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Messerschmitt Me 262

The Messerschmitt Me 262, nicknamed Schwalbe in fighter versions, or Sturmvogel in fighter-bomber versions, was the world's first operational jet-powered fighter aircraft. Design work started before World War II began, but problems with engines and top-level interference kept the aircraft from operational status with the Luftwaffe until mid-1944; the Me 262 was faster and more armed than any Allied fighter, including the British jet-powered Gloster Meteor. One of the most advanced aviation designs in operational use during World War II, the Me 262's roles included light bomber and experimental night fighter versions. Me 262 pilots claimed a total of 542 Allied aircraft shot down, although higher claims are sometimes made; the Allies countered its effectiveness in the air by attacking the aircraft on the ground and during takeoff and landing. Strategic materials shortages and design compromises on the Junkers Jumo 004 axial-flow turbojet engines led to reliability problems. Attacks by Allied forces on fuel supplies during the deteriorating late-war situation reduced the effectiveness of the aircraft as a fighting force.

Armament production within Germany was focused on more manufactured aircraft. In the end, the Me 262 had a negligible impact on the course of the war as a result of its late introduction and the small numbers put in operational service. While German use of the aircraft ended with the close of World War II, a small number were operated by the Czechoslovak Air Force until 1951, it heavily influenced several designs, such as Sukhoi Su-9 and Nakajima Kikka. Captured Me 262s were studied and flight tested by the major powers, influenced the designs of post-war aircraft such as the North American F-86 Sabre, MiG-15 and Boeing B-47 Stratojet. Several aircraft survive on static display in museums, there are several built flying reproductions that use modern General Electric J85 engines. Several years before World War II, the Germans foresaw the great potential for aircraft that used the jet engine constructed by Hans Joachim Pabst von Ohain in 1936. After the successful test flights of the world's first jet aircraft—the Heinkel He 178—within a week of the Invasion of Poland to start the war, they adopted the jet engine for an advanced fighter aircraft.

As a result, the Me 262 was under development as Projekt 1065 before the start of World War II. The project originated with a request by the Reichsluftfahrtministerium for a jet aircraft capable of one hour's endurance and a speed of at least 850 km/h. Dr Waldemar Voigt headed the design team, with Messerschmitt's chief of development, Robert Lusser, overseeing. Plans were first drawn up in April 1939, the original design was different from the aircraft that entered service, with wing root-mounted engines, rather than podded ones, when submitted in June 1939; the progression of the original design was delayed by technical issues involving the new jet engine. Because the engines were slow to arrive, Messerschmitt moved the engines from the wing roots to underwing pods, allowing them to be changed more if needed. Since the BMW 003 jets proved heavier than anticipated, the wing was swept by 18.5°, to accommodate a change in the center of gravity. Funding for the jet engine program was initially lacking as many high-ranking officials thought the war could be won with conventional aircraft.

Among those were Hermann Göring, head of the Luftwaffe, who cut the engine development program to just 35 engineers in February 1940. By that time, problems with engine development had slowed production of the aircraft considerably. One acute problem arose with the lack of an alloy with a melting point high enough to endure the high temperatures involved, a problem that by the end of the war had not been adequately resolved; the aircraft made its first successful flight on jet power on 18 July 1942, powered by a pair of Jumo 004 engines, after a November 1941 flight ended in a double flameout. The project aerodynamicist on the design of the Me 262 was Ludwig Bölkow, he designed the wing using NACA airfoils modified with an elliptical nose section. In the design process, these were changed to AVL derivatives of NACA airfoils, the NACA 00011-0.825-35 being used at the root and the NACA 00009-1.1-40 at the tip. The elliptical nose derivatives of the NACA airfoils were used on the horizontal and vertical tail surfaces.

