Isetnofret was one of the Great Royal Wives of Pharaoh Ramesses II and was the mother of his heir, Merneptah. She was one of the most prominent of the royal wives, along with Nefertari, was the chief queen after Nefertari's death; the parents of Isetnofret are not known. She must have married Ramesses II before he came to the throne as her eldest children appear in scenes from the time of Seti I, she had one daughter. Her children include: Prince Ramesses, Crown Prince from Year 25 to 50 of Ramesses II Princess-Queen Bintanath, firstborn daughter and wife of Ramesses Prince Khaemwaset, High Priest of Ptah. Crown Prince from Year 50 to 55 of Ramesses II Pharaoh Merneptah, Ramesses' 13th son and ultimate successor Princess Isetnofret, possible wife of Merenptah as Isetnofret IIPrince Sethi and Princess Nebettawy have been suggested as further children of Isetnofret, but they are more to be the children of Nefertari. Queen Isetnofret's titles include: Hereditary Princess,Great of Praises, King’s Mother, Mistress of the entire Two Lands, King’s Wife, Great King’s Wife Isetnofret is known from several inscriptions and small statues.
She is not well attested before year 25 of Ramesses II. Most of the items and scenes mentioning Queen Isetnofret seem to be associated with her sons Ramesses and Merenptah. Isetnofret is shown on a family stela from Aswan; the upper register shows Ramesses Isetnofret and Khaemwaset before the god Khnum. The lower register shows Prince Ramesses and Princess Queen Bintanath. A family stela from the Speos at West Silsila shows Ramesses II, Isetnofret and Bintanath with a much smaller Khaemwaset before the gods Ptah and Nefertem; the lower register shows Prince Ramesses and Prince Merenptah. A Statue with Prince's Figure, her son is named on the statue: King's Son Khaemwaset. A Statue group with Sons: A "hetep-di-nesu" offering for the King's Son, Sem priest of Ptah and the royal scribe and King's Son Ramesses; the text mentions Queen Isetnofret. The Head of a Statue: On right shoulder the name of Isetnofret appears. A naophorous Statue of Prince Khaemwaset mentions his mother. On the dorsal pillar it reads: Iunmutef-priest, born of the Great Royal Wife Isetnofret, the Sem-priest of Ptah Khaemwaset.
Relief for offering for Prince Khaemwaset in Horemheb's Speos. The text above the prince reads: Sitting at table, making purification with natron and reading out the menu, every good offering, for the King's Son of Usermaatre Setepenre, born of the Great Royal Wife, the Sem-priest Khaemwaset. Shabtis from Middle cemetery of Abydos: One of these has a cartouche of Queen Isetnofret. West Silsila: Rock shrine of Merneptah. A scene depicts Ramesses II, Queen Isetnofret with sistra before Taweret and Nut. A daughter of her son Khaemwaset was named after her, it is possible that this Isetnofret was Merenptah's wife, not her aunt Isetnofret II. A possible daughter of Merneptah bears this name
Ra or Re is the ancient Egyptian deity of the sun. By the Fifth Dynasty in the 25th and 24th centuries BC, he had become one of the most important gods in ancient Egyptian religion, identified with the noon sun. Ra was believed to rule in all parts of the created world: the sky, the Earth, the underworld. Ra was portrayed as shared characteristics with the sky god Horus. At times the two deities were merged as Ra-Horakhty, "Ra, Horus of the Two Horizons". In the New Kingdom, when the god Amun rose to prominence he was fused with Ra into Amun-Ra; the cult of the Mnevis bull, an embodiment of Ra, had its center in Heliopolis and there was a formal burial ground for the sacrificed bulls north of the city. All forms of life were believed to have been created by Ra. In some accounts humans were created from Ra's tears and sweat, hence the Egyptians call themselves the "Cattle of Ra". In the myth of the Celestial Cow it is recounted how mankind plotted against Ra and how he sent his eye as the goddess Sekhmet to punish them.
