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Meteor Crater

Meteor Crater is a meteorite impact crater 37 miles east of Flagstaff and 18 miles west of Winslow in the northern Arizona desert of the United States. Because the United States Board on Geographic Names recognizes names of natural features derived from the nearest post office, the feature acquired the name of "Meteor Crater" from the nearby post office named Meteor; the site was known as the Canyon Diablo Crater and fragments of the meteorite are called the Canyon Diablo Meteorite. Scientists refer to the crater as Barringer Crater in honor of Daniel Barringer, first to suggest that it was produced by meteorite impact; the crater is owned by the Barringer family through their Barringer Crater Company, which proclaims it to be the "best preserved meteorite crater on Earth". Despite its importance as a geological site, the crater is not protected as a national monument, a status that would require federal ownership, it was designated a National Natural Landmark in November 1967. Meteor Crater lies at an elevation of 5,640 ft above sea level.

It is about 3,900 ft in diameter, some 560 ft deep, is surrounded by a rim that rises 148 ft above the surrounding plains. The center of the crater is filled with 690–790 ft of rubble lying above crater bedrock. One of the interesting features of the crater is its squared-off outline, believed to be caused by existing regional jointing in the strata at the impact site; the crater was created about 50,000 years ago during the Pleistocene epoch, when the local climate on the Colorado Plateau was much cooler and damper. The area was an open grassland dotted with woodlands inhabited by giant ground sloths; the object that excavated the crater was a nickel-iron meteorite about 160 feet across. The speed of the impact has been a subject of some debate. Modeling suggested that the meteorite struck at up to 45,000 mph but more recent research suggests the impact was slower, at 29,000 mph, it is believed that about half of the impactor's bulk was vaporized during its descent through the atmosphere. Impact energy has been estimated at about 10 megatons.

The meteorite was vaporized upon impact, leaving few remains in the crater. Since the crater's formation, the rim is thought to have lost 50–65 ft of height at the rim crest as a result of natural erosion; the basin of the crater is thought to have 100 ft of additional post-impact sedimentation from lake sediments and of alluvium. These erosion processes are the reason that few remaining craters are visible on Earth, since many have been erased by these geological processes; the young age of Meteor Crater, paired with the dry Arizona climate, have allowed this crater to remain unchanged since its formation. The lack of erosion that preserved the crater's shape helped lead to this crater being the first crater recognized as an impact crater from a natural celestial body; the crater came to the attention of scientists after American settlers discovered it in the 19th century. They named it the Canyon Diablo crater after Canyon Diablo, the closest community to the crater in the late 19th century.

The crater had been ascribed to the actions of a volcano. That was not an unreasonable assumption, as the San Francisco volcanic field lies only about 40 miles to the west. In 1891, the mineralogist Albert E. Foote presented the first scientific paper about the meteorites of Northern Arizona. Several years earlier, Foote had received an iron rock for analysis from a railroad executive. Foote recognized the rock as a meteorite and led an expedition to search and retrieve additional meteorite samples; the team collected samples ranging from small fragments to over 600 lb. Foote identified several minerals in the meteorites, including diamond, albeit of little commercial value, his paper to the Association for the Advancement of Science provided the first geological description of the crater to a scientific community. In November 1891, Grove Karl Gilbert, chief geologist for the U. S. Geological Survey, investigated the crater and concluded that it was the result of a volcanic steam explosion. Gilbert had assumed that if it were an impact crater the volume of the crater, as well as meteoritic material, should be present on the rim.

Gilbert assumed a large portion of the meteorite should be buried in the crater and that this would generate a large magnetic anomaly. Gilbert's calculations showed that the volume of the crater and the debris on the rim were equivalent, so that the mass of the hypothetical impactor was missing, nor were there any magnetic anomalies. Gilbert argued. Gilbert publicized his conclusions in a series of lectures. In 1892, Gilbert would be among the first to propose that the Moon's craters were caused by impact rather than volcanism. In 1903, mining engineer and businessman Daniel M. Barringer suggested that the crater had been produced by the impact of a large iron-metallic meteorite. Barringer's company, the Standard Iron Company, staked a mining claim to the land and received a land patent signed by Theodore Roosevelt for 640 acres around the center of the crater in 1903; the claim was divided into four quadrants coming from the center clockwise from north-west named Venus, Mars and Saturn. In 1906, Roosevelt authorized the establishment of a newly named Meteor, post office.

