MacOS is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac family of computers. Within the market of desktop and home computers, by web usage, it is the second most used desktop OS, after Microsoft Windows.macOS is the second major series of Macintosh operating systems. The first is colloquially called the "classic" Mac OS, introduced in 1984, the final release of, Mac OS 9 in 1999; the first desktop version, Mac OS X 10.0, was released in March 2001, with its first update, 10.1, arriving that year. After this, Apple began naming its releases after big cats, which lasted until OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion. Since OS X 10.9 Mavericks, releases have been named after locations in California. Apple shortened the name to "OS X" in 2012 and changed it to "macOS" in 2016, adopting the nomenclature that they were using for their other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, tvOS; the latest version is macOS Mojave, publicly released in September 2018.
Between 1999 and 2009, Apple sold. The initial version, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was released in 1999 with a user interface similar to Mac OS 8.5. After this, new versions were introduced concurrently with the desktop version of Mac OS X. Beginning with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, the server functions were made available as a separate package on the Mac App Store.macOS is based on technologies developed between 1985 and 1997 at NeXT, a company that Apple co-founder Steve Jobs created after leaving the company. The "X" in Mac OS X and OS X is pronounced as such; the X was a prominent part of the operating system's brand identity and marketing in its early years, but receded in prominence since the release of Snow Leopard in 2009. UNIX 03 certification was achieved for the Intel version of Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard and all releases from Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard up to the current version have UNIX 03 certification. MacOS shares its Unix-based core, named Darwin, many of its frameworks with iOS, tvOS and watchOS.
A modified version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was used for the first-generation Apple TV. Releases of Mac OS X from 1999 to 2005 ran on the PowerPC-based Macs of that period. After Apple announced that they were switching to Intel CPUs from 2006 onwards, versions were released for 32-bit and 64-bit Intel-based Macs. Versions from Mac OS X 10.7 Lion run on 64-bit Intel CPUs, in contrast to the ARM architecture used on iOS and watchOS devices, do not support PowerPC applications. The heritage of what would become macOS had originated at NeXT, a company founded by Steve Jobs following his departure from Apple in 1985. There, the Unix-like NeXTSTEP operating system was developed, launched in 1989; the kernel of NeXTSTEP is based upon the Mach kernel, developed at Carnegie Mellon University, with additional kernel layers and low-level user space code derived from parts of BSD. Its graphical user interface was built on top of an object-oriented GUI toolkit using the Objective-C programming language. Throughout the early 1990s, Apple had tried to create a "next-generation" OS to succeed its classic Mac OS through the Taligent and Gershwin projects, but all of them were abandoned.
This led Apple to purchase NeXT in 1996, allowing NeXTSTEP called OPENSTEP, to serve as the basis for Apple's next generation operating system. This purchase led to Steve Jobs returning to Apple as an interim, the permanent CEO, shepherding the transformation of the programmer-friendly OPENSTEP into a system that would be adopted by Apple's primary market of home users and creative professionals; the project was first code named "Rhapsody" and officially named Mac OS X. Mac OS X was presented as the tenth major version of Apple's operating system for Macintosh computers. Previous Macintosh operating systems were named using Arabic numerals, as with Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9; the letter "X" in Mac OS X's name refers to a Roman numeral. It is therefore pronounced "ten" in this context. However, it is commonly pronounced like the letter "X"; the first version of Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was a transitional product, featuring an interface resembling the classic Mac OS, though it was not compatible with software designed for the older system.