To the ancient Egyptians, the sun represented light and growth. This made the sun deity important, as the sun was seen as the ruler of all that he created; the sun disk was seen as the eye of Ra. Ra was the father of Tefnut, whom he created by his own power. Shu was the god of the wind, Tefnut was the goddess of the rain. Sekhmet was created by the fire in Ra's eye, she was a violent lioness sent to slaughter the people who betrayed Ra, but when pacified she became the more benign goddess Hathor. Ra was thought to travel on the Atet, two solar barques called the Mandjet or morning boat and the Mesektet or evening boat; these boats took him on his journey through the literal underworld of Egypt. While Ra was on the Mesektet, he was in his ram-headed form; when Ra traveled in his sun boat, he was accompanied by various other deities including Sia and Hu, as well as Heka. Sometimes, members of the Ennead helped him on his journey, including Set, who overcame the serpent Apophis, Mehen, who defended against the monsters of the underworld.
When Ra was in the underworld, he would visit all of his various forms. Apophis, the god of chaos, was an enormous serpent who attempted to stop the sun boat's journey every night by consuming it or by stopping it in its tracks with a hypnotic stare. During the evening, the Egyptians believed that Ra set in the form of a ram; the night boat would carry him through the underworld and back towards the east in preparation for his rebirth. These myths of Ra represented the sun rising as the rebirth of the sun by the sky goddess Nut; when Ra was in the underworld, he merged with the god of the dead. Ra was worshipped as the creator god among some ancient Egyptians followers of his cult at Heliopolis, it was believed that Ra wept, from his tears came man. These cult-followers believed that Ra was self-created, while followers of Ptah believed that Ra was created by Ptah. In a passage of the Book of the Dead, Ra cuts himself, his blood transforms into two intellectual personifications: Hu, or authority, Sia, or mind.
Ra is accredited with the creation of the seasons, months and animals. Ra was represented in a variety of forms; the most usual form was a man with the head of a falcon and a solar disk on top and a coiled serpent around the disk. Other common forms are a man with the head of a ram. Ra was pictured as a full-bodied ram, phoenix, serpent, cat, or lion, among others, he was most featured with a ram's head in the Underworld. In this form, Ra is described as being the "ram of the west" or "ram in charge of his harem. In some literature, Ra is described as an aging king with golden flesh, silver bones, hair of lapis lazuli; the chief cultic center of Ra was Iunu "the Place of Pillars" known to the Ptolemaic Kingdom as Heliopolis and today located in the suburbs of Cairo. He was identified with the local sun god Atum; as Atum or Atum-Ra, he was reckoned the first being and the originator of the Ennead, consisting of Shu and Tefnut and Nut, Set and Nephthys. The holiday of "The Receiving of Ra" was celebrated on May 26 in the Gregorian calendar.
Ra's local cult began to grow from the Second Dynasty, establishing him as a sun deity. By the Fourth Dynasty, pharaohs were seen as Ra's manifestations on earth, referred to as "Sons of Ra", his worship increased massively in the Fifth Dynasty, when Ra became a state deity and pharaohs had specially aligned pyramids and sun temples built in his honor. The rulers of the Fifth Dynasty told their followers that they were sons of Ra himself and the wife of the high priest of Heliopolis; these pharaohs spent most of Egypt's money on sun temples. The first Pyramid Texts began to arise, giving Ra more and more significance in the journey of the pharaoh through the Duat. During the Middle Kingdom, Ra was affiliated and combined with other chief deities Amun and Osiris. At the time of the New Kingdom of Egypt, the worship of Ra had become grander; the walls of tombs were dedicated to detailed texts that depicted Ra's journey through the underworld. Ra was said to carry the prayers and blessings of the living with the souls of the dead on the sun boat.
