Christian eschatology is a major branch of study within Christian theology dealing with the "last things." Eschatology, from two Greek words meaning "last" and "study", is the study of'end things', whether the end of an individual life, the end of the age, the end of the world or the nature of the Kingdom of God. Broadly speaking, Christian eschatology is the study concerned with the ultimate destiny of the individual soul and the entire created order, based upon biblical texts within the Old and New Testament. Christian eschatology looks to study and discuss matters such as death and the afterlife and Hell, the second coming Jesus, the resurrection of the dead, the rapture, the tribulation, the end of the world, the Last Judgment, the New Heaven and New Earth in the world to come. Eschatological passages are found in many places in the Bible, both in the Old and the New Testaments. There are many extrabiblical examples of eschatological prophecies, as well as church traditions. Eschatology is an ancient branch of study in Christian theology, informed by Biblical texts such as the Olivet discourse, The Sheep and the Goats, other discourses of end times by Jesus, with the doctrine of the Second Coming discussed by Paul the Apostle and Ignatius of Antioch given more consideration by the Christian apologist, Justin Martyr.
Treatment of eschatology continued in the West in the teachings of Tertullian, was given fuller reflection and speculation soon after by Origen. The word was used first by the Lutheran theologian Abraham Calovius but only came into general usage in the 19th century; the growing modern interest in eschatology is tied to developments in Anglophone Christianity. Puritans in the 18th and 19th centuries were interested in a postmillennial hope which surrounded Christian conversion; this would be contrasted with the growing interest in premillennialism, advocated by dispensational figures such as J. N. Darby. Both of these strands would have significant influences on the growing interests in eschatology in Christian missions and in Christianity in West Africa and Asia. However, in the 20th century, there would be a growing number of German scholars such as Jürgen Moltmann and Wolfhart Pannenberg who would be interested in eschatology. In the 1800s, a group of Christian theologians inclusive of Ellen G. White, William Miller and Joseph Bates began to study eschatological implications revealed in the Book of Daniel and the Book of Revelation.
Their interpretation of Christian eschatology resulted in the founding of the Seventh-day Adventist church. The following approaches arose from the study of Christianity's most central eschatological document, the Book of Revelation, but the principles embodied in them can be applied to all prophecy in the Bible, they are by no means mutually exclusive and are combined to form a more complete and coherent interpretation of prophetic passages. Most interpretations fit into a combination, of these approaches; the alternate methods of prophetic interpretation and Preterism which came from Jesuit writings, were brought about to oppose the Historicism interpretation, used from Biblical times that Reformers used in teaching that the Antichrist was the Papacy or the power of the Roman Catholic Church. Preterism is a Christian eschatological view that interprets some or all prophecies of the Bible as events which have happened; this school of thought interprets the Book of Daniel as referring to events that happened from the 7th century BC until the first century AD, while seeing the prophecies of Revelation as events that happened in the first century AD.
Preterism holds that Ancient Israel finds its continuation or fulfillment in the Christian church at the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70. Preterists and non-preterists have agreed that the Jesuit Luis de Alcasar wrote the first systematic preterist exposition of prophecy—Vestigatio arcani sensus in Apocalypsi —during the Counter-Reformation. Historicism, a method of interpretation of Biblical prophecies, associates symbols with historical persons, nations or events, it can result in a view of progressive and continuous fulfillment of prophecy covering the period from Biblical times to the Second Coming. All Protestant Reformers from the Reformation into the 19th century held historicist views. In Futurism, parallels may be drawn with historical events, but most eschatological prophecies are chiefly referring to events which have not yet been fulfilled, but will take place at the end of the age and the end of the world. Most prophecies will be fulfilled during a global time of chaos known as the Great Tribulation and afterwards.
