The Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet was a German rocket-powered interceptor aircraft. Designed by Alexander Lippisch, it is the only rocket-powered fighter aircraft to have been operational and the first piloted aircraft of any type to exceed 1000 km/h in level flight, its performance and aspects of its design were unprecedented. German test pilot Heini Dittmar in early July 1944 reached 1,130 km/h, an unofficial flight airspeed record unmatched by turbojet-powered aircraft for a decade. Over 300 Komets were built, but the aircraft proved lackluster in its dedicated role as an interceptor and destroyed between 9 and 18 Allied aircraft against 10 losses. Aside from combat losses many pilots were killed during training. Work on the design started around 1937 under the aegis of the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Segelflug —the German Institute for the study of sailplane flight, their first design was a conversion of the earlier Lippisch Delta IV known as the DFS 39 and used purely as a glider testbed of the airframe.
A larger follow-on version with a small propeller engine started as the DFS 194. This version used wingtip-mounted rudders, which Lippisch felt would cause problems at high speed. Lippisch changed the system of vertical stabilization for the DFS 194's airframe from the earlier DFS 39's wingtip rudders, to a conventional vertical stabilizer at the rear of the aircraft; the design included a number of features from its origins as a glider, notably a skid used for landings, which could be retracted into the aircraft's keel in flight. For takeoff, a pair of wheels, each mounted onto the ends of a specially designed cross-axle, were needed due to the weight of the fuel, but the wheels, forming a takeoff dolly under the landing skid, were released shortly after takeoff; the designers planned to use the forthcoming Walter R-1-203 cold engine of 400 kg thrust, which like the self-contained Walter HWK 109-500 Starthilfe RATO booster rocket unit, used a monopropellant consisting of stabilized HTP known by the name T-Stoff.
Heinkel had been working with Hellmuth Walter on his rocket engines, mounting them in the He 112R's tail for testing – this was done in competition with Wernher von Braun's bi-propellant, alcohol/LOX-fed rocket motors with the He 112 as a test airframe – and with the Walter catalyzed HTP propulsion format for the first purpose-designed, liquid-fueled rocket aircraft, the He 176. Heinkel had been selected to produce the fuselage for the DFS 194 when it entered production, as it was felt that the volatile monopropellant fuel's reactivity with organic matter would be too dangerous in a wooden fuselage structure. Work continued under the code name Projekt X; the division of work between DFS and Heinkel led to problems, notably that DFS seemed incapable of building a prototype fuselage. Lippisch asked to leave DFS and join Messerschmitt instead. On 2 January 1939, he moved with his team and the completed DFS 194 to the Messerschmitt works at Augsburg; the delays caused by this move allowed the engine development to catch up.
Once at Messerschmitt, the team decided to abandon the propeller-powered version and move directly to rocket-power. The airframe was completed in Augsburg and in early 1940 was shipped to receive its engine at Peenemünde-West, one of the quartet of Erprobungsstelle-designated military aviation test facilities of the Reich. Although the engine proved to be unreliable, the aircraft had excellent performance, reaching a speed of 550 km/h in one test. In the Me 163B and -C subtypes, a ram-air turbine on the extreme nose of the fuselage, the backup lead-acid battery inside the fuselage that it charged, provided the electrical power for the radio, the Revi16B, -C, or -D reflector gunsight, the direction finder, the compass, the firing circuits of the cannon, some of the lighting in the cockpit instrumentation. There was an onboard lead/acid battery, but its capacity was limited, as was its endurance, no more than 10 minutes, hence the fitted generator; the airspeed indicator averaged readings from two sources: the pitot tube on the leading edge of the port wing, a small pitot inlet in the nose, just above the top edge of the underskid channel.
There was a further tapping-off of pressure-ducted air from the pitot tube which provided the rate of climb indicator with its source. In early 1941 production of a prototype series, known as the Me 163, began. Secrecy was such that the RLM's "GL/C" airframe number, 8-163, was that of the earlier Messerschmitt Bf 163. Three Bf 163-prototypes were built, it was thought that intelligence services would conclude any reference to the number "163" would be for that earlier design. In May 1941, the first prototype Me 163A, V4, was shipped to Peenemünde to receive the HWK RII-203 engine. By 2 October 1941, Me 163A V4, bearing the radio call sign letters, or Stammkennzeichen, "KE+SW", set a new world speed record of 1,004.5 km/h, piloted by Heini Dittmar, with no apparent damage to the aircraft during the attempt. Some postwar aviation history publications stated that the Me 163A V3 was thought to have set the record; the 1,004 km/h record figure was only surpassed after the war, by the American Douglas D-558-1 on 20 August 1947.