The idea that Ra aged with the sun bec
Kingdom of Kush
The Kingdom of Kush or Kush was an ancient kingdom in Nubia, located at the Sudanese and southern Egyptian Nile Valley. The Kushite era of rule in Nubia was established after the Late Bronze Age collapse and the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Egypt. Kush was centered at Napata during its early phase. After Kashta invaded Egypt in the 8th century BC, the monarchs of Kush were the pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt, until they were expelled by the Neo-Assyrian Empire under the rule of Esarhaddon a century later. During classical antiquity, the Kushite imperial capital was located at Meroë. In early Greek geography, the Meroitic kingdom was known as Aethiopia; the Kingdom of Kush with its capital at Meroe persisted until the 4th century AD, when it weakened and disintegrated due to internal rebellion. The seat was captured and burnt to the ground by the Kingdom of Aksum. Afterwards the Nubians established the three Christianized, kingdoms of Nobatia and Alodia; the native name of the Kingdom was recorded in Egyptian as k3š pronounced /kuɫuʃ/ or /kuʔuʃ/ in Middle Egyptian when the term is first used for Nubia, based on the New Kingdom-era Akkadian transliteration as the genitive kūsi.
It is an ethnic term for the native population who initiated the kingdom of Kush. The term is displayed in the names of Kushite persons, such as King Kashta. Geographically, Kush referred to the region south of the first cataract in general. Kush was the home of the rulers of the 25th dynasty; the name Kush, since at least the time of Josephus, has been connected with the biblical character Cush, in the Hebrew Bible, son of Ham. Ham had four sons named: Cush, Put and Mizraim. According to the Bible, Nimrod, a son of Cush, was the founder and king of Babylon, Erech and Calneh, in Shinar; the Bible makes reference to someone named Cush, a Benjamite. Some modern scholars, such as Friedrich Delitzsch, have suggested that the biblical Cush might be linked to the Kassites of the Zagros Mountains. Mentuhotep II, the 21st century BC founder of the Middle Kingdom, is recorded to have undertaken campaigns against Kush in the 29th and 31st years of his reign; this is the earliest Egyptian reference to Kush.
Under Thutmose I, Egypt made several campaigns south. This resulted in their annexation of Nubia circa 1504 BC. After the conquest, Kerma culture was Egyptianized, yet rebellions continued for 220 years until c. 1300 BC. During the New Kingdom, Nubia became a key province of the New Kingdom, economically and spiritually. Indeed, major Pharonic ceremonies were held at Jebel Barkal near Napata; as an Egyptian colony from the 16th century BC, Nubia was governed by an Egyptian Viceroy of Kush. With the disintegration of the New Kingdom around 1070 BC, Kush became an independent kingdom centered at Napata in modern northern Sudan; the extent of cultural/political continuity between the Kerma culture and the chronologically succeeding Kingdom of Kush is difficult to determine. The latter polity began to emerge around 500 years after the end of the Kingdom of Kerma. By 1200 BC, Egyptian involvement in the Dongola Reach was nonexistent. By the 8th century BC, the new Kushite kingdom emerged from the Napata region of the upper Dongola Reach.
The first Napatan king, dedicated his sister to the cult of Amun at the rebuilt Kawa temple, while temples were rebuilt at Barkal and Kerma. A Kashta stele at Elephantine, places the Kushites on the Egyptian frontier by the mid-eighteenth century; this first period of the kingdom's history, the'Napatan', was succeeded by the'Meroitic', when the royal cemeteries relocated to Meroe around 300 BC. The Kushites buried their monarchs along with all their courtiers in mass graves. Archaeologists refer to these practices as the "Pan-grave culture"; this was given its name due to the way. They would put stones around them in a circle. Kushites built burial mounds and pyramids, shared some of the same gods worshiped in Egypt Ammon and Isis. With the worshiping of these gods the Kushites began to take some of the names of the gods as their throne names; the Kush rulers were regarded as guardians of the state religion and were responsible for maintaining the houses of the gods. Some scholars believe; the state would redistribute to the people.