Wings were of single-spar cantilever construction, with stressed skins, varying from 3 mm skin thickness at the root to 1 mm at the tip. To expedite construction, save weight and use less strategic materials, late in the war, wing interiors were not painted; the wings were fastened to the fuselage at four points, using a pair of 20 mm and forty-two 8 mm bolts. In mid-1943, Adolf Hitler envisioned the Me 262 as a ground-attack/bomber aircraft rather than a defensive interceptor; the configuration of a high-speed, light-payload Schnellbomber was intended to penetrate enemy airspace during the expected Allied invasion of France. His edict resulted in the development of the Sturmvogel variant, it is debatable to what extent Hitler's interfere


Holetown, is a small town located in the Caribbean island nation of Barbados. Holetown is located in the parish of Saint James on the sheltered west coast of the island. In 1625, Holetown was the site of initial English settlement of Barbados; the envoy was blown off-course from South America to England and took the opportunity to claim the island for the Kingdom of England. Some personal possessions were left behind and the crew departed Holetown for England. On 17 February 1627 the brother of Captain John Powell aboard the "Olive Blossom" returned with his benefactor, Sir William Courteen, a Dutch-born English merchant trader, fifty other shareholder settlers. A monument erected to commemorate this first landing on the island erroneously records the date as 1605. Since 1977, the town has celebrated the Barbados Holetown Festival to commemorate this landing; the name Holetown comes from the stream, The Hole, which provided a safe landing place for the settlers. Sometimes called Saint James Town, the settlement was, until 1629, the island's only town.

Holetown celebrates the founding of the first five plantations in Barbados, the first major fortification, the first place of Justice, the first Governor's House. The town was involved in the transatlantic trade with Bristol and Boston, although this last was deemed illegal. After Lord Carlisle gained control of Barbados as a protectorate of The Crown, he decided to found his own settlement in the southern part of the island. Carlisle's move gave way to Bridgetown being settled along Carlisle Bay and a shift of the capital for the island to that location; the Island's oldest church, St. James Parish Church, was erected here in 1628, a year after the first settlers landed; the town is the home of McGill University's Bellairs Research Institute. Holetown is located at 13°11′00″N 59°39′00″W. Through Statutory Instrument 1984 No. 141, Road Traffic Act, CAP. 295, ROAD TRAFFIC REGULATIONS, under Schedule Section # 6: The Boundaries of Bridgetown, Speightstown and Oistins are cited as follows: 3) "Holetown: The section of Highway 1 from its junction with Lascelles Road at Limegrove Lifestyle Centre to its junction with Trents Road".

Holetown has been twinned with: – Borough of Haringey, England, United Kingdom Maple Cricket Club "Holetown, Barbados: Settlement Revisited" – Morris Greenidge, 2004 Holetown Chamber of Trade Holetown – Holetown –

Ethiopian Teachers' Association

The Ethiopian Teachers' Association is a trade union in Ethiopia. It is affiliated with Education International; the ETA formed in February 1949 by 32 teachers from Minilik Senior Secondary School, located in Addis Abba, the capital of Ethiopia. The ETA was named Teacher’s Union but in 1965 the association began to be known nationwide and as a result became known as Ethiopian Teachers’ Association; the ETA has support from UNESCO, UNICEF, Education International, International Organization for Development of Freedom of Education, World Teachers’ Organization, ILO, United Nation Human Rights Commission, African Education Association for Development, Teachers’ Associations of Sweden, Switzerland and the UK. “The Ethiopian Teachers’ Association unifies all teachers and education personnel in Ethiopia." The ICFTU reports ongoing difficulties and harassment of trade union members by government security forces, notes the ETA. Dr. Taye Woldesemayat, president of the ETA, was sentenced to 15 years' imprisonment in 1996, but was released from prison in May 2002 after 6 years.

In 2005, security forces occupied the ETA headquarters in Addis Ababa for two weeks, taking vital documents and equipment, detained six members. Since ETA members have been under persistent attack, with more than 20 teachers dismissed for supporting opposition political parties. Another act of government harassment started in 1993, when the Ethiopian government created a splinter group with close ties to itself, known as the "New ETA", began to redirect the ETA’s union dues to it; the original group fought this act in court, twice succeeding in getting the High Court to overturn the government's act in 2006, although these judgments were never enforced. However in a ruling announced 21 June 2007, the Federal High Court ruled against the original ETA, ordered the ETA to hand over property, other assets, its name. However, harassment of current and former members by the government continues. Tilahun Ayalew, chairman of the Dangila chapter of the ETA and coordinator of the program "Education for All", was detained by police from December 2007 to March 2008.