Ten Me 163As were built for further tests. During testing of the prototype aircraft, the jettisonable undercarriage presented a serious problem; the original dollies possessed well-sprung independent suspension for each wheel, as the aircraft took off, the large springs rebounded and threw the dolly upward, striking the aircraft. The production aircraft used much simpler, crossbeam-axled dollies, relied on the landing skid’s oleo-pneumatic strut to absorb
The Yamaha XVS 1100 DragStar, sold as the V-Star 1100 in North America, is a motorcycle manufactured by Yamaha Motor Corporation. It comes in two versions, the XVS1100 Custom and the XVS1100A Classic, the former a more modern style, the latter a more classic style, with rounder edges and is 13 kg heavier; the seat height is lower on the Custom. The 1100, along with its 650 sibling, enjoy a huge following around the world. Aftermarket companies produce a number of items to customize the model. Over the lifespan of the model, changes have been evolutionary, with only minor updates; the DragStar began as the XVS650 in 1997 in Europe, grew in 1999 to include the XVS1100 Custom. The 1100 used a reworked version of the venerable Virago 75-degree, air-cooled v-twin engine, in use since the early 1980s; the Star version offered better torque for the new midsize cruiser bike. The Star carried over the shaft-drive layout from the Virago, but relied on a new suspension and frame, discarding the outboard dual shocks and stressed-member engine arrangement of the Virago in favor of a single-shock and twin downtubes.
Dual Mikuni 37 mm carburetors with throttle-position sensors are used to efficiently meter fuel to the 8.3:1, oversquare engine. The DragStar/V-Star gathered followers early on, which led to the addition in 2000 of the Classic model; as opposed to the Custom's bobbed rear fender, 5 and 3/4 headlight, aluminum rims with spokes, exposed forks, 110 front tire and other custom touches, the Classic had longer fenders, cast magnesium wheels, thicker brake and shift levers, a 7-inch headlight, substantial fork covers and a 130 front tire. A Silverado model, which included such amenities as a windscreen, passenger back rest, soft sidebags was introduced as an upscale model; the V-Star 1100 Classic came with the large fenders which included the floorboards for the rider as a standard item with the rocker shifter pegs. The custom models peg up/down shifter; the customs replaced the standard large front tire with a minute thinner tire in the category of a 90 series or a 110 series to resemble the Harley-Davidson 1200 Sportster.
The 1100 models were sought after machines based on the dimensional parameters of an 1,063 cc engine and 700 lb platform, with 130 series front and 170 series rear tires. Yamaha DragStar Yamaha DragStar 250 XVS250 Yamaha DragStar 650 XVS650/XVS650A Yamaha Motor Co. global site Yamaha Cruiser Australian Site Yamaha Star Motorcycles USA Site
Arcola Mills is a historic house in the unincorporated community of Arcola, United States. Built in 1847, it is considered the third-oldest and largest all-wood-frame house still standing in Minnesota, it was the home of brothers Martin and John Mower, who established one of the first sawmills on the St. Croix River and the community around it; the house and the remnants of the nearby mill were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980 as the John and Martin Mower House and Arcola Mill Site for having local significance in the themes of architecture, exploration/settlement, industry. The property was nominated as an "excellent example" of Greek Revival architecture and for its association with the region's early settlement and lumber industry; the property now operates as a non-profit education center. Arcola Mills is located seven miles north of Minnesota; the house is a two-story wood-frame structure with clapboard siding. It had a simple rectangular footprint of 36 by 50 feet.
The Mowers added additions to the west and south in the 1870s. The east façade of the house, which faces the river, has a full-width porch topped by a deck accessed from the upper floor. Greek Revival elements include corner pilasters and broken pediments at the gable ends; the sawmill was a few hundred feet north of the house. Still standing is a 40-foot stone chimney. A 20th-century summer cottage has been built up against the chimney upon the mill's original foundation. Other remnants include an embankment for a sluiceway. John Mower from Maine, moved to St. Croix Falls, Wisconsin, in 1842 to work in the lumber industry, his brother Martin settled in Stillwater the following year and John soon joined him on the Minnesota side of the river. With three business partners, Martin established the sawmill north of town in 1847. Two of his partners cashed out while John bought into the enterprise; the brothers built their home adjacent to the mill and established the town of Arcola around it for their employees.