Consumer releases of Mac OS X included more backward compatibility. Mac OS applications could be rewritten to run natively via the Carbon API; the consumer version of Mac OS X was launched in 2001 with Mac OS X 10.0. Reviews were variable, with extensive praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interface but criticizing it for sluggish performance. With Apple's popularity at a low, the makers of several classic Mac applications such as FrameMaker and PageMaker declined to develop new versions of their software for Mac OS X. Ars Technica columnist John Siracusa, who reviewed every major OS X release up to 10.10, described the early releases in retrospect as'dog-slow, feature poor' and Aqua as'unbearably slow and a huge resource hog'. Apple developed several new releases of Mac OS X. Siracusa's review of version 10.3, noted "It's strange to have gone from years of uncertainty and vaporware to a steady annual supply of major new operating system releases." Version 10.4, Tiger shocked executives at Microsoft by offering a number of features, such as fast file s
A corporation is an organization a group of people or a company, authorized to act as a single entity and recognized as such in law. Early incorporated entities were established by charter. Most jurisdictions now allow the creation of new corporations through registration. Corporations come in many different types but are divided by the law of the jurisdiction where they are chartered into two kinds: by whether they can issue stock or not, or by whether they are formed to make a profit or not. Corporations can be divided by the number of owners: corporation corporation sole; the subject of this article is a corporation aggregate. A corporation sole is a legal entity consisting of a single incorporated office, occupied by a single natural person. Where local law distinguishes corporations by the ability to issue stock, corporations allowed to do so are referred to as "stock corporations", ownership of the corporation is through stock, owners of stock are referred to as "stockholders" or "shareholders".
Corporations not allowed to issue stock are referred to as "non-stock" corporations. Corporations chartered in regions where they are distinguished by whether they are allowed to be for profit or not are referred to as "for profit" and "not-for-profit" corporations, respectively. There is some overlap between stock/non-stock and for-profit/not-for-profit in that not-for-profit corporations are always non-stock as well. A for-profit corporation is always a stock corporation, but some for-profit corporations may choose to be non-stock. To simplify the explanation, whenever "Stockholder" or "shareholder" is used in the rest of this article to refer to a stock corporation, it is presumed to mean the same as "member" for a non-profit corporation or for a profit, non-stock corporation. Registered corporations have legal personality and their shares are owned by shareholders whose liability is limited to their investment. Shareholders do not actively manage a corporation. In most circumstances, a shareholder may serve as a director or officer of a corporation.
In American English, the word corporation is most used to describe large business corporations. In British English and in the Commonwealth countries, the term company is more used to describe the same sort of entity while the word corporation encompasses all incorporated entities. In American English, the word company can include entities such as partnerships that would not be referred to as companies in British English as they are not a separate legal entity. Late in the 19th century, a new form of company having the limited liability protections of a corporation, the more favorable tax treatment of either a sole proprietorship or partnership was developed. While not a corporation, this new type of entity became attractive as an alternative for corporations not needing to issue stock. In Germany, the organization was referred to as Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung or GmbH. In the last quarter of the 20th Century this new form of non-corporate organization became available in the United States and other countries, was known as the limited liability company or LLC.
Since the GmbH and LLC forms of organization are technically not corporations, they will not be discussed in this article. The word "corporation" derives from corpus, the Latin word for body, or a "body of people". By the time of Justinian, Roman law recognized a range of corporate entities under the names universitas, corpus or collegium; these included the state itself and such private associations as sponsors of a religious cult, burial clubs, political groups, guilds of craftsmen or traders. Such bodies had the right to own property and make contracts, to receive gifts and legacies, to sue and be sued, and, in general, to perform legal acts through representatives. Private associations were granted designated liberties by the emperor. Entities which carried on business and were the subjects of legal rights were found in ancient Rome, the Maurya Empire in ancient India. In medieval Europe, churches became incorporated, as did local governments, such as the Pope and the City of London Corporation.
The point was that the incorporation would survive longer than the lives of any particular member, existing in perpetuity. The alleged oldest commercial corporation in the world, the Stora Kopparberg mining community in Falun, obtained a charter from King Magnus Eriksson in 1347. In medieval times, traders would do business through common law constructs, such as partnerships. Whenever people acted together with a view to profit, the law deemed. Early guilds and livery companies were often involved in the regulation of competition between traders. Dutch and English chartered companies, such as the Dutch East India Company and the Hudson's Bay Company, were created to lead the colonial ventures of European nations in the 17th century. Acting under a charter sanctioned by the Dutch government, the Dutch East India Company defeated Portuguese forces and established itself in the Moluccan Islands in order to profit from the European demand for spices. Investors in the VOC were issued paper certificates as proof of share ownership, were able to trade their shares on the original Amsterdam
Adrian Johann Frutiger was a Swiss typeface designer who influenced the direction of type design in the second half of the 20th century. His career spanned the hot metal and digital typesetting eras; until his death, he lived in Bremgarten bei Bern. Frutiger's most famous designs, Univers and Avenir, are landmark sans-serif families spanning the three main genres of sans-serif typefaces: neogrotesque and geometric. Univers was notable for being one of the first sans-serif faces to form a consistent but wide-ranging family, across a range of widths and weights. Frutiger described creating sans-serif types as his "main life's work," due to the difficulty in designing them compared to serif fonts. Adrian Frutiger was born in Canton of Bern, the son of a weaver; as a boy, he experimented with invented scripts and stylized handwriting in a negative reaction to the formal, cursive penmanship required by Swiss schools. His father and his secondary school teachers encouraged him to pursue an apprenticeship rather than pure art.