He reported that he was imprisoned and tortured at Bahir Dar for three to four days before being transferred to a police station in Addis Ababa, where police again tortured him. The Federal First Instance Court released him on a habeas corpus petition, citing the lack of formal charges. However, shortly after seeing his family upon release, Tilahun disappeared and his whereabouts remained unknown at the end of 2008. Another victim was Anteneh Getnet, chairman of the original ETA in Addis Ababa and an ETA coordinator, arrested in 2006 on charges of being a member of the Ethiopian Patriotic Front an outlawed armed group operating in the Amhara Region; the Federal High Court denied his release. After a few additional trial appearances, he disappeared in March, his whereabouts remained unknown at year's end. Anteneh was first detained in 2006 for over two months on charges of instigating violence in the 2005 elections, alleged that he was tortured during that incarceration. Trade unions in Ethiopia ICTUR.

Trade Unions of the World. London, UK: John Harper Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9543811-5-8. ILO interview with Taye Woldesemayat


Geb was the Egyptian god of the Earth and a member of the Ennead of Heliopolis. He had a viper around his head and was thus considered the father of snakes, it was believed in ancient Egypt that Geb's laughter created earthquakes and that he allowed crops to grow. The name was pronounced as such from the Greek period onward and was read as Seb or some guess as Keb; the original Egyptian was "Seb"/"Keb". It was spelled with - k-point; the latter initial root consonant occurs once in the Middle Kingdom Coffin Texts, more in 21st Dynasty mythological papyri as well as in a text from the Ptolemaic tomb of Petosiris at Tuna El-Gebel or was written with initial hard -k-, as e.g. in a 30th Dynasty papyrus text in the Brooklyn Museum dealing with descriptions of and remedies against snakes. The oldest representation in a fragmentary relief of the god, was as an anthropomorphic bearded being accompanied by his name, dating from king Djoser's reign, 3rd Dynasty, was found in Heliopolis. In times he could be depicted as a ram, a bull or a crocodile.

Geb was feared as father of snakes. In a Coffin Texts spell Geb was described as father of the snake Nehebkau. In mythology, Geb often occurs as a primeval divine king of Egypt from whom his son Osiris and his grandson Horus inherited the land after many contendings with the disruptive god Set and killer of Osiris. Geb could be regarded as personified fertile earth and barren desert, the latter containing the dead or setting them free from their tombs, metaphorically described as "Geb opening his jaws", or imprisoning those there not worthy to go to the fertile North-Eastern heavenly Field of Reeds. In the latter case, one of his otherworldly attributes was an ominous jackal-headed stave rising from the ground onto which enemies could be bound. In the Heliopolitan Ennead, Geb is the husband of Nut, the sky or visible daytime and nightly firmament, the son of the earlier primordial elements Tefnut and Shu, the father to the four lesser gods of the system – Osiris, Seth and Nephthys. In this context, Geb was believed to have been engaged with Nut and had to be separated from her by Shu, god of the air.

In mythological depictions, Geb was shown as a man reclining, sometimes with his phallus still pointed towards Nut. Geb and Nut together formed the permanent boundary between the primeval waters and the newly created world; as time progressed, the deity became more associated with the habitable land of Egypt and as one of its early rulers. As a chthonic deity he became associated with the underworld, fresh waters and with vegetation – barley being said to grow upon his ribs – and was depicted with plants and other green patches on his body, his association with vegetation and sometimes with the underworld and royalty brought Geb the occasional interpretation that he was the husband of Renenutet, a minor goddess of the harvest and mythological caretaker of the young king in the shape of a cobra, who herself could be regarded as the mother of Nehebkau, a primeval snake god associated with the underworld. He is equated by classical authors as the Greek Titan Cronus. Ptah and Ra, creator deities begin the list of divine ancestors.

There is speculation between Shu and Geb and, the first god-king of Egypt. The story of how Shu and Nut were separated in order to create the cosmos is now being interpreted in more human terms. Between the father-son jealousy and Shu rebelling against the divine order, Geb challenges Shu's leadership. Geb takes Tefnut, as his chief queen, separating Shu from his sister-wife. Just as Shu had done to him. In the book of the Heavenly Cow, it is implied. After Geb passed on the throne to Osiris, his youngest son, he took on a role of a judge in the Divine Tribunal of the gods; some Egyptologists have stated that Geb was associated with a mythological divine creator goose who had laid a world egg from which the sun and/or the world had sprung. This theory is assumed to be incorrect and to be a result of confusing the divine name "Geb" with that of a Whitefronted Goose called gb: "lame one, stumbler"; this bird-sign is used only as a phonogram. An alternative ancient name for this goose species was trp meaning similarly'walk like a drunk','stumbler'.