This new post office was located at Sunshine, a stop on the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway six m

Zdeněk Nedvěd

Zdeněk Nedvěd is a Czech former professional ice hockey player who played 31 games in the National Hockey League. He played for the Toronto Maple Leafs. Nedved never became a regular in the league, he was a fine puck handler with a good wrist shot but he was unable to fight through the close checking of the NHL with regularity. Nedved was a teenage star with Poldi Kladno, his family sent him to North America to develop his game more completely. Nedved became a fine scorer with the OHL's Sudbury Wolves and was chosen 123rd overall by the Toronto Maple Leafs in 1993, he scored 97 goals his last two years of junior and represented the Czech Republic at the World Junior Championships in 1994 and 1995. During the 1994 tourney played in his homeland, Nedved was among the top scorers while wreaking havoc in the offensive zone with David Výborný. Nedved played one game for Toronto late in 1994-95 prepared for the upcoming training camp, he made the 1995-96 edition of the Leafs and scored a goal early in the season opener against the Pittsburgh Penguins.

Nedved's play tailed off over the next month and he was sent down to the St. John's Maple Leafs of the American Hockey League, his season was ruined by a serious shoulder injury suffered in a mishap during practice. The next year Nedved was unable to perform consistently. Nedved played for St. John's the IHL's Long Beach Ice Dogs before leaving North America in 1998, he moved back to his homeland where he played for HC Sparta Praha in 1998-1999. He moved to Finland's SM-liiga and spent 4 seasons with Lukko Rauma, he spent two seasons in the Deutsche Eishockey Liga in Germany with the Kassel Huskies and the Hannover Scorpions before returning to Finland with Kärpät ahead of the 2004–05 seasons. His stay in Finland was short however, after only four games, Nedved moved to Norway to play the remainder of the season for the Stavanger Oilers. Nedved spent two seasons with Anyang Halla in Asia, he moved back to the Czech Extraliga at the age of 32 to play for HC Kladno in 2007. In 2010, he was playing in Slovakia for HKm Zvolen.

Nedvěd is the son of long-time HC Kladno hockey player Zdeněk Nedvěd, who won four Czechoslovak First Ice Hockey League titles with the club in the 1970s. His brother, Roman Nedvěd played for Kladno between 1986 and 1991. Biographical information and career statistics from, or, or, or Legends of Hockey, or The Internet Hockey Database

Polyptych of Miglionico

The Polyptych of Miglionico is a large, multicompartment Renaissance-style altarpiece painted in 1499 by Cima da Conegliano and now housed in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore in the town of Miglionico, province of Matera, Italy. The large altarpiece consists of 18 wooden panels painted with tempera and oil in a style pioneered by Giovanni Bellini. In the center of the work is an Enthroned Madonna with Child. To the left of the center panel is a standing St Francis of Assisi and St Jerome. To the right, St Peter and St Antony of Padua. Above are half-busts of St Clare, St Louis of Toulouse, St Bernardino of Siena, St Catherine of Alexandria. Atop the piece is a Christ with an Annunciation. In the base are a series of Franciscan proto-martyrs; the central panel with a nativity scene is missing. The work was present in a Franciscan structure in the Veneto, but acquired in 1598 by the Archbishop Marcantonio Mazzone; the center panel is signed by a JOANES BAPTISTA, which in 1907, along with the stylistic elements, led Martin Wackernagel to attribute the work to Giovanni Battista Cima da Conegliano

Palestinian National Security Forces

The Palestinian National Security Forces are the paramilitary security forces of the Palestinian National Authority. The name may either refer to all National Security Forces, including some special services but not including the Interior Security Forces, the Presidential Guard and General Intelligence, or refer to the main force within the National Security Forces. Since the signing of the Oslo Accords, these forces operate in areas controlled by the PNA. In 2003, the organizations were merged into the Palestinian Security Services; the Palestinian National Security Forces engage in various activities, including general law enforcement. A rough estimate of the total strength as of 2007 is 42,000 troops; as the Israeli–Palestinian conflict goes on, the security forces notably co-operate with other law enforcement agencies, such as arresting militant sub-groups and assisting the Israeli government with prosecuting those picked up. According to The Jerusalem Post, "In the past, Palestinian security forces have released arrested terrorists and quietly tipped off Israel to mitigate internal public criticism against handing over Palestinians to Israel."

As part of the Oslo Accords, the Palestinian National Authority was authorized to recruit and train a police force with paramilitary capabilities, but was not permitted to have a military force. Several bilateral agreements between the PNA and Israel regulate the size of the force, its structure and composition; the agreements provide Israel with the right to review potential recruits and withhold approval of those with a terrorist background. They were not enforced, with the result that the actual size and equipment of the force in 2002 exceeded what was permitted. Yasser Arafat set up a string of 14 overlapping and competing security forces, each one controlled by a rival political or former guerrilla chieftain, but all of them loyal to him and his Fatah party. After Hamas had established a PNA government in March 2006, it formed its own security service, the Executive Force, headed by Jamal Abu Samhadana, killed by Israel three months later; the National Security Forces engage in various activities, including general law enforcement.