After planning to train as a pastry chef, Frutiger secured an apprenticeship at the Otto Schlaefli printing house in Interlaken. At the age of sixteen, he was apprenticed for four years, as a compositor, to the printer Otto Schlaeffli in Interlaken taking classes in woodcuts and drawing at the Gewerbeschule in Bern under Walter Zerbe, followed by employment as a compositor at Gebr. Fretz in Zürich, Switzerland. In 1949 he transferred to the Kunstgewerbeschule Zürich, where he studied under Walter Käch, Karl Schmid and Alfred Willimann until 1951. Students there studied monumental inscriptions from Roman forum rubbings. At the Kunstgewerbeschule Zürich, Frutiger concentrated on calligraphy — a craft favouring the nib and the brush, instead of drafting tools, but began sketches for what would become Univers, influenced by the sans-serif types popular in contemporary graphic design. Frutiger married Paulette Flückiger in 1952, he married the theologian Simone Bickel in 1955. They had two daughters, who both experienced mental health problems and committed suicide as adolescents.
Disappointed by the standard of mental health care at the time and his wife founded the Fondation Adrian et Simone Frutiger to fund psychology and neuroscience research and developments in mental health support. In an interview, Frutiger described himself as a Calvinist. Frutiger spent most of his professional career working in Paris and living in France, returning to Switzerland in life. Charles Peignot, of the Paris foundry Deberny et Peignot, recruited Frutiger based upon the quality of the illustrated essay Schrift / Écriture / Lettering: the development of European letter types carved in wood, Frutiger's final project at the Kunstgewerbeschule Zürich. Frutiger's wood-engraved illustrations of the essay demonstrated his skill and knowledge of letter forms. At Deberny & Peignot foundry, Frutiger designed the typefaces Président, Méridien, Ondine. In addition, Charles Peignot set Frutiger to work upon converting extant typefaces for the new phototypesetting Linotype equipment. Adrian Frutiger's first commercial typeface was Président — a set of titling capital letters with small, bracketed serifs, released in 1954.
A calligraphic, script face, Ondine was released in 1954. In 1955, Méridien, a glyphic, old-style, serif text face was released; the typeface shows inspiration by Nicolas Jenson, and, in the Méridien type, Frutiger's ideas of letter construction and organic form, are first expressed together. Raph Levien described as a "Frutiger trademark" his common use of an "a" where the loop makes a horizontal line at the top on meeting the vertical, it makes use of narrow wedge serifs, a style sometimes known as Latin which Frutiger would use in his future serif designs. In 1956, he designed his slab-serif typefaces -- Egyptienne, on the Clarendon model. Charles Peignot envisioned a large, unified font family, that might be set in both the metal and the photo-composition systems. Impressed by the success of the Bauer foundry's Futura typeface, Peignot encouraged a new, geometric sans-serif type in competition. Frutiger disliked the regimentation of Futura, persuaded Peignot that the new sans-serif should be based on the realist model.