The Whitefronted Goose is never found as a cultic symbol or holy bird of Geb. The mythological creator'goose' referred to above, was called Ngg wr "Great Honker" and always depicted as a Nilegoose/Foxgoose who ornithologically belongs to a separate genus and whose Egyptian name was smn, Coptic smon. A coloured vignet irrefutably depicts a Nile Goose with an opened beak in a context of solar creation on a mythological papyrus dating from the 21st Dynasty. Similar images of this divine bird are to be found on temple walls, showing a scene of the king standing on a papyrus raft and ritually plucking papyrus for the Theban god Amun-Re-Kamutef; the latter Theban creator god could never in a Whitefronted Goose. In Underworld Books a diacrit

Collared whitestart

The collared whitestart known as the collared redstart, is a tropical New World warbler endemic to the mountains of Costa Rica and western-central Panama. The collared whitestart is around 13 centimetres in length with a weight of 10.5 grams. It has a chestnut crown bordered with black, a black forehead; the rest of the upper parts are slaty black, the tail is black with white edges, hence the bird's name: "start" is an old English word for "tail". The face and underparts are bright yellow, with a black band across the breast; the sexes are similar, but young birds are duller, with a browner back, weakly yellow underparts, the head slate-coloured, with no yellow on the face or red on the crown. The call is a sharp pit, the song is a mixture of slurred whistles and trills; the collared whitestart feeds on insects fanning its striking tail as it pursues its prey. It will join mixed feeding flocks, will follow cattle and humans for the insects they flush; the roofed nest has a round side entrance and is built on the ground or a steep bank, hidden amongst rocks, tufts of grass or under a fallen log.

It is constructed from strips of bark, plant fibres and grass. From March to May, the female will lay 2 or 3 white or cream eggs that are speckled with fine brown spots. Incubation lasts about two weeks, but other nesting details are unknown; the collared whitestart is common at heights between 1500 m and the timberline in mossy mountain forests, second growth, adjacent pastures. Curson and Beadle, New World Warblers ISBN 0-7136-3932-6 Stiles and Skutch, A guide to the birds of Costa Rica ISBN 0-8014-9600-4 Media related to Myioborus torquatus at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Myioborus torquatus at Wikispecies

Belview, Minnesota

Belview is a city in Redwood County, United States. The population was 384 at the 2010 census. A post office called Belview has been in operation since 1887. Belview was platted in 1889; the name Belview is derived from French meaning "beautiful view". Belview was incorporated in 1893. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.95 square miles, all of it land. Belview lies at the intersection of County Roads 7 and 9: County Road 7 runs north-south, connecting Belview with Sacred Heart to the north and Seaforth to the south. Minnesota State Highways 19 and 67 lie a few miles south of Belview at an intersection with County Road 7. County Road 9 runs east-west, connecting Belview with Delhi to the Echo to the west; as of the census of 2010, there were 384 people, 169 households, 91 families living in the city. The population density was 404.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 177 housing units at an average density of 186.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.2% White, 0.5% Asian, 1.3% from two or more races.

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.3% of the population. There were 169 households of which 24.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.0% were married couples living together, 7.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 46.2% were non-families. 40.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 30.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.12 and the average family size was 2.87. The median age in the city was 48.6 years. 18.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 54.9 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 155 households and 93 families living in the city; the population density was 436.1 per square mile. There were 170 housing units at an average density of 179.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.06% White, 1.70% Asian, 0.24% from two or more races. There were 155 households of which 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.8% were married couples living together, 9.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.0% were non-families.

38.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 25.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 3.13. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.1% under the age of 18, 5.3% from 18 to 24, 22.6% from 25 to 44, 15.3% from 45 to 64, 33.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $32,500, the median income for a family was $42,857. Males had a median income of $27,188 versus $22,500 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,105. None of the families and 3.1% of the population were living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and 6.7% of those over 64