SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Mesoamerican chronology

Mesoamerican chronology divides the history of prehispanic Mesoamerica into several periods: the Paleo-Indian, the Archaic, the Preclassic or Formative, the Classic, the Postclassic and Postcolonial. The periodization of Mesoamerica is based on archaeological and modern cultural anthropology research; the endeavor to create cultural histories of Mesoamerica dates to the early twentieth century, with ongoing work by archeologists, ethnohistorians and cultural anthropologists. 10,000–3500 BCE The Paleo-Indian period or era is that which spans from the first signs of human presence in the region, to the establishment of agriculture and other practices and subsistence techniques characteristic of proto-civilizations. In Mesoamerica, the termination of this phase and its transition into the succeeding Archaic period may be reckoned at between 10,000 and 8000 BCE, although this dating is approximate only and different timescales may be used between fields and sub-regions. Before 2600 BCEDuring the Archaic Era agriculture was developed in the region and permanent villages were established.

Late in this era, use of pottery and loom weaving became common, class divisions began to appear. Many of the basic technologies of Mesoamerica in terms of stone-grinding, pottery etc. were established during this period. 2000 BCE–250 CEDuring the Preclassic Era, or Formative Period, large-scale ceremonial architecture, writing and states developed. Many of the distinctive elements of Mesoamerican civilization can be traced back to this period, including the dominance of corn, the building of pyramids, human sacrifice, jaguar-worship, the complex calendar, many of the gods; the Olmec civilization developed and flourished at such sites as La Venta and San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán succeeded by the Epi-Olmec culture between 300–250 BCE. The Zapotec civilization arose in the Valley of Oaxaca, the Teotihuacan civilization arose in the Valley of Mexico, the Maya civilization began to develop in the Mirador Basin and the Epi-Olmec culture in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec expanding into Guatemala and the Yucatán Peninsula.

250–900 CEThe Classic Period was dominated by numerous independent city-states in the Maya region and featured the beginnings of political unity in central Mexico and the Yucatán. Regional differences between cultures grew more manifest; the city-state of Teotihuacan dominated the Valley of Mexico until the early 8th century, but we know little of the political structure of the region because the Teotihuacanos left no written records. The city-state of Monte Albán dominated the Valley of Oaxaca until the late Classic, leaving limited records in their undeciphered script. Sophisticated arts such as stuccowork, sculptural reliefs, mural painting and lapidary developed and spread during the Classic era. In the Maya region, under considerable military influence by Teotihuacan after the "arrival" of Siyaj K'ak' in 378 CE, numerous city states such as Tikal, Calakmul, Copán, Palenque, Cobá, Caracol reached their zeniths; each of these polities was independent, although they formed alliances and sometimes became vassal states of each other.

The main conflict during this period was between Tikal and Calakmul, who fought a series of wars over the course of more than half a millennium. Each of these states declined during the Terminal Classic and were abandoned. 900–1521 CEIn the Postclassic Period many of the great nations and cities of the Classic Era collapsed, although some continued, such as in Oaxaca and the Maya of Yucatán, such as at Chichen Itza and Uxmal. This is sometimes seen as a period of increased warfare; the Postclassic is viewed as a period of cultural decline. However, it was a time of technological advancement in architecture and weaponry. Metallurgy came into use for jewelry and some tools, with new alloys and techniques being developed in a few centuries; the Postclassic was a period of rapid movement and population growth—especially in Central Mexico post-1200—and of experimentation in governance. For instance, in Yucatán,'dual rulership' replaced the more theocratic governments of Classic times, whilst oligarchic councils operated in much of Central Mexico.

It appears that the wealthy pochteca and military orders became more powerful than was the case in Classic times. This afforded some Mesoamericans a degree of social mobility; the Toltec for a time dominated central Mexico in the 9th–10th century collapsed. The northern Maya were for a time united under Mayapan, Oaxaca was united by Mixtec rulers in the 11th–12th centuries; the Aztec Empire arose in the early 15th century and appeared to be on a path to asserting dominance over the Valley of Mexico region not seen since Teotihuacan. Spain was the first European power to contact Mesoamerica and its conquistadores and a large number of native allies conquered the Aztecs. By the 15th century, the Mayan'revival' in Yucatán and southern Guatemala and the flourishing of Aztec imperialism evidently enabled a renaissance of fine arts and science. Examples include the'Pueblan-Mexica' style in pottery, codex illumination, goldwork, the flourishing of Nahua poetry, the botanical institutes established by the Aztec elite.

1521-1821 CEThe Colonial Period was initiated with Spanish conquest, which ended the hegemony of the Aztec Empire. It was accomplished with

Israel–New Zealand relations

Israel–New Zealand relations are the foreign relations between Israel and New Zealand. New Zealand has a long history of support for Israel, voted in favour of the 1947 UN partition resolution, which led to the creation of the State of Israel, despite heavy pressure from the United Kingdom on all Commonwealth nations to abstain on the resolution. New Zealand gave de facto recognition to the State of Israel at the same time as the United Kingdom on 29 January 1949, de jure recognition on 28 July 1950. New Zealand has an honorary consulate in Tel Aviv and Israel has an embassy in Wellington with an honorary consulate in Auckland. New Zealand was accredited to Israel from The Hague in 1986; the accreditation was moved to Ankara, Turkey in February 1996. The New Zealand Trade and Enterprise regional office in Dubai and the NZTE office in Ankara cover Israel. Gad Propper was appointed New Zealand's Honorary Consul to Israel in June 1998. NZ Foreign Minister Phil Goff visited Israel in May 2003. New Zealand's Minister for Research and Technology, Pete Hodgson, visited in November–December 2000.

