nallinger proposed that the 220SL be placed in the Mercedes-Benz program, with production commencing in July 1957. However, while technical difficulties kept postponing the production start of the W127, the emerging new S-Class W 112 platform introduced novel body manufacturing technology altogether. So in 1960, Nallinger proposed to develop a new 220SL design, based on the "fintail" W 111 sedan platform with its chassis shortened by 30 cm, technology from the W 112.
This led to the W 113 platform, with an improved fuel-injected 2.3 liter M127 inline-six engine and the distinctive "pagoda" hardtop roof, designated as 230 SL. The 230 SL made its debut at the Geneva Motor Show in March 1963, where Nallinger introduced it as follows: "It was our aim to create a safe and fast sports car with high performance, which despite its sports characteristics, provides a high degree of traveling comfort". Mercedes-Benz did not announce. Leicht is either "easy" as an adverb or "light" as an adjective in German. Defining a car it has to mean "Light", it is assumed that the letters stand for Sport Leicht. One car magazine in 2012 declared that the abbreviation "SL" - "securitized and signed by Rudolf Uhlenhaut " meant Super Leicht; this contradicts "Mercedes-Benz 300 SL" of Engelen / Riedner / Seufert, produced in close cooperation with Rudolf Uhlenhaut showing that the abbreviation meant Sport Leicht. Mercedes-Benz used both forms until 2017, it was called Super Super. On the company website it was than changed to Super Leicht.
For a long time it was unclear what intention the company had at the time when assigning the letter combination. It was not until the beginning of 2017 that a chance finding in the corporate archive clarified that the that the abbreviation SL stood for Super-Leicht; the W 113 was the first sports car with a "safety body," based on Bela Barényi's extensive work on vehicle safety: It had a rigid passenger cell and designated crumple zones with impact-absorbing front and rear sections built into the vehicle structure. The interior was "rounded," with all hard edges removed, as in the W 111 sedan; the W 113 was the first Mercedes-Benz with radial tires. Production of the 230 SL commenced in June 1963 and ended on 5 January 1967, its chassis was based on the W 111 sedan platform, with a reduced wheelbase by 30 cm, recirculating ball steering, double wishbone front suspension and an independent single-joint, low-pivot swing rear-axle with transverse compensator spring. The dual-circuit brake system had power-assisted rear drum brakes.
The 230 SL was offered with a 4-speed manual transmission, or an optional responsive fluid coupled 4-speed automatic transmission, popular for US models. From May 1966, the ZF S5-20 5-speed manual transmission was available as an additional option, popular in Italy. Of the 19,831 230 SLs produced, less than a quarter were sold in the US; the 2,308 cc M127. II inline-six engine with 150 PS and 196 N⋅m torque was based on Mercedes-Benz' venerable M180 inline-six with four main bearings and mechanical Bosch multi-port fuel injection. Mercedes-Benz made a number of modifications to boost its power, including increasing displacement from 2,197 cc, using a new cylinder head with a higher compression ratio, enlarged valves and a modified camshaft. A fuel injection pump with six plungers instead of two was fitted, which allowed placing the nozzles in the cylinder head and "shooting" the fuel through the intake manifold and open valves directly into the combustion chambers. An optional oil-water heat exchanger was available.
Mercedes-Benz Chief Engineer Rudolf Uhlenhaut demonstrated the capabilities of the 230 SL on the tight three-qua
Friedrich Geiger was a German automobile designer whose most notable cars, the pre-World War II Mercedes-Benz 540K and post-war Mercedes-Benz 300SL, are among the most regarded in automotive history. Born in Süßen in the Swabian region of southern Germany, Geiger trained as a cartwright, before studying as a design engineer at University prior to joining Daimler-Benz in April 1933, he began in the special vehicles manufacturing department, where, in the 1930s, he was responsible for the 500K and 540K sports cars. He left Daimler-Benz in April 1948, but returned to the company two years this time as a test engineer in the styling department, he became head of styling within a few years, after designing the iconic 300SL gullwing coupé, named one of the ten greatest Mercedes built and one of the 25 greatest cars of the 20th century. He continued to work at Daimler-Benz until his retirement in December 1973, by which time he had helped create the W111/W112 and W110 "Fintails", the W113 "Pagoda" and R107 SL coupé/convertibles, the W108/109 and W116 series of the S-Class, the ultra-luxurious and long-lived Mercedes-Benz 600 limousine.
He was succeeded by Bruno Sacco, one of his staff at the styling department, who would go on to be shortlisted as one of the car designers of the century. He died in Bad Überkingen in 1996, aged 88. On the centenary of his birth in March 2007 Sacco paid tribute to his mentor, acknowledging the outstanding reputation he enjoys among younger automotive designers thanks to the timelessness of his designs. Engelen, Günter. "100th anniversary of Friedrich Geiger". Mercedes-Benz Classic. Mattar, George. "The Man Behind Great Tri-Stars". Hemmings Sports & Exotic Car. Retrieved 7 May 2014