The Military Intelligence collects external military intelligence. It became the NSF Military Intelligence Department; the Military Police is a separate unit. The Military Liaison coordinates security with Israel and participated in joint Israeli–Palestinian patrols in the past; the main task of the Naval Police was to protect the territorial waters in Gaza until the imposition of the Gaza blockade. The predecessor of the NSF was the PLO's Palestine Liberation Army; when the NSF were formed, most personnel was recruited from the PLA. Local recruits were added. From the late 1990s, the CIA played the central role in building up PA security forces, in close co-operation with the Israeli military and intelligence. After the killing of three US officials in the Gaza strip in 2003, British forces played an active role; the Palestinian Preventive Security Force played a significant role during the Al-Aqsa Intifada. It participated in major operations such as Operation Defensive Shield, they took part in battles such as the Battle of Jenin and the Siege of the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem According to The Guardian, based on the Palestine Papers, in 2003, British Prime Minister Tony Blair approved a plan of the Secret Intelligence Service MI6 for a US-led "counter-insurgency surge" against Hamas.

MI6 proposed a secret plan to crush other armed groups on the West Bank. It included internment of leaders and activists, closure of radio stations and replacement of imams in mosques; the plan recommended inter alia "Degrading the capabilities of the rejectionists – Hamas, PIJ and the Al Aqsa Brigades – through the disruption of their leaderships' communications and command and control capabilities. The internment of leading Hamas and PIJ figures should have been explored; the plan aimed to implement the Road map for peace. In March 2005, a secret British "Palestinian Security Plan" was presented with detailed proposals for a new security taskforce, based on "trusted PA contacts" outside the control of "traditional security chiefs", a British/US security "verification team", "direct lines" to Israeli intelligence; the document notes that Israel was not content with the functioning of the NSF and opposed enhancement of the organisation with munitions and surveillance equipment. In a "subtle approach", the “old guard” could be retired with honour, "with subtle timing, once the decisions are made and the new structures are emerging"...

"The Israeli occupation has destroyed the capability of the NSF itself and inflicted significant damage on its infrastructure. NSF personnel are not permitted to bear arms or to move between areas in uniforms... The NSF, being unarmed, are in no position to confront the militants."On 2 April 2005, President Abbas dismissed West Bank national security chief General Haj Ismail Jaber. The reason given was a shooting incident on 30 March inside Abbas’ headquarters in which militants fired into the air. Abbas fired Ramallah security chief Yunis al-Has. Abbas placed the security services in Ramallah on a “state of alert”. A large-scale reform of the security services followed that month. On 22 April, head of the Gaza Security Forces Moussa Arafat was replaced by Suleiman Heles. During the year 2007, Fatah and Hamas, two of the main political parties in Palestine, were having confrontations in Gaza; the Fatah deployed the Palestinian Security Forces to confront

Get Wild

"Get Wild" is a song by The New Power Generation, the first single from their 1995 album, Exodus. The song was a hit in the UK, reaching number 19 in the UK Singles Chart."Get Wild" is a funk song, in the style of Parliament and Funkadelic. The lead vocals are by Prince who delivers a rap during the bridge, some Spanish vocals are provided by Mayte. A maxi-single was released with several remixes of the song. A remix of "Get Wild" was played in the 1994 film, Prêt-à-Porter and was included on the soundtrack album. A video featuring cameo scenes with Lolly Pop and various others was shot at Glam Slam Minneapolis, but was shelved by Warner Brothers. Prince's rap from "Get Wild" was reused in a promotional remix of the Gold Experience track, "P. Control"; the B-side of the single was another album track, the psychedelic "Hallucination Rain". This mid-tempo track is spoken but builds into a soaring crescendo of noise and thundering drums in which Prince's voice can be heard at the end; the single includes the song, "Beautiful Girl", a remix of Prince's 1994 hit, "The Most Beautiful Girl in the World".

In 1995, Prince released a perfume inspired by the song. It was sold through Prince's mail order retail outlet and New Power Generation stores until 1999. In June 1995, author Jackie Collins sued Prince, claiming he copied the name and design from her own "Wild!" fragrance. "Get Wild" – 4:35 "Beautiful Girl" – 4:40 "Hallucination Rain" – 5:52 "Get Wild" – 6:01 "Get Wild"" – 6:38 "Get Wild" – 5:04 "Get Wild" – 6:14 "Get Wild" – 4:33 "Get Wild" – 6:20

François-Xavier Brunet

François-Xavier Brunet was a Canadian Roman Catholic priest and bishop of Mont-Laurier, Quebec. Baptized in the parish of Saint-André-d'Argenteuil, Quebec, he moved to Ottawa in 1873, he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1890 from the College of Ottawa. He decided to become a priest and studied theology at the Grand Séminaire d'Ottawa. Brunet was consecrated by Archbishop Joseph-Thomas Duhamel of Ottawa in 1893. In 1913, he was appointed the first bishop of the new diocese of Mont-Laurier, created from parts of the Archdiocese of Montréal and the Archdiocese of Ottawa, he died in Montreal in 1922. Cook, Ramsay. "François-Xavier Brunet". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. XV. University of Toronto Press