The 1896 face, Akzidenz-Grotesk, is cited as the primary model. To maintain unity across the 21 variants, each weight and width, in roman and oblique, was drawn and approved before any matrices were cut. In the Univers font, Frutiger introduced his two-digit numeration; the second digit indicates the face-width and either oblique. It was marketed with a design inspired by the periodic table; the response to Univers was positive. His slab serif designs Glypha are directly based upon it. Univers attracted attention to Frutiger's work outside continental Europe, he was commissioned by Monotype to create Apollo, their first typeface created for phototypesetting, released in 1964. In 1961–64, Frutiger created with André Gürtler a sans-serif font named Concorde for news use in regular and bold styles for Parisian printing company Sofratype. Required to create a design different to Univers, the design based on classical capitals with a greater classical influence than Univers influenced by a serif design Opér
The Legibility Group is a series of serif typefaces created by the American Mergenthaler Linotype Company and intended for use in newspapers on Linotype's hot metal typesetting system. They were developed in-house by Linotype's design team, led by Chauncey H. Griffith, released from 1922, when the first member, Ionic No. 5, appeared. Griffith's aim with the Legibility Group typefaces was to create a design with more body than the rather spindly Didone typefaces standard in newspaper printing. To this end, the designs have low contrast in stroke weight, wide open counters and ball terminals, intended to make the letters distinguishable when printed on poor-quality newsprint paper; the Legibility Group typefaces were popular and remained used by many newspapers worldwide throughout the metal type period and beyond. A notable exception is Monotype's Times New Roman, created to take advantage of the unusually high standard of printing of the Times in the 1930s. In 1972, British printing manager Allen Hutt commented that "the majority of the world's newspapers are typeset in one or another of the traditional Linotype'Legibility Group', most of the rest in their derivatives."
The family became a large group due to the creation of different designs for different printing conditions, such as levels of inking used in different newspaper production processes and versions with different x-heights. Linotype carried out a survey of optometrists as part of their research process. Ionic No. 5 — the first in the family and successful. Sometimes criticised for having too high an x-height, making lower-case letters wide and reducing the difference between an "n" and an "h". Bitstream Inc.'s News 701 typeface is an unofficial digitisation. Textype — similar but with a lower x-height, giving a more delicate structure with more contrast between letters with and without ascenders. Excelsior — reduced x-height and intended for rubber-roller presses. Linotype has described its use as most common "in Europe, where newspaper columns are wide."Opticon — heavier, to compensate for printing that deliberately underinks to favour halftones. Paragon — lighter, to compensate for newspapers that deliberately overink to favour text and headlines.
Corona — condensed and large on the body. Walter Tracy praised it for carrying "the design of newspaper types to a new level."Although not part of the family, Linotype marketed its sans-serif family Metro and slab serif face Memphis as effective complements for headings. The Legibility Group faces resemble the "modern" or Didone faces of the nineteenth century, with ball terminals, a curled leg on the "R" and a looped "Q". However, stroke contrast is limited and the apertures are held wide open to differentiate letters; as the name "Ionic No. 5" suggests, the "legibility group" typefaces resembled slab serif typefaces of the nineteenth century, variously called "Clarendon" or "Ionic", but it is modified from these to have a build suitable for body text. Hutt suggests that the design was based on the popular family of the name Ionic from Miller & Richard and copies from other foundries bolder than was considered normal for body text during the late nineteenth century. G. Willem Ovink, has argued that a more direct influence was American Type Founders' Century Expanded a Didone face with reduced contrast, but that Linotype were unwilling to admit any influence from a competitor's work and so chose a name suggesting a more distant inspiration.
Miklavčič, Mitja. Three chapters in the development of clarendon /ionic typefaces. University of Reading. Archived from the original on November 25, 2011. Retrieved 6 October 2014. Consuegra, David. American Type Design & Designers. Allworth Communications, Inc.: 2004. ISBN 1-58115-320-1, ISBN 978-1-58115-320-0 Hutt, Allen. Changing Newspaper: Typographic Trends in Britain and America 1622–1972. Gordon Fraser.: 1973. ISBN 0-900406-22-4, ISBN 978-0-900406-22-5 Macmillan, Neil. An A-Z of Type Designers. Yale University Press.: 2006. ISBN 0-300-11151-7, ISBN 978-0-300-11151-4 Excelsior Font Family — by Chauncey H. Griffith Font Designer — Chauncey H. Griffith Advertisement in the UK Daily Mirror promoting the changeover to using Ionic Linotype advertisement explaining the design's structure
The Railway Magazine
The Railway Magazine is a monthly British railway magazine, aimed at the railway enthusiast market, published in London since July 1897. As of 2010 it was, for three years running, the railway magazine with the largest circulation in the United Kingdom, having a monthly average sale during 2009 of 34,715, it was published by IPC Media until October 2010, with ISSN 0033-8923, in 2007 won IPC's'Magazine of the Year' award. Since November 2010, The Railway Magazine has been published by Mortons Media Group Ltd.. The Railway Magazine was launched by Joseph Lawrence and ex-railwayman Frank E. Cornwall of Railway Publishing Ltd, who thought there would be an amateur enthusiast market for some of the material they were publishing in a railway staff magazine, the Railway Herald, they appointed as its first editor a former auctioneer, George Augustus Nokes, who wrote under the pseudonym "G. A. Sekon", he built the magazine circulation to around 25,000. From the start it was produced in Linotype on good-quality paper and well illustrated with photographic halftone and occasional colour lithographic plates.