Futurist beliefs have a close association with Premillennialism and Dispensationalism. Futurist beliefs were presented in the Left Behind series. Idealism in Christian eschatology is an interpretation of the Book of Revelation that sees all of the imagery of the book as symbols. Jacob Taubes writes that idealist eschatology came about as Renaissance thinkers began to doubt that the Kingdom of Heaven had been established on earth, or would be established, but still believed in its establishment. Rather than the Kingdom of Heaven being present in society, it is established subjectively for the individual. F. D. Maurice interpreted the Kingdom of Heaven idealistically as a symbol representing society's general improvement, instead of a physical and political kingdom. Karl Barth interprets eschatology as representing existential truths t
Apocalypticism is the religious belief that there will be an apocalypse, a term which referred to a revelation, but now refers to the belief that the end of the world is imminent within one's own lifetime. This belief is accompanied by the idea that civilization will soon come to a tumultuous end due to some sort of catastrophic global event. Apocalypticism is conjoined with the belief that esoteric knowledge that will be revealed in a major confrontation between good and evil forces, destined to change the course of history. Apocalypses can be viewed as good, ambiguous or neutral, depending on the particular religion or belief system promoting them, they can appear as a personal or group tendency, an outlook or a perceptual frame of reference, or as expressions in a speaker's rhetorical style. Some scholars believe that Jesus' apocalyptic teachings were the central message Jesus intended to impart, more central than his messianism. Various Christian eschatological systems have developed, providing different frameworks for understanding the timing and nature of apocalyptic predictions.
Some like dispensational premillennialism tend more toward an apocalyptic vision, while others like postmillennialism and amillennialism, while teaching that the end of the world could come at any moment, tend to focus on the present life and contend that one should not attempt to predict when the end should come, though there have been exceptions such as postmillennialist Jonathan Edwards, who estimated that the end times would occur around the year 2000. The gospels portray Jesus as an apocalyptic prophet, described by himself and by others as the Son of Man – translated as the Son of Humanity – and hailing the restoration of Israel. Jesus himself, as the Son of God, a description used by himself and others for him, was to rule this kingdom as lord of the Twelve Apostles, the judges of the twelve tribes. Albert Schweitzer emphasized that Jesus was an apocalyptic prophet, preparing his fellow Jews for the imminent end of the world. Many historians concur that Jesus was an apocalyptic prophet, most notably Paula Fredriksen, Bart Ehrman, John P. Meier.
E. P. Sanders portrays Jesus as expecting to assume the "viceroy" position in God's kingdom, above the Apostles, who would judge the twelve tribes, but below God, he concludes, that Jesus seems to have rejected the title Messiah, he contends that the evidence is uncertain to whether Jesus meant himself when he referred to the Son of Man coming on the clouds as a divine judge, further states that biblical references to the Son of Man as a suffering figure are not genuine. The preaching of John was, "Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand", Jesus taught this same message. Additionally, Jesus spoke of the signs of "the close of the age" in the Olivet Discourse in Matthew 24, near the end of which he said, "his generation will not pass away until all these things take place". Interpreters have understood this phrase in a variety of ways, some saying that most of what he described was in fact fulfilled in the destruction of the Temple in the Roman Siege of Jerusalem, some that "generation" should be understood instead to mean "race" among other explanations.
Other scholars such as Ehrman and Sanders accept that Jesus was mistaken, that he believed the end of the world to be imminent. "We make sense of these pieces of evidence if we think that Jesus himself told his followers that the Son of Man would come while they still lived. The fact that this expectation was difficult for Christians in the first century helps prove that Jesus held it himself. We note that Christianity survived this early discovery that Jesus had made a mistake well." There are a few recorded instances of apocalypticism leading up to the year 1000. However they rely on one source, Rodulfus Glaber. In Western Europe, during the year 1000, Christian philosophers held many debates on when Jesus was born and when the apocalypse would occur; this caused confusion between the common people on whether or not the apocalypse would occur at a certain time. Because both literate and illiterate people accepted this idea of the apocalypse, they could only accept what they heard from religious leaders on when the disastrous event would occur.
Religious leader, Abbo II of Metz believed that Jesus was born 21 years after year 1, accepted by close circles of his followers. Abbot Heriger of Lobbes, argued that the birth of Jesus occurred not during the year 1 but rather during the 42nd year of the common era. Many scholars came to accept that the apocalypse would occur sometime between 979-1042. Although there were debates about the apocalypse itself, few people understood the consequences of what would happen if the apocalypse occurred. Few documents from around the year 1000 exist to interpret what people thought would happen, because of this, many scholars are unaware of what people felt. People do understand that the idea of apocalypticism has influenced several Western Christian European leaders into social reform. With influences by the German ruler Otto III, the Sibyls, Abbot Adso of Montier-en-Dier, many of the people under these influential figures felt that their rule was a sign of spiritual preparation for the apocalypse itself.