Town structures included a general store, a one-room schoolhouse, a boarding house, shops for carpentry and boat-building. John Mower served in the 1854 Minnesota Territorial Legislature and Mower County was named in his honor. Martin Mower worked as the managing owner of the St. Croix Boom Company. John had a wife and children but Martin remained a lifelong bachelor; the original sawmill was powered by a 34-foot-diameter water wheel in an enclosed wheelhouse over a spring-fed stream. In 1856 the Mowers converted to steam power, doubling their annual output. Three years they installed a new steam engine and other equipment, more than doubling their annual output again. By the 1870s, the brothers were engrossed in other endeavors and closed the mill; the house remained in the Mower family, but by the mid-1930s it was vacant when newlyweds Henry and Katharine Van Meier chanced upon it while collecting ferns. They arranged to purchase it for a summer home. Over the years they assembled a collection of small cottages on the 50-acre property for use by friends and artists.
Katharine Van Meier died in the early 1990s, establishing in her will the Arcola Mills Historic Foundation to preserve the property. Volunteers raised funds and had the house restored over the first decade of the 21st century. Arcola Mills now serves as an event venue. From 2010 to 2013 the house hosted a volunteer-run visitor center for the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway, but this partnership with the National Park Service proved economically unfeasible for the Arcola Mills foundation because it could not provide any rental income. National Register of Historic Places listings in Washington County, Minnesota Arcola Mills
Allan Marshall Dailey was a Scottish professional golfer. He won the Roehampton Invitation in 1933 and was subsequently selected for the 1933 Ryder Cup but didn't play in any matches, he finished in a tie for 4th place in the 1938 Open Championship. He was from a golfing family, his father James Russell Dailey was a professional golfer. This list may be incomplete1933 Roehampton Invitation 1935 Dunlop-Southern Tournament 1948 News Chronicle Tournament Note: Dailey only played in The Open Championship. NT = No tournament CUT = missed the half-way cut "T" indicates a tie for a place Ryder Cup: 1933 England–Scotland Professional Match: 1932, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1938 Llandudno International Golf Trophy: 1938
George W. Thompson was a self-taught aviator, is one of the first Coloradan flyers, he was born near Kansas. Thompson built a Mathewson biplane, a Curtiss design, soloed it on January 4, 1911, his early career was working for the Mathewson Auto Company, Colorado. The company name became the Mathewson Aeroplane Company. Thompson made several flights on his first flying day, in the first year, about 100 flights during 1911, he was known to travel with his aircraft throughout Colorado and in Wyoming at county fairs with aerial shows. Thompson made the first flight in Wyoming using a Mathewson plane for the Independence Day celebration in Gillette, Wyoming in 1911. In his short life, he built and flew nine "headless biplanes", he helped to organize the American Federation of Aviators, served as president in 1911-1912. Thompson's primary flights took place at the Sable airstrip, a primitive airfield and auto racing track, located between the Fitzsimons Hospital and the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, the area of the old Stapleton Airport.
For some of his Colorado travels, he disassembled his aircraft and shipped it in a boxcar to his destination. George Thompson made a number of early contributions to Colorado aviation, but his life was cut short at the age of 24 by a crash at the Prowers County Fair at Lamar, Colorado on August 21, 1912. According to the Colorado Aviation Historical Society, during a flight, he hit a treetop, was thrown out and fell about 40 feet to the ground, with the aircraft falling upon him; the New York Times gave a different account, reporting that his airplane "was tipped over by a light breeze" at a height of 200 feet. The Denver Post stated he lost control of his Mathewson biplane at an altitude of 200 feet after he "struck an air pocket" and hit the tree on the way down, his headstone at Olinger Crown Hill Cemetery in Wheat Ridge, Colorado are engraved with the words "George W. Thompson, Colorado's First Aviator". Thompson was inducted into the Colorado Aviation Hall of Fame in its first ceremony of 1969.