Others believe that most of the society worked on the land and required nothing from the state and did not contribute to the state. Northern Kush seemed to be wealthier than the Southern area. Dental trait analysis of fossils dating from the Meroitic period in Semna, found that they were related to Afroasiatic-speaking populations inhabiting the Nile, Horn of Africa and Canary Islands; the Meroitic skeletons and these ancient and recent fossils were phenotypically distinct from those belonging to recent Niger–Congo, Nilo-Saharan and Khoisan-speaking populations in Sub-Saharan Africa, as well as from the Mesolithic inhabitants of Jebel Sahaba in Nubia. Resistance to the early eighteenth Dynasty Egyptian rule by neighbouring Kush is evidenced in the writings of Ahmose, son of Ebana, an Egyptian warrior who served under Nebpehtrya Ahmose, Djeserkara Amenhotep I and Aakheperkara Thutmose I. At the end of the Second Intermediate Period (mid-sixteenth century BC
In Egyptian mythology, Ptah is the demiurge of Memphis, god of craftsmen and architects. In the triad of Memphis, he is the father of Nefertum, he was regarded as the father of the sage Imhotep. Ptah is an Egyptian deity and considered the demiurge who existed before all other things and, by his will, thought the world into existence, it was first conceived by Thought, realized by the Word: Ptah conceives the world by the thought of his heart and gives life through the magic of his Word. That which Ptah commanded was created, with which the constituents of nature and flora, are contained, he plays a role in the preservation of the world and the permanence of the royal function. In the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty, the Nubian pharaoh Shabaka would transcribe on a stela known as the Shabaka Stone, an old theological document found in the archives of the library of the temple of the god at Memphis; this document has been known as the Memphite Theology, shows the god Ptah, the deity responsible for the creation of the universe by thought and by the word.
Ptah is the patron of craftsmanship, carpenters and sculpture. He bears many epithets that describe his role in ancient Egyptian religion and its importance in society at the time: Ptah the beautiful face Ptah lord of truth Ptah master of justice Ptah who listens to prayers Ptah master of ceremonies Ptah lord of eternity Like many deities of ancient Egypt he takes many forms, through one of his particular aspects or through syncretism of ancient deities of the Memphite region. Sometimes represented as a dwarf and deformed, his popularity would continue to grow during the Late Period. Associated with the god Bes, his worship exceeded the borders of the country and was exported throughout the eastern Mediterranean. Through dissemination by the Phoenicians, we find figures of Ptah in Carthage. Ptah is represented in the guise of a man with green skin, contained in a shroud sticking to the skin, wearing the divine beard, holding a sceptre combining three powerful symbols of ancient Egyptian religion: The Was sceptre The sign of life, Ankh The Djed pillarThese three combined symbols indicate the three creative powers of the god: power and stability.
From the Old Kingdom, he absorbs the appearance of Sokar and Tatenen, ancient deities of the Memphite region. His form of Sokar is found contained in its white shroud wearing the Atef crown, an attribute of Osiris. In this capacity, he represents the patron deity of the necropolis of Saqqara and other famous sites where the royal pyramids were built, he formed with Osiris a new deity called Ptah-Sokar-Osiris. Systematically, statuettes representing the human form, half-human, half-hawk, or in its falcon form of the new deity, began to be placed in tombs to accompany and protect the dead on their journey to the West, his Tatenen form is represented by a young and vigorous man wearing a crown with two tall plumes that surround the solar disk. He thus embodies the underground fire that raises the earth; as such, he was revered by metalworkers and blacksmiths, but he was feared because it was he who caused earthquakes and tremors of the earth's crust. In this form Ptah is the master of ceremonies for Heb Sed, a ceremony traditionally attesting to the first thirty years of the pharaoh's reign.