It is suggested that because of the influence and reputation of these people, many wanted to follow suit and believe that the apocalypse would occur because their leaders felt it to be true. The Fifth Monarchy Men were active from 1649 to 1661 during the Inter
Kali Yuga in Hinduism is the last of the four stages the world goes through as part of a'cycle of yugas' described in the Sanskrit scriptures. The other ages are called Satya Yuga, Treta Yuga, Dvapara Yuga. Kali Yuga is associated with the demon Kali; the "Kali" of Kali Yuga means "strife", "discord", "quarrel" or "contention". According to Puranic sources, Krishna's departure marks the end of Dvapara Yuga and the start of Kali Yuga, dated to 17/18 February 3102 BCE. According to the Surya Siddhanta, Kali Yuga began at midnight on 18 February 3102 BCE; this is considered the date on which Lord Krishna left the earth to return to Vaikuntha. This information is placed at the temple of the place of this incident. According to the astronomer and mathematician Aryabhatta the Kali Yuga started in 3102 BCE, he finished his book "Aryabhattiya" in 499 CE, in which he gives the exact year of the beginning of Kali Yuga. He writes that he wrote the book in the "year 3600 of the Kali Age" at the age of 23; as it was the 3600th year of the Kali Age when he was 23 years old, given that Aryabhatta was born in 476 CE, the beginning of the Kali Yuga would come to 3102 BCE.
According to KD Abhyankar, the starting point of Kali Yuga is an rare planetary alignment, depicted in the Mohenjo-Daro seals. Going by this alignment the year 3102 BCE is off; the actual date for this alignment is 7 February of 3104 BCE. There is sufficient proof to believe that Vrdhha Garga knew of precession at least by 500 BCE. Garga had calculated the rate of precession to within 30 % of; the common belief until Swami Sri Yukteswar Giri had analyzed the dating of the Yuga cycles was that the Kali Yuga would last for 432,000 years after the end of the Dwapara Yuga. This originated during the puranic times when the famous astronomer Aryabhatta recalculated the timeline by artificially inflating the traditional 12,000 year figure with a multiplication of 360, represented as the number of "human years" that make up a single "divine year"; this was a purposeful miscalculation due to conflicts with one of the preeminent astronomer of the time Brahmagupta. However, both the Mahabharata and the Manu Smriti have the original value of 12,000 years for one half of the Yuga cycle.
Contemporary analysis of historical data from the last 11 millennia matches with the indigenous Saptarishi Calendar. The length of the transitional periods between each Yuga is unclear, can only be estimated based on historical data of past cataclysmic events. Using a 300 year period for transitions, Kali Yuga has either ended in the past 100 to 200 years, or is to end soon sometime in the next 100 years. Other authors, such as the revered Hindu guru Swami Sri Yukteswar in his book The Holy Science, as well as the influential Yogi Paramhansa Yogananda, believe that the Kali Yuga has ended, that we are now in an ascending Dvapara Yuga; this calculation is supported by modern day spiritual masters such as Sadhguru Jaggi Vasudev. Hindus believe that human civilization degenerates spiritually during the Kali Yuga, referred to as the Dark Age because in it people are as far away as possible from God. Hinduism symbolically represents morality as an Indian bull. Common attributes and consequences are spiritual bankruptcy, mindless hedonism, breakdown of all social structure and materialism, unrestricted egotism and maladies of mind and body.
In Satya Yuga, the first stage of development, the bull has four legs, but in each age morality is reduced by one quarter. By the age of Kali, morality is reduced to only a quarter of that of the golden age, so that the bull of Dharma has only one leg; the Mahabharata War and the decimation of Kauravas thus happened at the "Yuga-Sandhi", the point of transition from one yuga to another. The scriptures mention Sage Narada to have momentarily intercepted the demon Kali on his way to the Earth when Duryodhana was about to be born in order to make him an embodiment of arishadvargas and adharma in preparation of the era of decay in values and the consequent havoc. A discourse by Markandeya in the Mahabharata identifies some of the attributes of Kali Yuga. In relation to rulers, it lists: Rulers will become unreasonable: they will levy taxes unfairly. Rulers will no longer see it as their duty to promote spirituality, or to protect their subjects: they will become a danger to the world. People will start seeking countries where wheat and barley form the staple food source.
