Messier object

The Messier objects are a set of 110 astronomical objects catalogued by the French astronomer Charles Messier in his Catalogue des Nébuleuses et des Amas d'Étoiles. Because Messier was only interested in finding comets, he created a list of non-comet objects that frustrated his hunt for them; the compilation of this list, in collaboration with his assistant Pierre Méchain, is known as the Messier catalogue. This catalogue of objects is one of the most famous lists of astronomical objects, many Messier objects are still referenced by their Messier number; the catalogue includes some astronomical objects that can be observed from Earth's Northern Hemisphere such as deep-sky objects, a characteristic which makes the Messier objects popular targets for amateur astronomers. A preliminary version first appeared in the Memoirs of the French Academy of Sciences in 1771; the first version of Messier's catalogue contained 45 objects and was published in 1774 in the journal of the French Academy of Sciences in Paris.

Eighteen of the objects were discovered by Messier, the rest being observed by other astronomers. By 1780 the catalogue had increased to 80 objects; the final version of the catalogue containing 103 objects was published in 1781 in the Connaissance des Temps for the year 1784. However, due to what was thought for a long time to be the incorrect addition of Messier 102, the total number remained 102. Other astronomers, using side notes in Messier's texts filled out the list up to 110 objects; the catalogue consists of a diverse range of astronomical objects, from star clusters and nebulae to galaxies. For example, Messier 1 is a supernova remnant, known as the Crab Nebula, the great spiral Andromeda Galaxy is M31. Many further inclusions followed in the next century when the first addition came from Nicolas Camille Flammarion in 1921, who added Messier 104 after finding Messier's side note in his 1781 edition exemplar of the catalogue. M105 to M107 were added by Helen Sawyer Hogg in 1947, M108 and M109 by Owen Gingerich in 1960, M110 by Kenneth Glyn Jones in 1967.

The first edition of 1771 covered 45 objects numbered M1 to M45. The total list published by Messier in 1781 contained 103 objects, but the list was expanded through successive additions by other astronomers, motivated by notes in Messier's and Méchain's texts indicating that at least one of them knew of the additional objects; the first such addition came from Nicolas Camille Flammarion in 1921, who added Messier 104 after finding a note Messier made in a copy of the 1781 edition of the catalogue. M105 to M107 were added by Helen Sawyer Hogg in 1947, M108 and M109 by Owen Gingerich in 1960, M110 by Kenneth Glyn Jones in 1967. M102 was observed by Méchain. Méchain concluded that this object was a re-observation of M101, though some sources suggest that the object Méchain observed was the galaxy NGC 5866 and identify that as M102. Messier's final catalogue was included in the Connaissance des Temps pour l'Année 1784, the French official yearly publication of astronomical ephemerides. Messier did his astronomical work at the Hôtel de Cluny, in Paris, France.

The list he compiled contains only objects found in the sky area he could observe: from the north celestial pole to a celestial latitude of about −35.7°. He did not observe or list objects visible only from farther south, such as the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds; the Messier catalogue comprises nearly all the most spectacular examples of the five types of deep-sky object – diffuse nebulae, planetary nebulae, open clusters, globular clusters, galaxies – visible from European latitudes. Furthermore all of the Messier objects are among the closest to Earth in their respective classes, which makes them studied with professional class instruments that today can resolve small and visually spectacular details in them. A summary of the astrophysics of each Messier object can be found in the Concise Catalog of Deep-sky Objects. Since these objects could be observed visually with the small-aperture refracting telescope used by Messier to study the sky, they are among the brightest and thus most attractive astronomical objects observable from Earth, are popular targets for visual study and astrophotography available to modern amateur astronomers using larger aperture equipment.

In early spring, astronomers sometimes gather for "Messier marathons", when all of the objects can be viewed over a single night. Lists of astronomical objects Caldwell catalogue Deep-sky object Herschel 400 Catalogue New General Catalogue SEDS Messier Database Messier gallery Deep Sky Videos Messier objects Messier objects at Constellation Guide


Pamparomas is a village in the Pamparomas District of the Huaylas Province in the Ancash Region of Peru. It is the capital of the district with the same name: Pamparomas District. According to the Pamparomas research center, the name comes from the "Roma" profile of the surrounding hillsides. Pamparomas is the largest village in the district of Pamparomas, is home to the municipal offices, main church, health center that serve the wider area, it is supplied with power from the national grid, but is not connected to national land phone services. Businesses in the town provide telephone service. Pamparomas is located in the Black Mountain range Cordillera Negra in the south-east of the Huaylas Province, it is accessible by mountain road from Caraz and Moro, daily buses connect the village with each location

Tauron Arena Kraków

Tauron Arena Kraków is an indoor arena located in Kraków, Poland. It has a seating capacity of 15,030 for sporting events, it hosted the 2014 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Championship tournament, 2016 European League of Legends Championship Finals and 2015 IIHF Ice Hockey World Championship Division I. Tauron Arena Kraków is one of most modern entertainment and sports venues in Poland, it allows to host a variety of sports events, including badminton, curling and artistic gymnastics, indoor football, basketball and field, figure skating, handball, martial arts, extreme sports, table tennis, equestrian competitions and sports dancing competitions. The facility area has 61,434 m2, with maximum area of the arena court of 4 546 m2; the average capacity is 18,000 for concerts, 15,000 for sport events, with maximum number of spectators being 22,000. The Arena boasts Poland's largest LED media façade, with a total surface of 5,200 m2 of LED strip lighting, wrapping around the stadium, one of Europe's largest LED screens, measuring over 540 m2.

2014 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Championship 2015 IIHF Ice Hockey World Championship Division I 2016 European Men's Handball Championship 2016 Summer European League of Legends Championship Series finals 2017 Men's European Volleyball Championship 2017 PGL CS:GO Major Championship Media related to Tauron Arena Kraków at Wikimedia Commons Official website