Merneptah Stele

The Merneptah Stele – known as the Israel Stele or the Victory Stele of Merneptah – is an inscription by the ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Merneptah discovered by Flinders Petrie in 1896 at Thebes, now housed in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. The text is an account of Merneptah's victory over the Libyans and their allies, but the last 3 of the 28 lines deal with a separate campaign in Canaan part of Egypt's imperial possessions; the stele is sometimes referred to as the "Israel Stela" because a majority of scholars translate a set of hieroglyphs in line 27 as "Israel". Alternative translations have been advanced but are not accepted; the stela represents the earliest textual reference to Israel and the only reference from ancient Egypt. It is one of four known inscriptions, from the Iron Age, that date to the time of and mention ancient Israel, under this name, the others being the Mesha Stele, the Tel Dan Stele, the Kurkh Monolith; as a result, some consider the stele to be Flinders Petrie's most famous discovery, an opinion with which Petrie himself concurred.

The stele was discovered in 1896 by Flinders Petrie in the ancient Egyptian capital of Thebes, first translated by Wilhelm Spiegelberg. In his "Inscriptions" chapter of Petrie's 1897 publication "Six Temples at Thebes", Spiegelberg described the stele as "engraved on the rough back of the stele of Amenhotep III, removed from his temple, placed back outward, against the wall, in the forecourt of the temple of Merneptah. Owing to the rough surface, the poor cutting, the readings in many places require careful examination... The scene at the top retains its original colouring of yellow and blue. Amun is shown giving a sword to the king, backed by Mut on one side and by Khonsu on the other". Now in the collection of the Egyptian Museum at Cairo, the stele is a black granite slab, over 3 meters high, the inscription says it was carved in the 5th year of Merneptah of the 19th dynasty. Most of the text glorifies Merneptah's victories over enemies from Libya and their Sea People allies, but the final two lines mention a campaign in Canaan, where Merneptah says he defeated and destroyed Ashkalon, Gezer and Israel.

Egypt was the dominant power in the region during the long reign of Merneptah's predecessor, Ramesses the Great, but Merneptah and one of his nearest successors, Ramesses III, faced major invasions. The problems began in Merneptah's 5th year, when a Libyan king invaded Egypt from the west in alliance with various northern peoples. Merneptah achieved a great victory in the summer of that year, the inscription is about this; the final lines deal with an separate campaign in the East, where it seems that some of the Canaanite cities had revolted. Traditionally the Egyptians had concerned themselves only with cities, so the problem presented by Israel must have been something new – attacks on Egypt's vassals in Canaan. Merneptah and Ramesses III fought off their enemies, but it was the beginning of the end of Egypt's control over Canaan – the last evidence of an Egyptian presence in the area is the name of Ramesses VI inscribed on a statue base from Megiddo; the bulk of the inscription deals with Merneptah's victory over the Libyans, but the last 3 of the 28 lines shift to Canaan: The "nine bows" is a term the Egyptians used to refer to their enemies.

Hatti and Ḫurru are Syro-Palestine and Israel are smaller units, Ashkelon and Yanoam are cities within the region. Petrie called upon Wilhelm Spiegelberg, a German philologist in his archaeological team, to translate the inscription. Spiegelberg was puzzled by one symbol towards the end, that of a people or tribe whom Merneptah had victoriously smitten— Petrie suggested that it read "Israel!" Spiegelberg agreed. "Won't the reverends be pleased?" Remarked Petrie. At dinner that evening, Petrie who realized the importance of the find said: "This stele will be better known in the world than anything else I have found." The news of its discovery made headlines. The line which refers to Israel is: While Ashkelon and Yanoam are given the determinative for a city – a throw stick plus three mountains – the hieroglyphs that refer to Israel instead employ the throw stick plus a sitting man and woman over three vertical lines: The determinatives "people" has been the subject of significant scholarly discussion.

As early as 1955, John A. Wilson wrote of the idea that this determinative means the "'ysrỉꜣr" were a people that: "The argument is good, but not conclusive, because of the notorious carelessness of Late-Egyptian scribes and several blunders of writing in this stela"; this sentiment was subsequently built upon by other scholars. According to The Oxford History of the biblical World, this "foreign people" "sign is used by the Egyptians to signify nomadic groups or peoples, without a fixed city-state home, thus implying a seminomadic or rural status for'Israel' at that time." The phrase "wasted, bare of seed" is formulaic, used of defeated nations – it implies that the grain-store of the nation in question has been destroyed, which would result in a famine the following year, incapacitating them as a military threat to Egypt. According to James Hoffmeier, "no Egyptologists would read the signs of a foreign ethnic entity as indicating a foreign land, but a people group.'In contrast to this apparent Israelite statelessness, the oth

Memari railway station

Memari railway station is a Kolkata Suburban Railway station on the Howrah-Bardhaman main line operated by Eastern Railway zone of Indian Railways. It is situated beside National Highway 2 at Memari, Purba Bardhaman district in the Indian state of West Bengal. Number of EMU and passenger trains stop at Memari railway station; the East Indian Railway Company was formed on 1 June 1845, The first passenger train in the eastern section was operated up to Hooghly, on 15 August 1854. On 1 February 1855 the first train ran from Howrah to Raniganj through Howrah–Bardhaman main line. Bandel to Bardhaman rout was opened for traffic on 1 January 1885. Electrification of the Howrah–Bardhaman main line was initiated up to Bandel in 1957, with the 3000 v DC system, the entire Howrah–Bardhaman route including Memari railway station completed with AC system, along with conversion of earlier DC portions to 25 kV AC, in 1958

Salto Santiago Hydroelectric Power Plant

The Salto Santiago Hydroelectric Power Plant is a dam and hydroelectric power plant on the Iguazu River near Santiago in Paraná, Brazil. It is the third dam upstream of the Iguazu Falls and was completed in 1979; the power station is supplied with water by a rock-fill embankment dam. It is operated by Tractebel Energia; the Salto Santiago Dam is 80 metres high, 1,400 metres long and is of rock-fill embankment type, comprising 518,200 cubic metres in concrete structure. The dam's spillways contains nine 21.5-metre wide and 15.3-metre wide radial gates and has a maximum capacity of 24,000 cubic metres per second. The reservoir formed behind the dam contains 4,094,000,000 cubic metres of total storage with a surface area of 208 square kilometres and a catchment area of 43,330 square kilometres; the average flow of the river through the dam is 902 cubic metres per second and the reservoir has a normal operating level of 506 metres. The power plant at the southern end of the dam contains four 355 megawatts hydroelectric generators powered by Francis turbines.

Each turbine has a rated discharge of 346 cubic metres per second and is fed by a 7.6-metre diameter steel penstock which provides a gross hydraulic head of 106 metres. The remaining two penstocks are intended for future generators with a plant expansion; the first generator was commissioned on December 31, 1980, with another in 1981, two in 1982 the last of, commissioned on September 16, 1982. List of power stations in Brazil