In 1910, following a dispute with the proprietors, Nokes resigned and started a rival similar, magazine and Travel Monthly. Both this and The Railway Magazine in 1916 were purchased by John Aiton Kay, proprietor of the Railway Gazette, Nokes's title was renamed Transport and Travel Monthly in 1920 before being amalgamated with The Railway Magazine from January 1923. Apart from this episode, The Railway Magazine had no serious commercial rival in its field until the 1940s. Kay himself served as editor after his predecessor had left for service in World War II. For many years the magazine shared editorial direction with the Railway Gazette, for periods had no editor of its own. From May 1942 to the end of 1949, paper shortages compelled bimonthly publication. X 6 in, though it continued to use art paper for a centre section of photographs, which had begun in January 1934; the magazine claims a record for the longest unbroken published series, begun under the title "British locomotive practice and performance" in 1901, characterised by detailed logs giving the timings of notable trips, recorded by observers with a stopwatch.
Its first writer was the New Zealand-born Charles Rous-Marten. One of those who shared authorship of the series after his death was the Great Eastern Railway engineer Cecil J. Allen who became sole author from 1911 until succeeded by O. S. Nock in 1958, when Cecil J. Allen moved his performance column to Trains Illustrated, edited by his son, G. Freeman Allen. From 1981 to 2004 the performance series was written by Peter W. B. Semmens, who served as Chief correspondent from 1990, notably reporting on the Channel Tunnel construction. Authorship of the series, now called just "Practice & performance", has subsequently been shared by Keith Farr and John Heaton; the editor originated a series of "Illustrated Interviews" with senior railway officials, the first being Joseph Wilkinson, general manager of the Great Western Railway. Other contributors of features in earlier days included Rev. W. J. Scott, Rev. Victor L. Whitechurch, Charles H. Grinling, railwayman H. L. Hopwood, the much-travelled T. R. Perkins.
Harold Fayle contributed on Irish railways. A notable series by the locomotive engineer E. L. Ahrons on "Locomotive and train working in the latter part of the nineteenth century" was published between 1915 and 1926. A small amount of fiction was included in the magazine's earliest days. Another feature which has persisted since the early days has been answers to readers' questions, under the title "The why & the wherefore". Notable photographic contributors of the Interwar period included Maurice W. Earley, W. Leslie Good, Frank R. Hebron, F. E. Mackay, O. J. Morris and H. Gordon Tidey; the cover design, incorporating a photograph, remained unchanged from the early 1900s to the mid-1950s. In common with most similar magazines, the pictorial content is today in colour. In earliest days, current news paragraphs were placed at the back of the magazine under the headings "What the railways are doing" and "Pertinent paragraphs"; the magazine has over the years extended its detailed coverage of locomotive and rolling stock movements.