The god Ptah could correspond with the sun deities Re or Aten during the Amarna period, where he embodied the divine essence with which the sun god was fed to come into existence, to say to be born, according to the Memphite mythological/theological texts. In the holy of holies of his temple in Memphis, as well as in his great sacred boat, he drove in procession to visit the region during major holidays. Ptah was symbolized by two birds with human heads adorned with solar disks, symbols of the souls of the god Re: the Ba; the two Ba are identified as the twin gods Shu and Tefnut and are associated with the djed pillar of Memphis. Ptah is embodied in the sacred bull, Apis. Referred to as a herald of Re, the sacred animal is the link with the god Re from the New Kingdom, he received worship in Memphis at the heart of the great temple of Ptah, upon the death of the animal, was buried with all the honours due to a living deity in the Serapeum of Saqqara. As god of craftsmen, the cult of the god Ptah spread throughout Egypt.
With the major royal projects of the Old Kingdom, the high priests of Ptah were sought after and worked in concert with the vizier, filling the role of chief architect and master craftsman, responsible for the decoration of the royal funerary complexes. In the New Kingdom, the cult of the god would develop in different ways in Memphis, his homeland, but in Thebes, where the workers of the royal tomb honoured him as patron of craftsmen. For this reason, the oratory of Ptah who listens to prayers was built near the site of Deir el-Medina, the village where the workers and craftsmen were housed. At Memphis, the role of intercessor with humans was visible in the appearance of the enclosure that protected the sanctuary of the god. Large ears were carved on the walls. With the Nineteenth Dynasty, his cult grew and he became one of the four great deities of the empire of Ramses, he was worshipped at Pi-Ramesses as master of coronations. With the Third Intermediate Period, Ptah returned to the centre of the monarchy where the coronation of the Pharaoh was held again in his temple.
The Ptolemies continued this tradition, the high priests of Ptah were incr
Thebes, known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located along the Nile about 800 kilometers south of the Mediterranean. Its ruins lie within the modern Egyptian city of Luxor. Thebes was the main city of the fourth Upper Egyptian nome and was the capital of Egypt during the Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom, it was close to the Eastern Desert, with its valuable mineral resources and trade routes. It was the most venerated city of ancient Egypt during its heyday; the site of Thebes includes areas on both the eastern bank of the Nile, where the temples of Karnak and Luxor stand and the city proper was situated. The Egyptian name for Thebes was wꜣs.t, "City of the wꜣs", the sceptre of the pharaohs, a long staff with an animal's head and a forked base. From the end of the New Kingdom, Thebes was known in Egyptian as niwt-'imn, the "City of Amun", the chief of the Theban Triad of deities whose other members were Mut and Khonsu; this name of Thebes appears in the Bible as the "Nōʼ ʼĀmôn" in the Book of Nahum and as "No" mentioned in the Book of Ezekiel and Jeremiah.
Thebes is the latinised form of Koine Greek: Θῆβαι, the hellenized form of the Demotic Egyptian ta Pe, from earlier ta Opet. This was the local name not for the city itself but for the Karnak temple complex on the northeast bank of the city; as early as Homer's Iliad, the Greeks distinguished the Egyptian Thebes as "Thebes of the Hundred Gates" or "Hundred-Gated Thebes", as opposed to the "Thebes of the Seven Gates" in Boeotia, Greece. In the interpretatio graeca, Amun was rendered as Zeus Ammon; the name was therefore translated into Greek as Diospolis, "City of Zeus". To distinguish it from the numerous other cities by this name, it was known as the "Great Diospolis"; the Greek names came into wider use after the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great, when the country came to be ruled by the Macedonian Ptolemaic dynasty. Thebes was located along the banks of the Nile River in the middle part of Upper Egypt about 800 km from the Delta, it was built on the alluvial plains of the Nile Valley which follows a great bend of the Nile.