"At the end of Kali-yuga, when there exist no topics on the subject of God at the residences of so-called saints and respectable gentlemen of the three higher varnas and when nothing is known of the techniques of sacrifice by word, at that time the Lord will appear as the supreme chastiser." (Srimad-Bhagavatam With regard to human relationships, Markandeya's discourse says: Avarice and wrath will be common. Humans will display animosity towards each other. Ignorance of dharma will occur. People will see nothing wrong in that. Lust will be viewed as acceptable and sexual intercourse will be seen as the central requirement of life. Sin will increase exponentially, while virtue will cease to flourish. People will become addicted to intoxicating drugs. Gurus will no longer be respected and their students will attempt
The Sheep and the Goats
The Sheep and the Goats or "the Judgment of the Nations" is a pronouncement of Jesus recorded in chapter 25 of Matthew's Gospel in the New Testament. It is sometimes characterised as a parable, although unlike most parables it does not purport to relate a story of events happening to other characters. According to Anglican theologian Charles Ellicott, "we speak of the concluding portion of this chapter as the parable of the Sheep and the Goats, but it is obvious from its beginning that it passes beyond the region of parable into that of divine realities, that the sheep and goats form only a subordinate and parenthetic illustration"; this portion concludes the section of Matthew's Gospel known as the Olivet Discourse and precedes Matthew's account of Jesus' passion and resurrection. This story and the parable of the ten virgins and the parable of the talents in the same chapter "have a common aim, as impressing on the disciples the necessity at once of watchfulness and of activity in good, but each has... a distinct scope of its own".
The text of the passage appears in Matthew's Gospel and is the final portion of a section containing a series of parables. From Matthew 25:31–46: "But when the Son of Man comes in his glory, all the holy angels with him he will sit on the throne of his glory. Before him all the nations will be gathered, he will separate them one from another, as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats, he will set the goats on the left. The King will tell those on his right hand, ‘Come, blessed of my Father, inherit the Kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world. I was thirsty, you gave me drink. I was a stranger, you took me in. I was naked, you clothed me. I was sick, you visited me. I was in prison, you came to me.’ “Then the righteous will answer him, saying, ‘Lord, when did we see you hungry, feed you. When did we see you as a stranger, take you in; when did we see you sick, or in prison, come to you?’ “The King will answer them, ‘Most I tell you, because you did it to one of the least of these my brothers, you did it to me.’ Then he will say to those on the left hand, ‘Depart from me, you cursed, into the eternal fire, prepared for the devil and his angels.
This passage directly addresses, in Jesus's own words, one of the most vexed questions in Christian theology – who goes to Heaven, why. A related question is whether only orthodox Christians may be saved, or whether'virtuous pagans' may; the three main theological positions in this regard are: Justification by Works: The doctrine that one can be saved by doing good works. Justification by Faith: The doctrine that one is saved by, only by, faith; this doctrine is associated with Martin Luther and his successors. Predestination: The doctrine that God has pre-decided who will be saved and who will be damned, using criteria in principle unknowable to human beings; this doctrine is associated with Calvinism and arguably St. Augustine; this parable seems on a natural reading to support justification by works. The'sheep' are saved because of the good deeds they have done, independent of any framework of knowledge or belief, or hope of future benefit; some Calvinist theologians in particular have therefore attempted to get out from under the passage either by restricting the range of the phrase'the least of these my brethren', or denying that the passage has any literal application to the after-life.
The first option seems to be unnatural and to go against the spirit of the parable of the Good Samaritan. As associate professor of Biblical Languages at Union Presbyterian Seminary, E. Carson Brisson, says, "Let it be noted that this list of afflicted and needy individuals is, at first glance, a list of the ones who appear to be bereft of God's favor; these are ‘the least.’ These are ‘other.’" The first option does not support predestination, but at most might indicate, that unbelievers are to be judged by how well they treat believers. Believers in justification by faith may still accept that good works may function as a test or measure of belief. See James 2:14-17, which appears to indirectly reference this parable: What does it profit, my brethren, if someone says he has faith but does not have works? Can faith save him? If a brother or sister is naked and destitute of daily food, one of you says to them, “Depart in peace, be warmed and filled,” but you do not give them the things which are needed for the body, what does it profit?