Further readingHolmes, Charles W. Editor, Honoree Album of the Colorado Aviation Hall of Fame, The Colorado Aviation Historical Society, 1999, Audubon Media Corp. Audubon, IA. EarlyAviators.org: George Thompson
The Doctor is an 1891 painting by Luke Fildes that depicts a Victorian doctor observing the critical stage in a child's illness while the parents gaze on helplessly from the periphery. It has been used to portray the values of the ideal physician and the inadequacies of the medical profession. Different theories exist as to the painting's origin but it is most based upon Fildes' own experience of the death of his son. Critics have noted that Fildes omitted common medical equipment of his era in order to focus on the relationship between physician and patient; the painting was commissioned by Henry Tate in 1890 as a work of "social realism" on a topic of Fildes' choosing to be displayed in the National Gallery of British Art, now known as the Tate Gallery London. Fildes was paid £3,000 for the work, a sum he felt was too small for such a painting and less than he expected for painting portraits. Two Victorian doctors, Dr Thomas Buzzard and Dr Gustavus Murray, have been associated with the painting, as has the genre of the period in which it was painted.
Fildes had the particular desire "to put on record the status of the doctor in our time". Different theories exist as to the origins of the painting; the most important personal influence was the death of Fildes' first child, his one-year-old son, from typhoid fever on Christmas morning, 1877. Fildes' biographer has described how the boy's death compelled Fildes to paint a picture revolving around the compassionate Dr Murray visiting his dying child; the story was confirmed by Fildes' second son, who described this as Fildes' "quickest painted of his'big' pictures". Documentation of Fildes' work with the homeless reveals that a child was once brought into the studio by a labourer, a scenario which prompted the painting The Widower; this painting included many features seen in The Doctor. Fildes most modelled the characters in the painting on his own family and himself. Observing photographs of himself, Fildes guided his models, who were his friends, his daughter was the prototype of the sick child, a professional model was used for the mother.
The child's resting hand and extended arm may have been drawn from Fildes' older son. Despite reports that doctors visited Fildes in the hope of being used as models, the final painting of the doctor resembles Fildes himself. Paying tribute to his family origins in the fishing industry, Fildes adds a fishing net hanging from the ceiling, his father was shipping agent. The cottage setting has led some to believe that the painting was ordered by Queen Victoria to honour her own physician, Sir James Clark; this alternative account originates in the story about her physician being sent to Balmoral to care for the sick child of a servant. 18th and 19th century concerns by society of the rise of scientific medicine could have influenced the format of the painting. The painting was first exhibited in 1891. Prior to completion, a number of sketches were made which are preserved at the Tate Gallery and depict various alternative compositions such as the doctor being on the right side of the canvas, the child seated rather than lying down, different facial expressions for the doctor.
Fildes built a model cottage to copy after visiting numerous cottages in north-east Scotland, ensuring that the picture included authentic detail of roof rafters, tablecloth and lighting. Particular attention was paid to ensuring the room had a poor, multi-purpose appearance; the focus of the picture is the worried but sympathetic physician and the sick child, with everything else in the shadows. The child had experienced a'crisis', the critical stage of a life-threatening illness. The' dawn' light through the window, hope as the child survived the night; the concentrated focus of the doctor on the child shows the patient as a person and individual and the doctor as a compassionate carer with empathy for the patient's suffering. In 2002, Douglas wrote in the British Medical Journal, "So his manner is all, Fildes captures it forever: the furrowed brow; the parents are insignificant and not central to the picture. A dominating male father gives support to his weaker female wife by extending his arm and resting his hand on her shoulder.
She appears to be crying and praying. He, however, is helpless and peers on at the doctor and child; the artificial light from the lamp on the table and the natural rising sunlight beginning to shine through the single window suggest that the doctor has been in attendance all night. A distressed and modest family is depicted by one small carpet and the washing suspended in a small room. Two mismatched chairs, pressed together, construct a makeshift bed in the labourer's cottage. A couple of scrunched up papers lie on the floor, "most a filled prescription", frustratingly discarded. An missed medicine bottle is placed in the shadow of the lamp and in close proximity to the doctor and his control, not the parents'. Fildes stated that his choice of subject was "to put on record the status of the doctor in our own time", but his depiction of 19th-century healthcare is not accurate. There is no stethoscope, sphygmomanometer, or thermometer in the picture, well-known instruments of physicians in the late 19th century which saved time.
It may be that these instruments were omitted in order to show the doctors' "professional and personal commitment". Fildes does include a pestle and mortar, a cup and a spoon, equipment used before the scientific era of medicine, it has been pointed out that it was unlikely that a Victorian physician would