As a natural consequence, the city was laid in a northeast-southwest axis parallel to the contemporary river channel. Thebes had an area of 93 km2 which included parts of the Theban Hills in the west that culminates at the sacred 420-meter al-Qurn. In the east lies the mountainous Eastern Desert with its wadis draining into the valley. Significant among these wadis is Wadi Hammamat near Thebes, it was used as an overland trade route going to the Red Sea coast. In the fourth Upper Egyptian nome, Thebes was found to have neighboring towns such as Per-Hathor, Djerty, Iuny and Imiotru. According to George Modelski, Thebes had about 40,000 inhabitants in 2000 BC. By 1800 BC, the population of Memphis was down to about 30,000, making Thebes the largest city in Egypt at the time. Historian Ian Morris estimated that by 1500 BC, Thebes may have grown to be the largest city in the world, with a population of about 75,000, a position which it held until about 900 BC, when it was surpassed by Nimrud; the archaeological remains of Thebes offer a striking testimony to Egyptian civilization at its height.
The Greek poet Homer extolled the wealth of Thebes in the Iliad, Book 9: "... in Egyptian Thebes the heaps of precious ingots gleam, the hundred-gated Thebes." More than sixty annual festivals were celebrated in Thebes. The major festivals among these according to the Edfu Geographical Text were: the Beautiful Feast of Opet, the Khoiak, Festival of I Shemu, Festival of II Shemu. Another popular festivity was the halloween-like Beautiful Festival of the Valley. Thebes was inhabited from around 3200 BC, it was the eponymous capital of the fourth Upper Egyptian nome. At this time it was still a small trading post while Memphis served as the royal residence of Old Kingdom pharaohs. Although no buildings survive in Thebes older than the portions of the Karnak temple complex, which may date from the Middle Kingdom, the lower part of a statue of Pharaoh Nyuserre of the 5th Dynasty has been found in Karnak. Another statue, dedicated by the 12th Dynasty king Senusret may have been usurped and re-used, since the statue bears a cartouche of Nyuserre on its belt.
Since seven rulers of the 4th to 6th Dynasties appear on the Karnak king list at the least there was a temple in the Theban area which dated to the Old Kingdom. By 2160 BC, a new line of pharaohs consolidated Lower Egypt and northern parts of Upper Egypt from their capital in Herakleopolis Magna. A rival line based at Thebes ruled the remaining part of Upper Egypt; the Theban rulers were descendants of the prince of Thebes, Intef the Elder. His probable grandson Intef I was the first of the family to claim in life a partial pharaonic titulary, though his power did not extend much further than the general Theban region. By c. 2050 BC, Intef III's son Mentuhotep II, took the Herakleopolitans by force and reunited Egypt once again under one ruler, thereby starting the period now known as the Middle Kingdom. Mentuhotep II ruled for 51 years and built the first mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri, which most served as the inspiration for the and larger temple built next to it by Hat
Ancient Egyptian royal titulary
The royal titulary or royal protocol is the standard naming convention taken by the pharaohs of ancient Egypt. It symbolises worldly power and holy might and acts as a sort of mission statement for the reign of a monarch; the full titulary, consisting of five names, did not come into standard usage until the Middle Kingdom but remained in use as late as the Roman Empire. The Horus name is the oldest form of the pharaoh's name, originating in prehistoric Egypt. Many of the oldest-known Egyptian pharaohs were known only by this title; the Horus name was written in a serekh, a representation of a palace façade. The name of the pharaoh was written in hieroglyphs inside this representation of a palace. An image of the falcon god Horus was perched on top of or beside it. At least one Egyptian ruler, the Second Dynasty pharoah Seth-Peribsen, used an image of the god Set instead of Horus signifying an internal religious division within the country, he was succeeded by Khasekhemwy, who placed the symbols of both Horus above his name.