Thus faith by itself, if it does not have works, is dead. Christian eschatology Matthew 25 Second Coming "Sheep Go to Heaven" by Cake Works of mercy Jerusalem the Emanation of the Giant Albion, plate 3
Resurrection of the dead
Resurrection of the dead, or resurrection from the dead is used in the doctrine and theology of various religions to describe an event by which a person, or people are resurrected. Various forms of this concept can be found in Christian, Islamic and Zoroastrian eschatology. In some Neopagan views this refers to reincarnation between the three realms: Life and the Realm of the Divine. In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, the three common usages for this term pertain to the resurrection of Jesus. In Judaism and Samaritanism, it is believed that the God of Israel will one day give teḥiyyat ha-metim to the righteous during the Messianic Age, they will live forever in the world to come. Jews base this belief on the prophecies contained in the Hebrew Bible: the Book of Isaiah, Book of Ezekiel, Book of Daniel. Samaritans base it on a passage called the Ha'azeinu in the Samaritan Pentateuch, since they only accept the Torah and reject the rest of the Hebrew Bible. Jews believe that both the righteous and the wicked who are deceased will be resurrected and judged by God.
They believe that the righteous Jews and the Noahides will have eternal life on earth in the world to come, while the wicked will be punished and executed. Samaritans believe that only the righteous of Israel will be resurrected and given eternal life on earth; the resurrection of the dead is a core belief of the Mishnah. The belief in resurrection is expressed on all occasions in the Jewish liturgy. Maimonides made it the last of his Thirteen Articles of Faith: "I believe that there will take place a revival of the dead at a time which will please the Creator, blessed be His name."There are three explicit examples in the Hebrew Bible of people being resurrected from the dead: The prophet Elijah prays and God raises a young boy from death Elisha raises the son of the Shunammite woman. The concept of resurrection of the physical body is found in 2 Maccabees, according to which it will happen through recreation of the flesh. Resurrection of the dead appears in detail in the extra-canonical books of Enoch, in Apocalypse of Baruch, 2 Esdras.
According to the British scholar in ancient Judaism Philip R. Davies, there is "little or no clear reference … either to immortality or to resurrection from the dead" in the Dead Sea scrolls texts. Both Josephus and the New Testament record that the Sadducees did not believe in an afterlife, but the sources vary on the beliefs of the Pharisees; the New Testament claims that the Pharisees believed in the resurrection, but does not specify whether this included the flesh or not. According to Josephus, who himself was a Pharisee, the Pharisees held that only the soul was immortal and the souls of good people will be reincarnated and "pass into other bodies," while "the souls of the wicked will suffer eternal punishment." Paul the Apostle, a Pharisee, said that at the resurrection what is "sown as a natural body is raised a spiritual body." Jubilees refers only to a more general idea of an immortal soul. Harry Sysling, in his 1996 study of Teḥiyyat Ha-Metim in the Palestinian Targumim, identifies a consistent usage of the term "second death" in texts from the Second Temple period and early rabbinical writings, but not in the Hebrew Bible.
"Second death" is identified with judgment, followed by resurrection from Gehinnom at the Last Day. In the First Epistle to the Corinthians chapter 15, ἀνάστασις νεκρῶν is used for the resurrection of the dead. In verses 54–55, Paul the Apostle is conveyed as quoting from the Book of Hosea 13:14 where he speaks of the abolition of death. In the Pauline epistles of the New Testament, Paul the Apostle wrote that those who will be resurrected to eternal life will be resurrected with spiritual bodies, which are imperishable. Though Paul does not explicitly establish that immortality is exclusive to physical bodies, some scholars understand that according to Paul, flesh is to play no part, as we are made immortal; the Gospel of Matthew introduces the expression ἀναστάσεως τῶν νεκρῶν, used in a monologue by Jesus who speaks to the crowds about "the resurrection" called ῇ ἀναστάσει. This type of resurrection refers to the raising up of the dead, all mankind, at the end of this present age, the general or universal resurrection.