It now covers current British railway news, modern traction, some history, heritage railways and general and international railway topics. Between November 1963 and December 1996, the definite article was omitted from the title, "Railway Magazine" during that period. Since November 1983, the word "Magazine" has been in smaller type. † died in office ‡ nominally Deputy Editor The Railway Magazine has a presence on the National Preservation forums. Members and readers are able to talk and comment directly to members of the editorial staff, providing both feedback and constructive criticism; this has been noted as a valuable source of information for the magazine in order to keep in touch with its readership online in the internet age. List of railroad-related periodicals
Monotype Imaging Holdings, Inc. is a Delaware corporation based in Woburn, Massachusetts. It specialises in digital typesetting and typeface design as well as text and imaging solutions for use with consumer electronics devices. Monotype Imaging Holdings and its predecessors and subsidiaries have been responsible for many developments in printing technology—in particular the Monotype machine, the first mechanical typesetter, the Linotype machine—and the design and production of typefaces in the 19th and 20th centuries. Monotype developed many of the most used typeface designs, including Times New Roman, Gill Sans, Arial and Albertus. Monotype has carried out a series of acquisitions from 2000 onwards of companies such as Linotype GmbH, International Typeface Corporation, Bitstream Inc. and FontShop. This has gained it the rights to many further known designs, including Helvetica, ITC Franklin Gothic, Avant Garde, Palatino and FF DIN, it owns the MyFonts online retailer used by many independent font design studios.
The Lanston Monotype Machine Company was founded by Tolbert Lanston in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1887. Lanston had a patented mechanical method of punching out metal types from cold strips of metal which were set into a matrix for the printing press. In 1896 Lanston patented the first hot metal typesetting machine and Monotype issued Modern Condensed, its first typeface; the licenses for the Lanston type library have been acquired by P22, a digital type foundry based in Buffalo, New York. In a search for funding, the company set up a branch in London in 1897 under the name Lanston Monotype Corporation Ltd known as the Monotype Corporation. In 1899 a new factory was built in Salfords near Redhill in Surrey where it has been located for over a century; the company was of sufficient size to justify the construction of its own Salfords railway station. The Monotype machine worked by casting letters from "hot metal" as pieces of type, thus spelling mistakes could be corrected by removing individual letters.
This was useful for "quality" printing - such as books. In contrast, the Linotype machine formed a complete line of type in one bar. Editing these required replacing an entire line, but Linotype slugs were easier to handle. This was more useful for "quick" printing - such as newspapers; the typesetting machines were continually improved in the early years of the 20th century, with a typewriter style keyboard for entering the type being introduced in 1906. This arrangement addressed the need to vary the space between words so that all lines were the same length; the keyboard operator types the copy, each key punching holes in a roll of paper tape that will control the separate caster. A drum on the keyboard indicates to the operator the space required for each line; this information is punched in the paper. Before fitting the tape to the caster it is turned over so that the first holes read on each line set the width of the variable space; the subsequent holes determine the position of a frame, or die case, that holds the set of matrices for the face being used.
Each matrix is a rectangle of copper recessed with the shape of the letter. Once the matrix is positioned over the mould that forms the rest of the piece of type being cast, molten type metal is injected. To promote its image, the company ran a magazine, the Monotype Recorder, over most of the twentieth century, ran a compositor training school in London. In 1936, the company was floated on the London Stock Exchange and became the Monotype Corporation Ltd. Board members of the company included future Prime Minister Harold Macmillan, Vice-Chairman, other businessmen connected to publishing. Monotype's role in design history is not due to their supply of printing equipment but due to their commissioning of many of the most important typefaces of the twentieth century; the company's first face, issued in 1896 was a rather generic design, now named Modern, influenced by Bodoni and Scotch Roman designs. However, by the 1920s the company's British branch was well known for commissioning popular influenced designs that revived some of the best typefaces of the past, with particular attention to the early period of printing from the Renaissance to the late eighteenth-century.
This series of releases was a major part of the typographic renaissance of the period, an expansion of the arts and crafts movement interest in printing into the more workaday world of general-purpose printing. Key executives of the company in this period included historian and adviser Stanley Morison, publicity manager Beatrice Warde, engineering expert Frank Hinman Pierpont and draughtsman Fritz Stelzer, under managing director William Isaac Burch, who led the company from 1924 to 1942. Despite tensions within the company between the minded faction of Morison and Warde and Pierpont in Salfords, notable typefaces commissioned included Gill Sans, Times New Roman and Perpetua, the company maintained high standards of development allowing it to produce designs with good spacing, careful adaptation of the same basic design to different sizes and colour on the page, essential qualities for balanced body text. Historian James Mosley, who worked with Monotype in the 1950s and onwards, has commented:The English Monotype Corporation of the interwar years looks in retrospect rather like one of the great public bodies of the period, for example the British Broadcasting Corporation or London Transport…benevolent monopolie