Thereafter, the image of Horus always appeared alongside the name of the pharaoh. By the time of the New Kingdom, the Horus name was written without the enclosing serekh; the Nebty name was associated with the so-called "heraldic" goddesses of Upper and Lower Egypt: Nekhbet, patron deity of Upper Egypt, represented by a vulture, Wadjet, patron deity of Lower Egypt, represented by a cobra. The name is first definitively used by the First Dynasty pharaoh Semerkhet, though it only became a independent title by the Twelfth Dynasty; this particular name was not framed by a cartouche or serekh, but always begins with the hieroglyphs of a vulture and cobra resting upon two baskets, the dual noun "nebty". Known as the Golden Horus Name, this form of the pharaoh's name featured the image of a Horus falcon perched above or beside the hieroglyph for gold; the meaning of this particular title has been disputed. One belief is that it represents the triumph of Horus over his uncle Seth, as the symbol for gold can be taken to mean that Horus was "superior to his foes".
Gold was associated in the ancient Egyptian mind with eternity, so this may have been intended to convey the pharaoh's eternal Horus name. Similar to the Nebty name, this particular name was not framed by a cartouche or serekh; the pharaoh's throne name, the first of the two names written inside a cartouche, accompanied the title nsw-bity, traditionally interpreted as " of sedge bee" and translated for convenience as "King of Upper and of Lower Egypt", with the sedge and bee being symbols for Upper and Lower Egypt although recent research has thrown this interpretation into doubt. The epithet nb tꜣwy, "Lord of the Two Lands", referring to valley and delta regions of Egypt occurs as well; this was the name given at birth. The name itself was preceded by the title "Son of Ra", written with the hieroglyph of a duck, a homonym for the word meaning "son", adjacent to an image of the sun, a hieroglyph for the chief solar deity Ra, it was first introduced to the set of royal titles in the Fourth Dynasty and emphasizes the king's role as a representative of the solar god Ra.
For women who became pharaoh, the preceding title was interpreted as "daughter" also. Modern historians refer to the ancient kings of Egypt by this name, adding ordinals to distinguish between different individuals bearing the same name. Allen, James P.. Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-77483-3. Dodson, Aidan Mark; the Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Cairo and New York: The American University in Cairo Press and Thames and Hudson. ISBN 978-977-424-878-8. Ronald J. Leprohon; the Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary. Society of Biblical Literature. ISBN 978-1589837355. Gardiner, Alan Henderson. Egyptian Grammar. Oxford: Griffith Institute. Quirke, Stephen G. J.. Who Were the Pharaohs? A History of Their Names with a List of Cartouches. London: British Museum Publications Limited. Schneider, Thomas. "Zur Etymologie der Bezeichnung'König von Ober- und Unterägypten'". Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde.
120: 166–181. Shaw, Garry J.. The Pharaoh, Life at Court and on Campaign. London and New York: Thames and Hudson. Pp. 20–21. Von Beckerath, Jürgen. Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen. Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von Zabern; the Gold name, the Horus name, the Royal Titulary, the Two Ladies and Thutmose I on Digital Egypt
Great Karnak Inscription
The Great Karnak Inscription is an ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic inscription belonging to the 19th dynasty Pharaoh Merneptah. A long epigraph, it was discovered at Karnak in 1828–1829. According to Wilhelm Max Müller, it is "one of the famous standard texts of Egyptology...... One of the greatest desiderata of scholars for many years."The Great Karnak Inscription is located on the west of the east wall of the Cachette Court, in the Precinct of Amun-Re of the Karnak temple complex, in modern Luxor. It runs from the fourth pylon of the great sanctuary to the eighth pylon, it was first identified by Champollion, partly published by Karl Richard Lepsius. It includes a record of the campaigns of this king against the Sea Peoples; the 79-line inscription shows the king's campaigns and eventual return with booty and prisoners. It is the longest surviving continuous monumental text from Egypt, it has been designated KIU 4246 by the Centre Franco-Égyptien d'Étude des Temples de Karnak. Muller, Egyptological Researches