In the Gospels, the resurrection, as exemplified by the resurrection of Jesus, is presented with an increasing emphasis on the resurrection of the flesh: from the empty tomb in Mark. In Acts of the Apostles the expression ἀναστάσεως νεκρῶν was used by
Jesus in Islam
In Islam, ʿĪsā ibn Maryam, or Jesus, is understood to be the penultimate prophet and messenger of God and al-Masih, the Arabic term for Messiah, sent to guide the Children of Israel with a new revelation: al-Injīl. Jesus is believed to be a prophet who neither married nor had any children and is reflected as a significant figure, being found in the Quran in 93 verses with various titles attached such as "Son of Mary" and other relational terms, mentioned directly and indirectly, over 187 times, he is thus the most mentioned person in the Quran by reference. The Quran and most hadiths mention Jesus to have been born a "pure boy" to Mary as the result of virginal conception, similar to the event of the Annunciation in Christianity. In Islamic theology, Jesus is believed to have performed many miracles, several being mentioned in the Quran. Over the centuries, Islamic writers have referenced other miracles like casting out demons, having borrowed from some heretical pre-Islamic sources, from canonical sources as legends about Jesus were expanded.
Like all prophets in Islam, Jesus is called a Muslim, as he preached that his followers should adopt the "straight path". In Islamic eschatology, Jesus returns in a Second Coming to fight the Al-Masih ad-Dajjal or "False Messiah" and establish peace on earth. In Islam, Jesus is believed to have been the precursor to Muhammad, attributing the name Ahmad to someone who would follow him. Islam rejects the divinity of Jesus and teaches that Jesus was not God incarnate, nor the Son of God, and—according to some interpretations of the Quran—the crucifixion and resurrection is not believed to have occurred, rather that God saved him. Despite the earliest Muslim traditions and exegesis quoting somewhat conflicting reports regarding a death and its length, the mainstream Muslim belief is that Jesus did not physically die, but was instead raised alive to heaven; the account of Jesus begins with a prologue narrated several times in the Quran first describing the birth of his mother and her service in the Jerusalem temple, while under the care of the prophet and priest Zechariah, to be the father of John the Baptist.
The birth narrative in the Quran for Jesus begins at Maryam 16-34 and al-Imran 45-53. The birth narrative has been recounted with certain variations and detailed additions by Islamic historians over the centuries. While Islamic theology affirms Mary as a pure vessel regarding the virgin birth of Jesus, it does not follow the concept of Immaculate Conception as related to Mary's birth in some Christian traditions. Islamic exegesis affirms the virginal birth of Jesus to the Gospel account and occurring in Bethlehem; the narrative of the virgin birth is an announcement to Mary by the angel Gabriel while Mary is being raised in the Temple after having been pledged to God by her mother. Gabriel states she is honored over all women of all nations and has brought her glad tidings of a holy son. A hadith narrated by Abu Hurairah, an early companion of Muhammad, quotes Muhammad explaining that both Jesus and Mary were protected from Satan's touch at birth; the angel declares the son is to be named Jesus, the Messiah, proclaiming he will be called a great prophet, is the Spirit of God and Word of God, who will receive al-Injīl.
The angel tells Mary that Jesus will speak in infancy, when mature, will be a companion to the most righteous. Mary, asking how she could conceive and have a child when no man had touched her, was answered by the angel that God can decree what He wills, it shall come to pass; the conception of Jesus as described by Ibn al-Arabi, an Andalusian scholar, Sufi mystic and philosopher, in the Bezels of Wisdom: From the water of Mary or from the breath of Gabriel, In the form of a mortal fashioned of clay,The Spirit came into existence in an essence Purged of Nature's taint, called Sijjin Because of this, his sojourn was prolonged, Enduring, by decree, more than a thousand years. A spirit from none other than God, So that he might bring forth birds from clay; the narrative from the Quran continues with Mary, overcome by the pains of childbirth, being provided a stream of water under her feet from which she could drink and a palm tree which she could shake so ripe dates would fall and be enjoyed. After giving birth, Mary carries baby Jesus back to the temple and she is asked by the temple elders about the child.