A delegation of four senior Israeli Foreign Ministry officials traveled to New Zealand for the inaugural New Zealand-Israel Foreign Ministry Consultations in September 2003. A Knesset delegation visited New Zealand in August 2001; the Israeli embassy in Wellington closed in October 2002 due to financial reasons, but reopened in 2010 with Shemi Tzur appointed as the Ambassador to New Zealand. In June 2013 he was replaced by Ambassador Yosef Livne. In 2015 Israel and New Zealand settled a diplomatic dispute that had arisen when New Zealand assigned an ambassador to Israel, slated to be the ambassador to the Palestinians. In September 2014 Israel would not allow Ambassador Jonathan Curr to present his credentials, saying that would violate Israel's "well-known policy" of not receiving diplomats who are received by the Palestinian Authority. New Zealand ended the conflict by appointing separate diplomats to Israel and the Palestinian authority, a move viewed as motivated by its recent election as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and increasing impatience within the council over failure to agree on a UN stance in the Israeli-Palestinian peace process.

In December 2016 Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu instructed Israel's ambassador in New Zealand to return to Israel for consultations, in response to NZ's support for United Nations Security Council Resolution 2334. After the vote, Netanyahu ordered a series of diplomatic steps against countries that co-sponsored the resolution and with whom Israel has diplomatic relations. Israel–New Zealand relations had not been so poor since 2004, when New Zealand imprisoned'Mossad spies' for attempting to fraudulently obtain a New Zealand passport. In February 2017, Israel decided not to return its ambassador to New Zealand and downgraded its diplomatic relations with New Zealand to the level of chargés d'affaires, the lowest level of diplomatic relations. On June 14, 2017, the NZ Foreign Minister Gerry Brownlee confirmed that full bilateral relations had been restored following discreet high-level contacts between the Israeli and New Zealand governments; these contacts involved a telephone conversation between Prime Minister Netanyahu and his New Zealand counterpart Prime Minister Bill English.

English penned a letter expressing regret at the fallout from UN Resolution 2334. Following the letter and phone conversation, the Israeli Foreign Ministry's director-general Yuval Rotem announced that the Israeli Ambassador Itzhak Gerbeg would be returning to Wellington to assume his duties. In 1994 Israel opened a trade office in Auckland and the New Zealand and Israel Trade Association, known as NZITA, was established. In 2002, New Zealand sent about $12.5 million of exports to Israel and received $60.1 million in imports, including fertilisers and soap. By 2005, annual exports from New Zealand to Israel reached NZ$16.834 million. Exports were milk and cream, electronic circuit boards, preserved meat or offal products and medications. Exports from Israel to New Zealand manufactured goods like steam turbines, industrial water heaters, plastic sheets and films, telecommunications equipment, inkjet printers, reached NZ$88.15 million. Since 2001, New Zealand's largest dairy company, is involved in a joint venture with the Israeli cooperative Tnuva.

Agricultural exports to Israel increased in 2005 and visitor visa waivers are in place to increase business travel and tourism. In April 2011, Israel and New Zealand signed a reciprocal deal that allows tourists to work for three months without an additional visa; the deal was signed by the Speaker of the Knesset, Reuven Rivlin and his New Zealand counterpart Lockwood Smith, when Rivlin was visiting New Zealand. On 15 July 2004, New Zealand imposed diplomatic sanctions against Israel, in July 2005 suspended high-level contacts between the two countries, after two Israeli citizens, Uriel Kelman and Eli Cara, were accused of passport fraud in Auckland, they denied belonging to the Mossad, but received a six-month sentence for trying to enter the country illegally and working with organised criminal gangs. Prime Minister Helen Clark cancelled a planned visit to New Zealand by Israeli President Moshe Katzav, delayed approval for a new Israeli ambassador to New Zealand, called the case "far more than simple criminal behaviour by two individuals" which "seriously strained our relationship."Jewish graves in Wellington were vandalised with Swastikas and Nazi slogans carved into and around 16 Jewish graves.

David Zwartz, a leader in the Jewish community in New Zealand, appointed as the Honorary Consul from Israel

Rhagium mordax

The black-spotted longhorn beetle ) is a species of the Lepturinae subfamily in the long-horned beetle family. This beetle is distributed in Albania, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Larvae develop in silver fir, European weeping birch, European beech, the European chestnut. Ischnoceros rusticus is a parasitoid wasp from ichneumonid family that parasite on Rhagium mordax larvae. There are five varieties in species: Rhagium mordax var. altajense Plavilstshikov, 1915 Rhagium mordax var. klenkai Heyrovský, 1914 Rhagium mordax var. mediofasciatum Plavilstshikov, 1936 Rhagium mordax var. morvandicum Pic, 1927 Rhagium mordax var. subdilatatum Pic, 1917