Having been commanded by Gabriel to a vow of silence, she points to the infant Jesus and the infant proclaims: He said, I am God's servant. He has made me blessed wherever I am, has enjoined on me the Worship and Alms, so long as I live. Peace is on me the day I was born, the day I shall die, the day I shall be raised alive. Jesus speaking from the cradle is one of six miracles attributed to him in the Quran; the speaking infant theme is found in the Syriac Infancy Gospel, a pre-Islamic sixth-century work. The Islamic faith echoed some strands within Christian tradition that Mary was a literal virgin when Jesus was conceived; the most detailed account of the annunciation and birth of Jesus is provided in Surah 3 and 19 of the Quran where the story is narrated that God sent an angel to announce that Maryam could shortly expect to bear a son, despite being a virgin. Some academics have noted that th
Islamic eschatology is the pillar of Islamic theology concerning the day of judgement, the "Day of Judgement " after that, known as Yawm al-Qiyāmah or Yawm ad-Dīn. It is characterized by the annihilation of all life, which will be followed by its resurrection and judgment by God; when al-Qiyamah will happen is not specified, but according to prophecy elaborated by hadith-literature, there are major and minor signs that will foretell its coming. Many verses in the Quran mention the Last Judgment; the main subject of Surat al-Qiyama is the resurrection. The Great Tribulation is described in the hadith and commentaries of the ulama, including al-Ghazali, Ibn Kathir, Ibn Majah, Muhammad al-Bukhari, Ibn Khuzaymah; the Day of Judgment is known as the Day of Reckoning, the Last Day, the Hour. Unlike the Quran, the hadith contain several events, happening before the Day of Judgment, which are described as several minor signs and twelve major signs. During this period, terrible corruption and chaos would rule the earth, caused by the Masih ad-Dajjal Jesus will appear, defeating the Dajjal and establish a period of peace, liberating Islam from cruelty.
These events will be followed by a time of serenity. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches that there will be a resurrection of the dead followed by a final tribulation and eternal division of the righteous and wicked. Islamic apocalyptic literature describing Armageddon is known as fitna, Al-Malhama Al-Kubra or ghaybah in Shī'a Islam; the righteous are rewarded with the pleasures of Jannah, while the unrighteous are punished in Jahannam. Two main sources in Islamic scripture discuss the Last Judgment and the tribulation associated with it: the Quran, viewed in Islam as infallible, the hadith, or sayings of the prophet. Hadith are viewed with more flexibility due to the late compilation of the sayings in written form, two hundred years after the death of Muhammad; the Last Judgment and the tribulation have been discussed in the commentaries of ulama such as al-Ghazali, Ibn Kathir, Muhammad al-Bukhari. In Islam, a number of major and minor signs foretell the end of days. There is debate over whether they could occur concurrently or must be at different points in time, although Islamic scholars divide them into three major periods.
Sexual immorality appears among people to such an extent that they commit it except that they will be afflicted by plagues and diseases unknown to their forefathers. The coming of fitna and removal of khushoo' The coming of Dajjal, presuming himself as an apostle of God. A person passing by a grave might say to another: I wish it were my abode; the loss of honesty, authority put in the hands of those who do not deserve it. The loss of knowledge and the prevalence of religious ignorance. Frequent and unexpected deaths. Increase in pointless killings. Acceleration of time. Rejection of Hadith; the spread of riba and the drinking of alcohol. Widespread acceptance of music. Pride and competition in the decoration of mosques. Women will increase in number and men will decrease in number so much so that fifty women will be looked after by one man. Abundance of earthquakes. Frequent occurrences of disgrace and defamation; when people wish to die because of the severe trials and tribulations that they are suffering.
Jews fighting Muslims. When paying charity becomes a burden. Nomads will compete in the construction of tall buildings. Women will appear naked despite their being dressed. People will seek knowledge from straying scholars. Liars will be believed, honest people disbelieved, faithful people called traitors; the death of righteous, knowledgeable people. The emergence of indecency and enmity among relatives and neighbours; the rise of idolatry and polytheists in the community. The Euphrates will uncover a mountain of gold; the land of the Arabs will return to being a land of fields. People will earn money by unlawful ways. There will be little vegetation. Evil people will be expelled from Al-Madinah. Wild animals will communicate with humans, humans will communicate with objects. Lightning and thunder will become more prevalent. There will be a special greeting for people of distinction. Trade will become so widespread. No honest man will remain and no one will be trusted. Only the worst people will be left.
Nations will call each other to destroy Islam by every means. Islamic knowledge will be passed on. Muslim rulers will come who do not follow the tradition of the Sunnah; some of their men will have the hearts of devils in a human body. Stinginess will become more widespread and honorable people will perish. A man will obey his wife and disobey his mother, treat his friend